Haplogroup C-M130

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Haplogroup C
Possible time of origin 53,000 years BP [1]
Possible place of origin South Asia
Ancestor CF
Descendants C1 F3393/Z1426 (previously CxC3)
C2 (previously C3*) M217.[1]
Defining mutations M130/RPS4Y711, P184, P255, P260

Haplogroup C is a major Y-chromosome haplogroup, defined by UEPs M130/RPS4Y711, P184, P255, and P260, which are all SNP mutations. One of two primary branches of Haplogroup CF alongside Haplogroup F. Haplogroup C is found in ancient populations on every continent except Africa and is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among males belonging to many peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Siberia, North America and Oceania. It is also found at moderate frequencies among certain indigenous populations of South Asia and Southeast Asia as well as low frequencies among some populations of Europe.

In addition to the basal paragroup C*, this haplogroup now has two major branches: C1 (F3393/Z1426; previously CxC3, i.e. old C1, old C2, old C4, old C5 and old C6) and C2 (M217; the former C3).

Origins[edit]

Estimated migration root of haplogroup C in East and South Asia.[2]

Haplogroup C-M130 seems to have come into existence shortly after SNP mutation M168 occurred for the first time, bringing the modern Haplogroup CT into existence, from which Haplogroup CF, and in turn Haplogroup C, derived. This was probably at least 60,000 years before present.

Although Haplogroup C-M130 attains its highest frequencies among the indigenous populations of Mongolia, the Russian Far East, Polynesia, Australia, and at moderate frequency in Korea and Manchu people, it displays its highest diversity among modern populations of India. It is therefore hypothesized that Haplogroup C-M130 either originated or underwent its longest period of evolution within India or the greater South Asian coastal region. The highest diversity is observed in Southeast Asia, and its northward expansion in East Asia started approximately 40,000 years ago.[3]

Males carrying C-M130 are believed to have migrated to the Americas some 6,000-8,000 years before present, and was carried by Na-Dené-speaking peoples into the northwest Pacific coast of North America.

Asia is also the area in which Haplogroup D-M174 is concentrated. However, D-M174 is more closely related to haplogroup E than to C-M130 and the geographical distributions of Haplogroups C-M130 and D-M174 are entirely and utterly different, with various subtypes of Haplogroup C-M130 being found at high frequency amongst indigenous Australians, Polynesians, Vietnamese, Kazakhs, Mongolians, Manchurians, Koreans, and indigenous inhabitants of the Russian Far East; and at moderate frequencies elsewhere throughout Asia and Oceania, including India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Whereas Haplogroup D is found at high frequencies only amongst Tibetans, Japanese peoples, and Andaman Islanders, and has been found neither in India nor among the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas or Oceania.

Structure[edit]

C* (M130/Page51/RPS4Y711, M216)

  • C1 (F3393)
    • C1a (CTS11043)
      • C1a1 M8
        • C1a1a P121
          • C1a1a1 CTS6678
          • C1a1a2 Z1356
      • C1a2 (previously C6) V20
        • C1a2a V222
        • C1a2b Z29329
    • C1b F1370
      • C1b1 K281
        • C1b1a B66/Z16458
          • C1b1a1 (previously C5) M356
          • C1b1a2 B65
      • C1b2 B477/Z31885
        • C1b2a (previously C2) M38
          • C1b2a1 M208
            • C1b2a1a P33
            • C1b2a1b P54
        • C1b2b (previously C4) M347
          • C1b2b1 M210
  • C2 (previously C3) M217
    • C2a M93
    • C2b L1373, F1396
      • C2b1
        • C2b1a
          • C2b1a1
            • C2b1a1a P39
        • C2b1b (previously C3c) M48
    • C2c C-P53.1
    • C2d P62
    • C2e F2613/Z1338
      • C2e1
        • C2e1a
          • C2e1a1a M407
  • Other, untaxonimised subclades:
    • C-P343: outside C1a1 (M8), C1b2a (M38), C1b1a1 (previously C5; M356), C1b2b (previously C4; M347), and C2 (ex-C3; M217), but its relation to other branches is not yet tested.[4]
    • C-P55: outside C1b2a (M38), but its relation to other branches has not yet been verified, and;[5]

