Haplogroup D-M15

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Haplogroup D-M15
Geograhpical distribution of Y-crhomosome haplogroup D1a-F6251(M15, P99).png
Geograhpical distribution of Y-crhomosome haplogroup D1a-F6251(M15, P99)
Ancestor D1a
Descendants D1a1a (N1)
Defining mutations M15

Haplogroup D-M15, also known as D1a1 (and formerly D1) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup D-M15 is a descendant branch of the greater Haplogroup D-M174.

Its phylogenetically closest relatives are found among the peoples of Japan, Central Asia, and the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal. It is more distantly related to the Haplogroup E-M96, whose sub-clades are common throughout Africa, West Asia, and Europe.


Haplogroup D-M15 is widely distributed throughout populations that dwell to the northwest, north, northeast, east, and southeast of the Himalaya. It is not found among the populations of India to the south and southwest. The distribution of Haplogroup D1 in Southeast Asia is also very limited, as it is found there only at low frequency and only among populations that speak Tibeto-Burman or Miao–Yao languages, which have ancestral ties to the north.

The distribution of Haplogroup D-M15 is much more regular in the north, as it is found among nearly all the populations of Central Asia and Northeast Asia south of the Russian border, although generally at a low frequency of 2% or less. A dramatic spike in the frequency of Haplogroup D-M15 occurs as one approaches the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of western China: among some local populations in Qinghai, it has been found to reach as high as 100%. Its frequency gradually fades as one travels south through the territory of the Tibetan peoples, as Haplogroup O3, which is the most common haplogroup among the Han Chinese and also generally found among Southeast Asian populations, becomes dominant. Haplogroup D-M15 continues to occur at an overall very low frequency among the Han people to the east; however, there are some indications that the frequency of D-M15 among the Hans may vary significantly between localities. A secondary, minor spike in the frequency of Haplogroup D-M15 occurs again in Korea, where it may reach as high as 5% to 8%; this somewhat heightened frequency does not stretch into Manchuria to the north or Japan to the east, which may corroborate historical accounts of immigration from the country of Qin in the far west of ancient China to the country of Jinhan, which is believed to have been located somewhere in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. Ancient Chinese historians are known for their habit of drawing what often seem to be forced connections between contemporary peoples and putative ancestors of misty antiquity, and the comments about immigration from Qin to Jinhan might have been motivated by the similarity that the ancient central Chinese perceived between the languages of Qin and Jinhan. Nevertheless, on this occasion the genetic evidence seems to provide the story with some independent corroboration.

As for the ultimate origin of Haplogroup D-M15, one can only speculate that it might share a recent common ancestor with other members of the greater D-M174 lineage who have not tested as part of another branch. Such are found at a low frequency among modern populations of Central Asia.


Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
D-M174 * * * * * * * * D D D D D D D D D D
D-M15 4 IV 3G 12 Eu5 H3 B D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1
D-M55 * * * * * * * * D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2
D-P12 4 IV 3G 11 Eu5 H2 B D2a D2a D2a1a1 D2a1a1 D2 D2 D2a1a1 D2a1a1 D2a1a1 removed removed
D-M116.1 4 IV 3G 11 Eu5 H2 B D2b* D2a D2a D2a D2a D2a D2a D2a D2a removed removed
D-M125 4 IV 3G 11 Eu5 H2 B D2b1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1
D-M151 4 IV 3G 11 Eu5 H2 B D2b2 D2a1 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2

Research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC tree.

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup D-M174 subclades is based on the ISOGG 2015 tree.[1]

  • DE
    • D (M174/Page30)
      • D1 (CTS11577)
        • D1a (Z27276)
          • D1a1 (M15)
        • D1a1a (N1)
          • D1a1a-?(N2)[1]
        • D1b (M64.1/Page44.1, M55, M57, M179/Page31, M359.1/P41.1, P37.1, P190, 12f2.2)
          • D1b1 (M116.1)
            • D1b1a (M125)
              • D1b1a1 (P42)
                • D1b1a1a (P12)
            • D1b1a2 (IMS-JST022457)
              • D1b1a2a (P53.2)
            • D1b1b (M151)
            • D1b1c (P120)
          • D1a2 (P99)
            • D1a2a (P47)
      • D2 L1366

See also[edit]


Y-DNA D subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO    S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
NO1    Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. PMID 24166809. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)