Haplogroup CT

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Haplogroup CT
Y-DNA tree.GIF
Possible time of originc. 70,000 years ago[1], ca. 100,000 years ago[2], or about 101,000 years ago[3]
Possible place of originAfrica[4][5][6][7], possibly Northeast Africa[8]
AncestorHaplogroup BT
DescendantsHaplogroup CF, Haplogroup DE
Defining mutationsP9.1, M168, M294, V9, V41, V54, V189, and V226

Haplogroup CT is a human Y chromosome haplogroup, defining one of the major paternal lineages of humanity.

Men who carry the CT clade have Y chromosomes with the SNP mutation M168, along with P9.1 and M294. These mutations are present in all modern human male lineages except A and B-M60, which are both found almost exclusively in Africa.

The most recent common male line ancestor (TMRCA) of all CT men today probably predated the recent African origin of modern humans, a migration in which some of his descendants participated. He is therefore thought to have lived in Africa before this proposed migration.[1][5][4] In keeping with the concept of "Y-chromosomal Adam" given to the patrilineal ancestor of all living humans, CT-M168 has therefore also been referred to in popularized accounts as being the lineage of "Eurasian Adam" or "Out of Africa Adam".[9][8][6]

No male in paragroup CT* has ever been discovered in modern populations. This means that all males carrying this haplogroup are also defined as being in one of the several major branch clades. All known surviving descendant lineages of CT are in one of two major subclades, CF and DE. In turn, DE is divided into a predominantly Asia-distributed haplogroup D-CTS3946 and a predominantly Africa-distributed haplogroup E-M96, while CF is divided into an East Asian, Native American, and Oceanian haplogroup C-M130 and haplogroup F-M89, which dominates most non-African populations.[6]

Haplogroup CT had been found in various prehistoric West Asian human fossils that were analysed for ancient DNA, including specimens associated with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic C (1/1; 100%), Neolithic Ganj Dareh Iran (1/2; 50%), Natufian (2/5; 40%), Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (2/7; ~29%),[10] Alföld Linear Pottery (1/1 at two ALP archaeological sites; 100%), Linearbandkeramik (1/2 at Karsdorf LBK archaeological site; 50%) cultures, and some Upper Paleolithic Europeans (Cioclovina1, Kostenki12, Vestonice13). But whether these, or all of them, belong to paragroup CT* or to its branches, is as yet undetermined.[11][12][13]

Subclades[edit]

Haplogroup CT (M168/PF1416)

Sources[edit]

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA C subclades

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Karafet et al. (2008) give "70,000", citing "68,500±6000 years" from Hammer and Zegura (2002). Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274.. The split between CF and DE (which in the absence of a paragroup CT* is equivalent to the age of CT) has been dated to 70,000–75,000 years ago in Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans, Nature 505, 87–91 (02 January 2014)
  2. ^ Kamin M, Saag L, Vincente M, et al. (April 2015). "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture". Genome Research. 25 (4): 459–466. doi:10.1101/gr.186684.114. PMC 4381518. PMID 25770088.
  3. ^ Haber M, Jones AL, Connel BA, Asan, Arciero E, Huanming Y, Thomas MG, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C (June 2019). "A Rare Deep-Rooting D0 African Y-chromosomal Haplogroup and its Implications for the Expansion of Modern Humans Out of Africa". Genetics. 212 (4): 1421–1428. doi:10.1534/genetics.119.302368. PMC 6707464. PMID 31196864.
  4. ^ a b Underhill and Kivisild; Kivisild, T (2007). "Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations". Annu. Rev. Genet. 41 (1): 539–64. doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.41.110306.130407. PMID 18076332.
  5. ^ a b Stone, Linda; Paul F. Lurquin; Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (2007). "Voyages, Prehistoric Human Expansions". Genes, Culture, and Human Evolution. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-4051-5089-7.
  6. ^ a b c Karafet et al. (2008), New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree, Genome Research, doi:10.1101/gr.7172008 PMID 18385274
  7. ^ Kamin M, Saag L, Vincente M, et al. (April 2015). "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture". Genome Research. 25 (4): 459–466. doi:10.1101/gr.186684.114. PMC 4381518. PMID 25770088.
  8. ^ a b Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes, by Norman A. Johnson, 2007, ISBN 0-19-530675-9, ISBN 978-0-19-530675-0
  9. ^ Genes, Culture, and Human Evolution: A Synthesis, By Linda Stone, Paul F. Lurquin, 2007, ISBN 1-4051-5089-0, page 187
  10. ^ Lazaridis, Iosif; et al. (17 June 2016). "The genetic structure of the world's first farmers". bioRxiv 059311. -- Table S6.1 - Y-chromosome haplogroups
  11. ^ Mark Lipson; et al. (2017). "Parallel palaeogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early European farmers". Nature. 551 (7680): 368–372. Bibcode:2017Natur.551..368L. doi:10.1038/nature24476. PMC 5973800. PMID 29144465. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  12. ^ Fu, Q; Posth, C; Hajdinjak, M; Petr, M; Mallick, S; Fernandes, D; Furtwängler, A; Haak, W; Meyer, M; Mittnik, A; Nickel, B; Peltzer, A; Rohland, N; Slon, V; Talamo, S; Lazaridis, I; Lipson, M; Mathieson, I; Schiffels, S; Skoglund, P; Derevianko, A. P; Drozdov, N; Slavinsky, V; Tsybankov, A; Cremonesi, R. G; Mallegni, F; Gély, B; Vacca, E; González Morales, M. R; et al. (2016). "The genetic history of Ice Age Europe". Nature. 534 (7606): 200–205. Bibcode:2016Natur.534..200F. doi:10.1038/nature17993. hdl:10211.3/198594. PMC 4943878. PMID 27135931.
  13. ^ Lazaridis, Iosif; et al. (17 June 2016). "The genetic structure of the world's first farmers". bioRxiv 059311. -- Table S6.1 - Y-chromosome haplogroups
  14. ^ Pereira et al. (2010), Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel, European Journal of Human Genetics (2010) 18, 915–923; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.21
Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R