Haplogroup C-V20 (also known as Haplogroup C1a2) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is one of two primary branches of Haplogroup C1a, one of the descendants of Haplogroup C1 (The other is C1a1 in Japan with an average amount of 5% ). Haplogroup C-V20 is now distributed in  Europe, North Africa, West Asia, and South Asia with very low frequency.
History and Distribution [ edit ]
Migration of Haplogroup C (Y-DNA)
Distribution map of current human beings (Cro-Magnon), by Currat & Excoffier (2004).
This is considered to be almost synonymous with the expansion of Haplogroup C1a2.
Haplogroup C1a2 (V20) has been discovered in the remains of
Palaeolithic people in Czech Republic (30,000 years ago), Belgium (35,000 years ago), and the  Sunghir archaeological site near Vladimir, Russia. Regarding more recent prehistory, Haplogroup C-V20 has been found in the remains of a male (died  ca. 7,000 years ago) associated with a late group of the Alföld Linear Pottery culture at Kompolt-Kigyósér, Hungary whose mtDNA belonged to haplogroup J1c1, the remains of a male (died ca. 7,000 years ago) associated with the LBK Culture at Apc-Berekalja (I.), Hungary whose mtDNA belonged to haplogroup K1a3a3, and the remains of a male (died ca. 7,000 years ago) associated with Mesolithic culture at La Braña-Arintero, León, Spain whose mtDNA belonged to haplogroup U5b2c1. It has also been found  in ancient DNA from  Anatolia, specifically in the remains of an Anatolian hunter-gatherers dating from 13.642-13.073 BCE and belonging to mitochondrial haplogroup K2b.
Haplogroup C-V20 Y-DNA also has been found in a small number of modern
Europeans,  Algerian Berbers,  Armenians, and  Nepalis. It includes many Y-DNA samples associated with the oldest currently known population of anatomically modern humans in Europe (  Cro-Magnons), and it is considered to be a carrier of the Upper Paleolithic Aurignacian culture that began 40,000 years ago.
References [ edit ]
^ 崎谷満『DNA・考古・言語の学際研究が示す新・日本列島史』（勉誠出版 2009年）(in Japanese)
Currat, M.; Excoffier, L. (2004). "Modern Humans Did Not Admix with Neanderthals during Their Range Expansion into Europe". PLoS Biol. 2 (12): e421. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020421. PMC . 532389 PMID 15562317.
Fu, Qiaomei; et al. (2016). "The genetic history of Ice Age Europe". Nature. 534: 200–5. Bibcode: 2016Natur.534..200F. doi: 10.1038/nature17993. hdl: . 10211.3/198594 PMC . 4943878 PMID 27135931.
Sikora, Martin; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Sousa, Vitor C.; Albrechtsen, Anders; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; et al. (2017). "Ancient genomes show social and reproductive behavior of early Upper Paleolithic foragers". Science. 358 (6363): 659–662. Bibcode: 2017Sci...358..659S. doi: . 10.1126/science.aao1807 ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 28982795.
^ ISOGG, 2015 "Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades – 2015" (15 September 2015).
Krause, Johannes; Jeong, Choongwon; Haak, Wolfgang; Posth, Cosimo; Stockhammer, Philipp W.; Mustafaoğlu, Gökhan; Fairbairn, Andrew; Bianco, Raffaela A.; Julia Gresky (2019-03-19). "Late Pleistocene human genome suggests a local origin for the first farmers of central Anatolia". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 1218. Bibcode: 2019NatCo..10.1218F. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-09209-7. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC . 6425003 PMID 30890703.
Scozzari, R; Massaia, A; D'Atanasio, E; Myres, NM; Perego, UA; et al. (2012). "Molecular Dissection of the Basal Clades in the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree". PLoS ONE. 7 (11): e49170. Bibcode: 2012PLoSO...749170S. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049170. PMC . 3492319 PMID 23145109.
^ ISOGG Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades - 2017 (Accessed August 26, 2017)
^ YFull Haplogroup YTree v5.05 at 30 July 2017
Hallast, Pille; Batini, Chiara; Zadik, Daniel; et al. (2014). "The Y-Chromosome Tree Bursts into Leaf: 13,000 High-Confidence SNPs Covering the Majority of Known Clades". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 32: 661–673. doi: . 10.1093/molbev/msu327 PMC . 4327154 PMID 25468874.
Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1]
" Y-chromosomal Adam"
[χ 5] K2
K2a [χ 7]
K2e [χ 9]
[χ 11] P
M [χ 14]
Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi: 10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.
International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), . (Access date: 1 February 2015.) Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015
^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A-L1085 (and previously as A0'1'2'3'4).
^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
^ Between 2002 and 2008,
Haplogroup T-M184 was known as "Haplogroup K2". That name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and its primary subclade K-M2313 were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of:
Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. doi: 10.1038/ng.3559. PMC . 4884158 PMID 27111036. In the past, other haplogroups, including NO (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
^ K-M2313*, which as yet has no phylogenetic name, has been documented in two living individuals, who have ethnic ties to India and South East Asia. In addition, K-Y28299, which appears to be a primary branch of K-M2313, has been found in three living individuals from India. See: Poznik
op. cit.; , and; YFull YTree v5.08, 2017, "K-M2335" (Access date of these pages: 9 December 2017) PhyloTree, 2017, "Details of the Y-SNP markers included in the minimal Y tree"
^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)