|Possible time of origin||35,000-40,000YBP|
44,600 [95% CI 41,400 <-> 47,800] ybp
|Coalescence age||21,100 [95% CI 19,000 <-> 23,300] ybp|
|Possible place of origin||Japanese archipelago|
|Defining mutations||M55, M57, M64.1, M179, P37.1, P41.1, P190, 12f2b|
|Highest frequencies||Jōmon people;|
today: Ainu people、Ryukyuan people、Yamato people
Haplogroup D-M55 also known as Haplogroup D1a2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is one of two branches of Haplogroup D1a, The other is D1a1 and found in Tibet and at a moderate distribution in Central Asia.
Haplogroup D-M55 is found about 32%-39% in Japanese people and more than 80% in Ainu people. It occupies the majority in Japan. It is considered that Haplogroup D-M55 was born in Japan 38,000-37,000 years before present.
Recently it was confirmed that the Japanese branch of haplogroup D-M55 is distinct and isolated from other D-branches since more than 53,000 years ago. The split in D1a probably happened in Central Asia, while some others suggest an instant split during the origin of haplogroup D itself, as the Japanese branch has five unique mutations not found in any other D-branch.
Among the subgroups of Haplogroup D, the ancestor of D-M55 went eastward to reach the Japanese archipelago. Michael F. Hammer of the University of Arizona said: "The ancestors of the Jōmon people were in Central Asia about 50,000 years ago. They continued to migrate eastwards and arrived in Japan by the southern Korean and Ryukyuan route and the northern Okhotsk route (Sakhalin and Hokkaido) about 30,000 ago, and D1b was born in the Japanese archipelago. "Mitsuru Sakitani said that Haplogroup D1 came from Central Asia to northern Kyushu via the Altai Mountains and the Korean Peninsula more than 40,000 years before present, and Haplogroup D-M55 (D1b) was born in the Japanese archipelago.
Haplogroup D-M55 prospered as the majority of the Japanese archipelago for about 35,000 years before the Yayoi people arrived.
（Hammer et al. 2006）
Outside Japan, members of D-M55 have been discovered in samples from Micronesia, South Korea, China, and Timor Island. Korea, Micronesia, Timor, and some parts of China all have been incorporated into the Empire of Japan at some point, so some of these cases may be Japanese descendants left behind when the empire was dismantled following World War II.
- Micronesia：9.5％（Hammer et al. 2006）
- South Korea: 4.0% (Hammer et al. 2006), 1.6% (Kim et al. 2011)
- Beijing, China (Han): 2.0% (Kim et al. 2011)
- Timor Island：0.2%（Meryanne et al. 2014）
A Jōmon man excavated from Funadomari remains (about 3,800 - 3,500 YBP) in Rebun Island in Hokkaido belongs to Haplogroup D1b2a(D-CTS220). This discovery proved the hypothesis that Haplogroup D-M55 is the Jōmon lineage.
By ISOGG tree（Version: 14.151）.
- DE (YAP)
- D (CTS3946)
- D1 (M174/Page30, IMS-JST021355, Haplogroup D-M174)
- D2 (A5580.2) Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Syria
- D (CTS3946)
- Shi, Hong; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Dong, Yong-li; Qi, Xue-bin; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lu-Fang; Tan, Si-jie; Ma, Runlin Z; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Wells, R Spencer; Jin, Li; Su, Bing (October 29, 2008). "Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations". BMC Biology. 6: 45. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-45. PMC 2605740. PMID 18959782.
- YFull Haplogroup YTree v7.02.01 as of March 15, 2019.
- YOUICHI SATO, TOSHIKATSU SHINKA, ASHRAF A. EWIS, AIKO YAMAUCHI, TERUAKI IWAMOTO, YUTAKA NAKAHORI Overview of genetic variation in the Y chromosome of modern Japanese males.
- Nonaka, I.; Minaguchi, K.; Takezaki, N. (February 2, 2007). "Y-chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms". Annals of Human Genetics. 71 (Pt 4): 480–95. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00343.x. PMID 17274803.
- Atsushi Tajima et al. (March 2, 2004). "Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages". Journal of Human Genetics 49 (4): 187–193. doi:10.1007/s10038-004-0131-x. OCLC 110247689. PMID 14997363.
- Shi, Hong; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Dong, Yong-li; Qi, Xue-bin; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lu-Fang; Tan, Si-jie; Ma, Runlin Z; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Wells, R Spencer; Jin, Li; Su, Bing (October 29, 2008). "Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations". BMC Biology (BioMed Central) 6: 45. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-45. PMC 2605740. PMID 18959782. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
- Mondal, Mayukh & Bergström, Anders & Xue, Yali & Calafell, Francesc & Laayouni, Hafid & Casals, Ferran & Majumder, Partha & Tyler-Smith, Chris & Bertranpetit, Jaume. (2017). Y-chromosomal sequences of diverse Indian populations and the ancestry of the Andamanese. Human Genetics. 136. 10.1007/s00439-017-1800-0.
- 崎谷満『DNA・考古・言語の学際研究が示す新・日本列島史』（勉誠出版 2009年）(in Japanese)
- Ohashi, Jun; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Hitomi, Yuki; Sawai, Hiromi; Khor, Seik-Soon; Naka, Izumi; Watanabe, Yusuke (2019-06-17). "Analysis of whole Y-chromosome sequences reveals the Japanese population history in the Jomon period". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 8556. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-44473-z. ISSN 2045-2322.
- Hammer, Michael F.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Park, Hwayong; Omoto, Keiichi; Harihara, Shinji; Stoneking, Mark; Horai, Satoshi (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: Common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". Journal of Human Genetics 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082.
- Tajima,A. et al. (2004). "Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages". Journal of Human Genetics 49 (4): 187–193.
- Soon-Hee Kim, Ki-Cheol Kim, Dong-Jik Shin, Han-Jun Jin, Kyoung-Don Kwak, Myun-Soo Han, Joon-Myong Song, Won Kim, and Wook Kim, "High frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroup O2b-SRY465 lineages in Korea: a genetic perspective on the peopling of Korea." Investigative Genetics 2011, 2:10. http://www.investigativegenetics.com/content/2/1/10
- Meryanne K Tumonggor, Tatiana M Karafet, Sean Downey, et al., "Isolation, contact and social behavior shaped genetic diversity in West Timor." Journal of Human Genetics (2014) 59, 494–503; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.62
- 神澤ほか(2016)「礼文島船泊縄文人の核ゲノム解析」第70回日本人類学大会 (in Japanese)
- Thangaraj K, Singh L, Reddy AG, Rao VR, Sehgal SC, Underhill PA, Pierson M, Frame IG, Hagelberg E (January 2003). "Genetic affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a vanishing human population". Current Biology. 13 (2): 86–93. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(02)01336-2. PMID 12546781.
- Y-DNA Haplogroup D and its Subclades - 2014
- Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Thomas, Mark G.; Yang, Huanming; Arciero, Elena; Asan; Connell, Bruce A.; Jones, Abigail L.; Haber, Marc (2019-06-13). "A Rare Deep-Rooting D0 African Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup and Its Implications for the Expansion of Modern Humans out of Africa". Genetics: genetics.302368.2019. doi:10.1534/genetics.119.302368. ISSN 0016-6731. PMID 31196864.
- Estes, Roberta (2019-06-21). "Exciting New Y DNA Haplogroup D Discoveries!". DNAeXplained - Genetic Genealogy. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
|Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2 [χ 6]|
|L||T||K2a [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|K-M2313 [χ 10]||K2b1 [χ 11]||P [χ 12]|
|NO||S [χ 13]||M [χ 14]||P1||P2|