Haplogroup C (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup C
Possible time of origin 23,900 YBP
Possible place of origin Central Asia
Ancestor CZ
Descendants C1, C4, C5, C7
Defining mutations 489 10400 14783 15043[1]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup C is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.


Haplogroup C is believed to have arisen somewhere between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal some 24,000 years before present. It is a descendant of the haplogroup M.


Frequency distribution of mtDNA haplogroup C in Eurasia

Haplogroup C is found in Northeast Asia[2] (including Siberia). In Eurasia, Haplogroup C is especially frequent among populations of arctic Siberia, such as Yukaghirs and Nganasans.[3] Haplogroup C is one of five mtDNA haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas,[2] the others being A, B, D, and X. The subclades C1b, C1c, C1d, and C4c are found in the first people of the Americas. C1a is found only in Asia.

In 2010, Icelandic researchers discovered a C1 lineage in their home country, estimating an introduction date of 1700 or earlier, indicating a possible introduction during the Viking expeditions to the Americas. A Native American origin for this C1e lineage is likely, but the researchers note that a European or Asian one cannot be ruled out.[4]



This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup C subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[1] and subsequent published research.

  • CZ
    • C
      • C1
        • C1a
        • C1b
          • C1b1
          • C1b2
            • C1b2a
          • C1b3
          • C1b4
          • C1b5
        • C1c
          • C1c1
          • C1c2
        • C1d
          • C1d2
            • C1d2a
        • C1e
      • C4
        • C4a
          • C4a1
            • C4a1a
          • C4a2
        • C4b
          • C4b1
            • C4b1a
          • C4b2
        • C4c
      • C5
        • C5a
      • C7
        • C7a
          • C7a1
            • C7a1a
            • C7a1c
            • C7a1d
          • C7a2
            • C7a2a
        • C7b

Popular culture[edit]

In his popular book The Seven Daughters of Eve, Bryan Sykes named the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup Chochmingwu.

See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M   N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U


  1. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation. 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  2. ^ a b Haplogroup C.
  3. ^ Natalia V. Volodko, Elena B. Starikovskaya, Ilya O. Mazunin et al., "Mitochondrial Genome Diversity in Arctic Siberians, with Particular Reference to the Evolutionary History of Beringia and Pleistocenic Peopling of the Americas," The American Journal of Human Genetics 82, 1084–1100, May 2008. DOI 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.03.019.
  4. ^ http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.21419/abstract

External links[edit]