(The above phylogenetic structure of haplogroup C-M130 subclades is based on the ISOGG 2015 tree, YCC 2008 tree and subsequent published research.[6][7])

Distribution[edit]

Projected spatial frequency distribution for haplogroup C in East Asia.[2]

The distribution of Haplogroup C-M130 is generally limited to populations of northern Asia, eastern Asia, Oceania, and the Americas. Due to the tremendous age of Haplogroup C, numerous secondary mutations have had time to accumulate, and many regionally important subbranches of Haplogroup C-M130 have been identified.

Up to 46% of Aboriginal Australian males carried either basal C* (C-M130*), C1b2b* (C-M347*) or C1b2b1 (C-M210), before contact with and significant immigration by Europeans, according to a 2015 study by Nagle et al.[8] That is, 20.0% of the Y-chromosomes of 657 modern individuals, before 56% of those samples were excluded as "non-indigenous". C-M130* was apparently carried by up to 2.7% of Aboriginal males before colonisation; 43% carried C-M347, which has not been found outside Australia.[8][9] (The other haplogroups regarded as preceding contact with Europeans among Aboriginal males subclades of K, namely basal K*, K2b1* and subclades of K2b1.)

Low levels of C-M130* are carried by males:

C* (M130) was also identified in prehistoric remains, dating from 34,000 years BP, found in Russia and known as "Kostenki 14".[11]

Haplogroup C2 (M217) – the most numerous and widely dispersed C lineage – which is believed to have originated in South East/Central Asia, spread from there into Northern Asia and the Americas.[6] C-M217 stretches longitudinally from Central Europe and Turkey, to the Wayuu people of Colombia and Venezuela, and latitudinally from the Athabaskan peoples of Alaska to Vietnam to the Malay Archipelago. Found at low concentrations in Eastern Europe, where it may be a legacy of the invasions/migrations of the Huns, Turks and/or Mongols during the Middle Ages. Found at especially high frequencies in Buryats, Daurs, Hazaras, Itelmens, Kalmyks, Koryaks, Manchus, Mongolians, Oroqens, and Sibes, with a moderate distribution among other Tungusic peoples, Koreans, Ainus, Nivkhs, Altaians, Tuvinians, Uzbeks, Han Chinese, Tujia, Hani, and Hui.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18] The highest frequencies of Haplogroup C-M217 are found among the populations of Mongolia and Far East Russia, where it is the modal haplogroup. Haplogroup C-M217 is the only variety of Haplogroup C-M130 to be found among Native Americans, among whom it reaches its highest frequency in Na-Dené populations.

Other subclades are specific to certain populations, within a restricted geographical range; even where these other branches are found, they tend to appear as a very low-frequency, minor component of the palette of Y-chromosome diversity within those territories:

Phylogenetics[edit]

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
C-M216 10 V 1F 16 Eu6 H1 C C* C C C C C C C C C C
C-M8 10 V 1F 19 Eu6 H1 C C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1
C-M38 10 V 1F 16 Eu6 H1 C C2* C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2
C-P33 10 V 1F 18 Eu6 H1 C C2a C2a C2a1 C2a1 C2a C2a C2a1 C2a1 C2a1 removed removed
C-P44 10 V 1F 17 Eu6 H1 C C3* C3 C3 C3 C3 C3 C3 C3 C3 C3 C3
C-M93 10 V 1F 17 Eu6 H1 C C3a C3a C3a C3a C3a C3a C3a C3a C3a C3a C3a1
C-M208 10 V 1F 17 Eu6 H1 C C3b C2b C2a C2a C2b C2b C2a C2a C2a C2a C2a
C-M210 36 V 1F 17 Eu6 H1 C C3c C2c C4a C4a C4b C4b C4a C4a C4a C4a C4a

Research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Notable members[edit]

One particular haplotype within Haplogroup C-M217 has received a great deal of attention for the possibility that it may represent direct patrilineal descent from Genghis Khan.

