Haplogroup C-V20

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Haplogroup C-V20
Possible place of originWest Asia?
Ancestor(Grandparent) C1
Defining mutationsV20
Highest frequenciesVery low frequency in Europe, North Africa, West Asia and South Asia

Haplogroup C-V20 (also known as Haplogroup C1a2) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is one of two primary branches of Haplogroup C1a, one of the descendants of Haplogroup C1 (The other is C1a1 in Japan with an average amount of 5%[1]). Haplogroup C-V20 is now distributed in Europe, North Africa, West Asia, and South Asia with very low frequency.

History and Distribution[edit]

Migration of Haplogroup C (Y-DNA)
Distribution map of current human beings (Cro-Magnon), by Currat & Excoffier (2004).[2] This is considered to be almost synonymous with the expansion of Haplogroup C1a2.

Haplogroup C1a2 (V20) has been discovered in the remains of Palaeolithic people in Czech Republic (30,000 years ago), Belgium (35,000 years ago),[3] and the Sunghir archaeological site near Vladimir, Russia.[4] Regarding more recent prehistory, Haplogroup C-V20 has been found in the remains of a male (died ca. 7,000 years ago) associated with a late group of the Alföld Linear Pottery culture at Kompolt-Kigyósér, Hungary whose mtDNA belonged to haplogroup J1c1, the remains of a male (died ca. 7,000 years ago) associated with the LBK Culture at Apc-Berekalja (I.), Hungary whose mtDNA belonged to haplogroup K1a3a3, and the remains of a male (died ca. 7,000 years ago) associated with Mesolithic culture at La Braña-Arintero, León, Spain whose mtDNA belonged to haplogroup U5b2c1.[5] It has also been found[6] in ancient DNA from Anatolia, specifically in the remains of an Anatolian hunter-gatherers dating from 13.642-13.073 BCE and belonging to mitochondrial haplogroup K2b.

Haplogroup C-V20 Y-DNA also has been found in a small number of modern Europeans,[7] Algerian Berbers,[8] Armenians,[9] and Nepalis.[10] It includes many Y-DNA samples associated with the oldest currently known population of anatomically modern humans in Europe (Cro-Magnons), and it is considered to be a carrier of the Upper Paleolithic Aurignacian culture that began 40,000 years ago.[citation needed]


  1. ^ 崎谷満『DNA・考古・言語の学際研究が示す新・日本列島史』(勉誠出版 2009年)(in Japanese)
  2. ^ Currat, M.; Excoffier, L. (2004). "Modern Humans Did Not Admix with Neanderthals during Their Range Expansion into Europe". PLoS Biol. 2 (12): e421. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020421. PMC 532389. PMID 15562317.
  3. ^ Fu, Qiaomei; et al. (2016). "The genetic history of Ice Age Europe". Nature. 534: 200–5. Bibcode:2016Natur.534..200F. doi:10.1038/nature17993. hdl:10211.3/198594. PMC 4943878. PMID 27135931.
  4. ^ Sikora, Martin; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Sousa, Vitor C.; Albrechtsen, Anders; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; et al. (2017). "Ancient genomes show social and reproductive behavior of early Upper Paleolithic foragers". Science. 358 (6363): 659–662. Bibcode:2017Sci...358..659S. doi:10.1126/science.aao1807. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 28982795.
  5. ^ ISOGG, 2015 "Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades – 2015" (15 September 2015).
  6. ^ Krause, Johannes; Jeong, Choongwon; Haak, Wolfgang; Posth, Cosimo; Stockhammer, Philipp W.; Mustafaoğlu, Gökhan; Fairbairn, Andrew; Bianco, Raffaela A.; Julia Gresky (2019-03-19). "Late Pleistocene human genome suggests a local origin for the first farmers of central Anatolia". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 1218. Bibcode:2019NatCo..10.1218F. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-09209-7. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 6425003. PMID 30890703.
  7. ^ Scozzari, R; Massaia, A; D'Atanasio, E; Myres, NM; Perego, UA; et al. (2012). "Molecular Dissection of the Basal Clades in the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree". PLoS ONE. 7 (11): e49170. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...749170S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049170. PMC 3492319. PMID 23145109.
  8. ^ ISOGG Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades - 2017 (Accessed August 26, 2017)
  9. ^ YFull Haplogroup YTree v5.05 at 30 July 2017
  10. ^ Hallast, Pille; Batini, Chiara; Zadik, Daniel; et al. (2014). "The Y-Chromosome Tree Bursts into Leaf: 13,000 High-Confidence SNPs Covering the Majority of Known Clades". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 32: 661–673. doi:10.1093/molbev/msu327. PMC 4327154. PMID 25468874.
Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2