Haplogroup A (mtDNA)
|Possible time of origin||40,000 ± 10,000 YBP|
|Possible place of origin||Asia|
|Descendants||A3, A4, A5, A7, A8|
|Defining mutations||152, 235, 523-524d, 663, 1736, 4248, 4824, 8794, 16290, 16319|
Its highest frequencies are among Indigenous peoples of the Americas, its largest overall population is in East Asia, and its greatest variety (which suggests its origin point) is in East Asia. Thus, it might have originated in and spread from the Far East.
Its subgroup A2 (actually a subclade of A4, which is widespread in Asia) is found in Chukotko–Kamchatka and is also one of five mtDNA haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas, the others being B, C, D, and X.
Haplogroup A2 is the most common haplogroup among the Inuit, Na-Dene, and many Amerind ethnic groups of North and Central America. Lineages belonging to haplogroup A2 also comprise the majority of the mtDNA pool of the Inuit and their neighbors, the Chukchis, in northeasternmost Siberia.
Other branches of haplogroup A are less frequent but widespread among other populations of Asia. In particular, haplogroup A4(xA2) is ubiquitous in populations from Siberia in the north to Iran and Vietnam in the south. Haplogroup A5, on the other hand, is rather limited to populations from Korea and Japan southward, though it has been detected as singletons in a pair of large samples of Khamnigans (1/99 = 1.0%) and Buryats (1/295 = 0.3%) from the Buryat Republic.
In Asia, A(xA2) is especially frequent in Tibeto-Burman-speaking populations of Southwest China, such as Tibetans (6/65 = 9.2%, 25/216 = 11.6%, 11/73 = 15.1%). Approximately 7% to 15% of Koreans belong to haplogroup A. Approximately 5% to 12% of the Japanese belong to haplogroup A (including A4, A5, and A(xA4, A5)). Approximately 4% to 13% of Mongols belong to haplogroup A, almost all of whom are contained within the A4 subclade (2/47 = 4.3% Mongolians from Ulan Bator in haplogroup A4, 4/48 = 8.3% Mongols from New Barag Left Banner in haplogroup A(xA5), 6/47 = 12.8% Mongolians from Ulan Bator in haplogroup A4). Approximately 3% to 9% of Chinese people belong to haplogroup A. Haplogroup A also has been found in Vietnamese (2/42 = 4.8%, including one A4 and one A5(xA5a)). Approximately 4% (3/71) of Tatars from Aznakayevo, 3% (4/126) of Tatars from Buinsk, and 2% of Turkish people belong to haplogroup A. Haplogroup A4 has been found in 2.4% (2/82) of a sample of Persians from eastern Iran and in 2.3% (1/44) of a sample of Tajiks from Tajikistan. Haplogroup A is not found among Austronesians.
Table of Frequencies of MtDNA Haplogroup A
This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup A subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation and subsequent published research.
Eva Longoria, an American actress of Mexican descent is Haplogroup A2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haplogroup A (mtDNA).|
- Genealogical DNA test
- Genetic Genealogy
- Human mitochondrial genetics
- Population Genetics
- Indigenous Amerindian genetics
- Sinforosa Amador
Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups
|Mitochondrial Eve (L)|
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- Haplogroup A
- Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders (PLoS)
- Spread of Haplogroup A, from National Geographic
- A10 Ancient DNA – Ancient Chumash Paleoasiatic remains. A10 haplogroup assignment. www.pcas.org/assets/docu Results of Mitochondrial DNA Analyses from Monterey County, California
- A10 (( A10 ancient America sample.......Chumash documented origin, Cayegues (Kayiwish) Coastal Paleoasiatic California Indian populations, John R. Johnson, Anthropology 131CA http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/classes/anth131ca/California%20Genetic%20Prehistory.pdf