|Possible time of origin||70,000-80,000 years BP|
|Possible place of origin||Africa|
|Defining mutations||Page65.1/SRY1532.1/SRY10831.1, M42, M91, M94, M139, M299, P97, V21, V29, V31, V59, V64, V102, V187, V202, V216, V235|
Haplogroup BT M91, also known as Haplogroup A1b2 (and formerly as A4, BR and BCDEF), is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. BT is a subclade of haplogroup A1b (P108) and a sibling of the haplogroup A1b1 (L419/PF712).
Macrohaplogroup BT has been found in populations on every continent, since prehistoric times. It is the progenitor clade of the paternal haplogroups B and CT (all members of haplogroup B or CT are members of BT, but not all members of BT are necessarily members of B or CT).
Sufficient data is not always available to determine which, if any, member haplogroup a Y chromosome in BT belongs to. For instance, a survey of Y chromosomes in over 2000 men from different parts of Africa reported that 7.5% carried haplogroup BT(xDE, KT), i.e. were members of haplogroup BT but not DE or K; such a sample might or might not include members of haplogroups B, C, or F (excluding K), or some undiscovered branch(es) of BT belonging to none of these.
In ancient DNA, an Upper Paleolithic European (Gravettian), Vestonice15, belonged to BT, but was not excluded from any subhaplogroup. Later Stone Age individuals excavated at Fingira Rock, Malawi, dated to around 6100 years ago (2/2 males), and at Mount Hora, Malawi, dated to around 8000 years ago (1/1 males), all belonged to Y haplogroup BT(xCT) (i.e. they did not belong to haplogroup CT but may have belonged to haplogroup B).
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use.
- Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups
- Genetic genealogy
- Haplogroup D (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup DE (Y-DNA)
- Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
- Molecular phylogenetics
- Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world
- Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic group
- Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Sub-Saharan Africa
- Cruciani, Fulvio; Trombetta, Beniamino; Massaia, Andrea; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Sellitto, Daniele; Scozzari, Rosaria (2011). "A Revised Root for the Human y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree: The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 88 (6): 814–818. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.002. PMC 3113241. PMID 21601174.
- Ansari Pour, Naser; Plaster, Christopher; Bradman, Neil (2013). "Evidence from Y-chromosome analysis for a late exclusively eastern expansion of the Bantu-speaking people". European Journal of Human Genetics. 21 (4): 423–429. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.176. PMID 22892538.
- Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; Morales, Manuel R. González; et al. (2016). "The genetic history of Ice Age Europe" (Full text). Nature. 534 (7606): 200–5. doi:10.1038/nature17993. PMC 4943878. PMID 27135931.
- Skoglund, Pontus; Thompson, Jessica C; Prendergast, Mary E; Mittnik, Alissa; Sirak, Kendra; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Salie, Tasneem; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Peltzer, Alexander; Heinze, Anja; Olalde, Iñigo; Ferry, Matthew; Harney, Eadaoin; Michel, Megan; Stewardson, Kristin; Cerezo-Román, Jessica I; Chiumia, Chrissy; Crowther, Alison; Gomani-Chindebvu, Elizabeth; Gidna, Agness O; Grillo, Katherine M; Helenius, I. Taneli; Hellenthal, Garrett; Helm, Richard; Horton, Mark; López, Saioa; Mabulla, Audax Z.P; Parkington, John; et al. (2017). "Reconstructing Prehistoric African Population Structure". Cell. 171 (1): 59–71.e21. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.08.049. PMC 5679310. PMID 28938123.
- Y-DNA Haplogroup A and its Subclades - 2012 (BT as subclade of A1b-P108) Y-DNA Haplogroup A and its Subclades - 2014 (BT as subclade of A1b-P108); Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015 (BT-M91 listed as subclade of A1a-M31). ISOGG has listed M42 as a mutation characteristic (but not defining) of BT since 2012.
- ISOGG Haplogroup A (2012): "BT is shown on this tree, though it is not considered to be a part of Haplogroup A, in order to make it clear that, as a sibling clade of A1b1, BT and all other haplogroups are downstream of A1b. Listed 15 February 2012." (also note that the group labelled "A1b" in the image is the "A0" of ISOGG (2012)).
|Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2 [χ 6]|
|L||T||K2a [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|K-M2313 [χ 10]||K2b1 [χ 11]||P [χ 12]|
|NO||S [χ 13]||M [χ 14]||P1||P2|
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