Haplogroup CT Possible time of origin c. 70,000 years ago, ca. 100,000 years ago,  or about 101,000 years ago   Possible place of origin Africa,    possibly  Northeast Africa  Ancestor Haplogroup BT Descendants Haplogroup CF, Haplogroup DE Defining mutations P9.1, M168, M294, V9, V41, V54, V189, and V226 Haplogroup CT is a human Y chromosome haplogroup, defining one of the major paternal lineages of humanity.
Men who carry the CT clade have
Y chromosomes with the SNP mutation M168, along with P9.1 and M294. These mutations are present in all modern human male lineages except A and B-M60, which are both found almost exclusively in Africa.
The most recent common male line ancestor (TMRCA) of all CT men today probably predated the
recent African origin of modern humans, a migration in which some of his descendants participated. He is therefore thought to have lived in Africa before this proposed migration.   In keeping with the concept of "  Y-chromosomal Adam" given to the patrilineal ancestor of all living humans, CT-M168 has therefore also been referred to in popularized accounts as being the lineage of "Eurasian Adam" or "Out of Africa Adam"; because, along with many African Y-lineages, all non-African Y-lineages descend from it.  
No male in
paragroup CT* has ever been discovered in modern populations. This means that all males carrying this haplogroup are also defined as being in one of the several major branch clades. All known surviving descendant lineages of CT are in one of two major subclades, CF and DE. In turn, DE is divided into a predominantly Asia-distributed haplogroup D-CTS3946 and a predominantly Africa-distributed haplogroup E-M96, while CF is divided into an East Asian, Native American, and Oceanian haplogroup C-M130 and haplogroup F-M89, which dominates most non-African populations.
Subclades [ edit ]
Haplogroup CT (M168/PF1416)
CF (P143/PF2587, CTS3818/M3690/PF2668, CTS6376/M3711/PF2697)
C (M130/Page51/RPS4Y711, M216)
Asia, Oceania, and North America
F (M89, M213) Found throughout
Eurasia, Oceania, and the Americas
F1 (P91, P104)
F2 (M427, M428)
F3 (P96) F4 (M481) GHIJK F1329/M3658/PF2622/YSC0001299, CTS2254/M3680/PF2657, FGC2045/Z12203 Throughout Eurasia; also The Americas; at low levels/among minorities in Africa and Oceania
G M201, P257 Primarily the Caucasus; also at low levels/among minorities in Europe, North Africa, South West Asia and Central Asia HIJK Throughout Eurasia; also The Americas; at low levels/among minorities in Africa and Oceania
H M69, M370 South Asia, Central Asia, and Southwest Asia
IJK L15/S137, L16/S138 Eurasia, North Africa, Oceania, the Americas and East Africa
Europe, Western Asia, North Africa and East Africa K M9 Found all over
Eurasia; also significant in the Americas and Oceania; at lower levels in North Africa and East Africa
LT ( K1) L298/P326
L M11, M20, M22, M61, M185, M295 the Indian subcontinent T M70, M184/USP9Y+3178, M193, M272 (formerly K2) Southwestern Asia, South Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Chad Basin, and Southern Europe K2 M526 Eurasia, Oceania, The Americas, some indigenous Australians and some minorities in Africa
NO ( K2a) M214 Reportedly found in small numbers of
Buyi and Japanese males.
K2b formerly MPS P331 Eurasia, The Americas, Oceania and minorities in Africa
K2b1 formerly MS P397/P399 Melanesians, Micronesians, indigenous Australians and Polynesians.
