Haplogroup BT

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Haplogroup BT
Y-DNA tree.GIF
Possible time of origin 70,000-80,000 years BP[citation needed]
Possible place of origin Africa
Ancestor A2-T
Descendants B-M60, CT
Defining mutations Page65.1/SRY1532.1/SRY10831.1, M42, M91, M94, M139, M299, P97, V21, V29, V31, V59, V64, V102, V187, V202, V216, V235

Haplogroup BT M91 also known as Haplogroup A1b2 (and formerly as A4, BR and BCDEF) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. BT is a subclade of Haplogroup A1b (P108) and a sibling of Haplogroup A1b1 (L419/PF712).

Macrohaplogroup BT has been found in populations on every continent, since prehistoric times. It is the parent of Haplogroups B and CT. However, the basal paragroup BT* has not been found in modern populations.


The ISOGG tree since 2014 has treated M91 as the defining mutation of BT.[1]

  • B M60, M181, P85, P90
  • CT P9.1, M168, M294

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use.

The revised y-chromosome family tree by Cruciani et al. (2011) compared with the family tree from Karafet et al. (2008). Cruciani et al. (2011) define BT via M91 and P97, and as a consequence, ISOGG has listed BT since February 2012, and treated M91 as defining mutation for BT since 2014.[2]

See also[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
IJ   K
I J    LT [χ 5]  K2
L T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]     K2c  K2d  K2e [χ 9]
NO  K2a1 K2b1 [χ 10]     P [χ 11]
NO1   S [χ 12]   M [χ 13] P1 P2
N   O Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: G. David Poznik et al., 2016, "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences" Nature Genetics], no. 48, pp. 593–599.) In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ The name Haplogroup S, as of 2017 also known as K2b1a, was previously assigned to K2b1a4.
  13. ^ The name Haplogroup M, as of 2017 also known as K2b1b, was previously assigned to K2b1d.


  1. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup A and its Subclades - 2012 (BT as subclade of A1b-P108) Y-DNA Haplogroup A and its Subclades - 2014 (BT as subclade of A1b-P108); Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015 (BT-M91 listed as subclade of A1a-M31). ISOGG has listed M42 as a mutation characteristic (but not defining) of BT since 2012.
  2. ^ ISOGG Haplogroup A (2012): "BT is shown on this tree, though it is not considered to be a part of Haplogroup A, in order to make it clear that, as a sibling clade of A1b1, BT and all other haplogroups are downstream of A1b. Listed 15 February 2012." (also note that the group labelled "A1b" in the image is the "A0" of ISOGG (2012)).