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA C Subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO    S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
NO1    Q   R
N O
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. PMID 24166809. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpC.html
  2. ^ a b Wang, CC; Li, H (2013). "Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes". Investig Genet. 4 (1): 11. PMC 3687582Freely accessible. PMID 23731529. doi:10.1186/2041-2223-4-11. 
  3. ^ a b c d Zhong H, Shi H, Qi XB, et al. (July 2010). "Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C-M130 reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia". J. Hum. Genet. 55 (7): 428–35. PMID 20448651. doi:10.1038/jhg.2010.40. 
  4. ^ a b c Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Karafet, Tatiana M; Downey, Sean; et al. (2014). "Isolation, contact and social behavior shaped genetic diversity in West Timor". Journal of Human Genetics. 59 (9): 1–10. PMC 4521296Freely accessible. PMID 25078354. doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.62. 
  5. ^ a b Scheinfeldt, L.; Friedlaender, F; Friedlaender, J; Latham, K; Koki, G; Karafet, T; Hammer, M; Lorenz, J (2006). "Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 23 (8): 1628–41. PMID 16754639. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl028. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h ISOGG, 2015 "Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades – 2015" (15 September 2015).
  7. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. PMC 2336805Freely accessible. PMID 18385274. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. 
  8. ^ a b Nagle, N.; et al. (2015). "Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 159: 367–81. PMID 26515539. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22886. 
  9. ^ Hudjashov G, Kivisild T, Underhill PA, et al. (May 2007). "Revealing the prehistoric settlement of Australia by Y chromosome and mtDNA analysis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (21): 8726–30. PMC 1885570Freely accessible. PMID 17496137. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702928104. 
  10. ^ Cognoms Catalans, n.d., Resultat' (15 September 2015). (The Cognoms Catalans project, which researches "genetic surnames" in Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands, is based at Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona.)
  11. ^ Seguin-Orlando, A.; et al. (2014). "Genomic structure in Europeans dating back at least 36,200 years" (PDF). Science. 346 (6213): 1113–1118. PMID 25378462. doi:10.1126/science.aaa0114. 
  12. ^ a b Xue Y, Zerjal T, Bao W, et al. (April 2006). "Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times". Genetics. 172 (4): 2431–9. PMC 1456369Freely accessible. PMID 16489223. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. 
  13. ^ a b c Hammer MF, Karafet TM, Park H, et al. (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". J. Hum. Genet. 51 (1): 47–58. PMID 16328082. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. 
  14. ^ Tajima, Atsushi; Hayami, Masanori; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Juji, T; Matsuo, M; Marzuki, S; Omoto, K; Horai, S (2004). "Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages". Journal of Human Genetics. 49 (4): 187–193. PMID 14997363. doi:10.1007/s10038-004-0131-x. 
  15. ^ a b c d Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, et al. (February 2006). "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78 (2): 202–21. PMC 1380230Freely accessible. PMID 16400607. doi:10.1086/499411. 
  16. ^ a b Lell JT, Sukernik RI, Starikovskaya YB, et al. (January 2002). "The dual origin and Siberian affinities of Native American Y chromosomes". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70 (1): 192–206. PMC 384887Freely accessible. PMID 11731934. doi:10.1086/338457. 
  17. ^ Wells RS, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, et al. (August 2001). "The Eurasian heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (18): 10244–9. PMC 56946Freely accessible. PMID 11526236. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. 