P ( K2b2) 92R7, M45, M74/N12, P27.1/P207 Throughout
Eurasia, The Americas and some minorities in Africa
Q M242 The Americas and Eurasia R M207/UTY2, M306/S1 Europe, Near East, South Asia, Chad Basin, Canary Islands
K2c P261 Low levels in Bali
K2d P402/P403 Low levels in Java K2e M147 Low levels in South Asia Haplogroup DE (M1/YAP, M145/P205, M203/Page36, P144, P153, P165, P167, P183) Asia, Africa, Southern and Eastern Europe; also at low levels in Oceania
Haplogroup D (M174) Primarily
Japan, Tibet and Andaman Islanders; also at low level/among minorities in East Asia, Central Asia, Micronesia and Melanesia
Haplogroup D1 (CTS11577) Mainly Tibet; minorities in Central Asia, East Asia, and South East Asia
Haplogroup D1a Z27276
East and Central Asia
D1a1 (M15) (ex-D1) Qiang people; also at low levels throughout East and Central Asia Haplogroup D1a2 P99 (ex-D3) Tibet and Central Asia Haplogroup D1b (ex-D2) (M64.1/Page44.1, M55, M57, M179/Page31, M359.1/P41.1, P37.1, P190, 12f2.2) Mainly Japan; also at lowel levels/among minorities in Korea, China, Micronesia and Melanesia Haplogroup D2 L1366 (ex-D1a) Philippines Haplogroup E (M40, M96) Africa, Middle East, Southern and Eastern Europe
Haplogroup E1 (P147) At high levels throughout Africa; at lower levels in the Middle East and Europe
Haplogroup E2 (M75) East Africa
Sources [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
Genetics [ edit ]
Y-DNA C subclades
References [ edit ]
^ a b Karafet et al. (2008) give "70,000", citing "68,500±6000 years" from Hammer and Zegura (2002).
Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. doi: 10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC . 2336805 PMID 18385274. .
The split between CF and DE (which in the absence of a paragroup CT* is equivalent to the age of CT) has been dated to 70,000–75,000 years ago in Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans, Nature 505, 87–91 (02 January 2014)
^ a b
Kamin M, Saag L, Vincente M, et al. (April 2015). "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture". Genome Research. 25 (4): 459–466. doi: 10.1101/gr.186684.114. PMC . 4381518 PMID 25770088.
Haber M, Jones AL, Connel BA, Asan, Arciero E, Huanming Y, Thomas MG, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C (June 2019). "A Rare Deep-Rooting D0 African Y-chromosomal Haplogroup and its Implications for the Expansion of Modern Humans Out of Africa". Genetics. 212 (4): 1421–1428. doi: 10.1534/genetics.119.302368. PMC . 6707464 PMID 31196864.
^ a b
Underhill and Kivisild; Kivisild, T (2007). "Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations". Annu. Rev. Genet. 41 (1): 539–64. doi: 10.1146/annurev.genet.41.110306.130407. PMID 18076332. S2CID 24904955.
^ a b
Stone, Linda; Paul F. Lurquin; Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (2007). "Voyages, Prehistoric Human Expansions". Genes, Culture, and Human Evolution. p. 187. ISBN . 978-1-4051-5089-7
^ a b c
Karafet; et al. (2008). "New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. doi: 10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC . 2336805 PMID 18385274.
^ a b
Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes, by Norman A. Johnson, 2007, ISBN 0-19-530675-9, ISBN 978-0-19-530675-0
Genes, Culture, and Human Evolution: A Synthesis, By Linda Stone, Paul F. Lurquin, 2007, ISBN 1-4051-5089-0, page 187
^ Pereira et al. (2010),
Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel, European Journal of Human Genetics (2010) 18, 915–923; ‹See Tfd› doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.21
Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1]
This article needs to be
updated. ( February 2021)
" Y-chromosomal Adam"
[χ 5] K2
K2a [χ 7]
K2e [χ 9]
[χ 11] P
M [χ 14]
Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi: 10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.
International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), . (Access date: 1 February 2015.) Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015
^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A-L1085 (and previously as A0'1'2'3'4).
^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
^ Between 2002 and 2008,
Haplogroup T-M184 was known as "Haplogroup K2". That name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and its primary subclade K-M2313 were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of:
Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. doi: 10.1038/ng.3559. PMC . 4884158 PMID 27111036. In the past, other haplogroups, including NO (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
^ K-M2313*, which as yet has no phylogenetic name, has been documented in two living individuals, who have ethnic ties to India and South East Asia. In addition, K-Y28299, which appears to be a primary branch of K-M2313, has been found in three living individuals from India. See: Poznik
op. cit.; , and; YFull YTree v5.08, 2017, "K-M2335" (Access date of these pages: 9 December 2017) PhyloTree, 2017, "Details of the Y-SNP markers included in the minimal Y tree"
^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)