Haplogroup CT

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Haplogroup CT
Y-DNA tree.GIF
Possible time of origin c. 70,000 years ago[1]
Possible place of origin Asia[2][3][4] or East Africa[5]
Ancestor Haplogroup BT
Descendants Haplogroups CF and DE
Defining mutations P9.1, M168, M294, V9, V41, V54, V189, and V226

In human genetics, Haplogroup CT is a Y chromosome haplogroup, defining one of the major lines of patrilineal common ancestry of humanity.

Men within this haplogroup have Y chromosomes with the SNP mutation M168, along with P9.1 and M294. These mutations are present in all modern human male lines except A and B-M60, which are both found almost exclusively in Africa.

The most recent common male line ancestor (MRCA) of all CT men today probably predated the recent African origin of modern humans, a migration in which some of his descendants participated. He is therefore thought to have lived in Africa before this proposed migration.[1][5][6] In keeping with the jocular title of "Y-chromosomal Adam" given to the patrilineal ancestor of all living humans, CT-M168 has therefore also been referred to in popularized accounts as being the lineage of "Eurasian Adam" or "Out of Africa Adam".[7][3][4]

No male in paragroup CT* has yet been discovered, which means in other words that all men in this haplogroup are also defined as being in one of the several major branch clades. All known surviving descendant lineages of CT are in one of two major sub-clades, CF and DE. Both of these appear to have arisen only a few thousand years after the original common ancestor of CT.[citation needed] In turn, DE is divided into an Asian Haplogroup D-M174 and a predominantly Africa-distributed haplogroup E-M96, while CF is divided into an East Asian, American, and Oceanian haplogroup C-M130 and haplogroup F-M89, which dominates most non-African populations.[4]

Haplogroup CT is therefore the common ancestral male lineage of all men alive today except the ones that belong to A or B haplogroups, including most Africans, among whom haplogroup E is predominant, and most non-Africans, among whom haplogroup F is predominant.


Haplogroup CT (M168/PF1416)


See also[edit]


Y-DNA C subclades


  1. ^ a b Karafet et al. (2008) give "70,000", citing "68,500±6000 years" from Hammer and Zegura (2002). Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. PMC 2336805Freely accessible. PMID 18385274. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. . The split between CF and DE (which in the absence of a paragroup CT* is equivalent to the age of CT) has been dated to 70,000–75,000 years ago in Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans, Nature 505, 87–91 (02 January 2014)
  2. ^ Chuan-Chao Wang; Li Hui (2014-05-03). "Comparison of Y-chromosomal lineage dating using either evolutionary or genealogical Y-STR mutation rates". bioRxiv 004705Freely accessible. 
  3. ^ a b Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes, by Norman A. Johnson, 2007, ISBN 0-19-530675-9, ISBN 978-0-19-530675-0
  4. ^ a b c Karafet et al. (2008), New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree, Genome Research, doi:10.1101/gr.7172008 PMID 18385274
  5. ^ a b Stone, Linda; Paul F. Lurquin; Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (2007). "Voyages, Prehistoric Human Expansions". Genes, Culture, and Human Evolution. p. 187. ISBN 1-4051-5089-0. 
  6. ^ Underhill and Kivisild; Kivisild, T (2007). "Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations". Annu. Rev. Genet. 41 (1): 539–64. PMID 18076332. doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.41.110306.130407. 
  7. ^ Genes, Culture, and Human Evolution: A Synthesis, By Linda Stone, Paul F. Lurquin, 2007, ISBN 1-4051-5089-0, page 187
  8. ^ Pereira et al. (2010), Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel, European Journal of Human Genetics (2010) 18, 915–923; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.21

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO    S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
NO1    Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. PMID 24166809. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)