  18. ^ Nasidze I, Quinque D, Dupanloup I, Cordaux R, Kokshunova L, Stoneking M (December 2005). "Genetic evidence for the Mongolian ancestry of Kalmyks". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 128 (4): 846–54. PMID 16028228. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20159. 
  19. ^ Cox MP, Redd AJ, Karafet TM, et al. (October 2007). "A Polynesian motif on the Y chromosome: population structure in remote Oceania". Hum. Biol. 79 (5): 525–35. PMID 18478968. 
  20. ^ a b c Gayden, Tenzin; Cadenas, Alicia M.; Regueiro, Maria; Singh, NB; Zhivotovsky, LA; Underhill, PA; Cavalli-Sforza, LL; Herrera, RJ (2007). "The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow". American Journal of Human Genetics. 80 (5): 884–894. PMC 1852741Freely accessible. PMID 17436243. doi:10.1086/516757. 
  21. ^ a b Fornarino, Simona; Pala, Maria; Battaglia, Vincenza; et al. (2009). "Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 154. PMC 2720951Freely accessible. PMID 19573232. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-154. 
  22. ^ a b Cadenas, Alicia M; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L; Underhill, PA; Herrera, RJ (2008). "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman". European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (3): 374–386. PMID 17928816. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934. 
  23. ^ a b Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Underhill, Peter A (2009). "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions". BMC Genetics. 10: 59. PMC 2759955Freely accessible. PMID 19772609. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59. 
  24. ^ Scozzari R, Massaia A, D'Atanasio E, Myres NM, Perego UA, et al. (2012). "Molecular Dissection of the Basal Clades in the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree". PLoS ONE. 7 (11): e49170. PMC 3492319Freely accessible. PMID 23145109. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049170. 
  25. ^ http://dienekes.blogspot.ru/2014/01/brown-skinned-blue-eyed-y-haplogroup-c.html
  26. ^ http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2015/02/10/013433.full.pdf
  27. ^ Fu, Qiaomei; et al. (2016). "The genetic history of Ice Age Europe". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature17993. 
  28. ^ Karafet, T. M.; Mendez, F. L.; Meilerman, M. B.; Underhill, P. A.; Zegura, S. L.; Hammer, M. F. (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. PMC 2336805Freely accessible. PMID 18385274. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. 
  29. ^ Underhill PA, Shen P, Lin AA, et al. (November 2000). "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations". Nat. Genet. 26 (3): 358–61. PMID 11062480. doi:10.1038/81685. 
  30. ^ Pakendorf B, Novgorodov IN, Osakovskij VL, Danilova AP, Protod'jakonov AP, Stoneking M (October 2006). "Investigating the effects of prehistoric migrations in Siberia: genetic variation and the origins of Yakuts". Hum. Genet. 120 (3): 334–53. PMID 16845541. doi:10.1007/s00439-006-0213-2. 
  31. ^ Khar'kov VN, Stepanov VA, Medvedev OF, et al. (2008). "[The origin of Yakuts: analysis of Y-chromosome haplotypes]". Mol. Biol. (Mosk.) (in Russian). 42 (2): 226–37. PMID 18610830. 
  32. ^ Zegura SL, Karafet TM, Zhivotovsky LA, Hammer MF (January 2004). "High-resolution SNPs and microsatellite haplotypes point to a single, recent entry of Native American Y chromosomes into the Americas". Mol. Biol. Evol. 21 (1): 164–75. PMID 14595095. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh009. 
  33. ^ Mona, Stefano; Grunz, Katharina E.; Brauer, Silke; et al. (2009). "Genetic Admixture History of Eastern Indonesia as Revealed by Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis". Mol. Biol. Evol. 26 (8): 1865–1877. PMID 19414523. doi:10.1093/molbev/msp097. 
  34. ^ Karafet Tatiana M.; Hallmark Brian; Cox Murray P.; et al. (2010). "Major East–West Division Underlies Y Chromosome Stratification across Indonesia". Mol. Biol. Evol. 27 (8): 1833–1844. PMID 20207712. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq063. 

External links[edit]


Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO    S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
NO1    Q   R
N O
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. PMID 24166809. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)