This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts, without removing the technical details. (November 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Possible time of origin||83,00-64,700 years ago (but estimated at likely ca. 73,200 years ago)|
|Possible place of origin||Africa|
D-A5580.2(D2, also known as D0)
|Defining mutations||CTS3946, CTS4030/Z1605|
Haplogroup D or D-CTS3946 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. Both D-CTS3946 and E lineages also exhibit the single-nucleotide polymorphism M168 which is present in all Y-chromosome haplogroups except A and B, as well as the YAP+ unique-event polymorphism, which is unique to Haplogroup DE. Subclades of haplogroup D-CTS3946 are found primarily in East Asia, though they are also found regularly with low frequency in Central Asia and Southeast Asia, and have also been found sporadically in Western Africa and Western Asia.
Haplogroup D was formerly the name of the D lineage D-M174. However, a study (Haber et al. 2019) identified a haplogroup, termed "D0", in three Nigerian samples. The "D0" haplogroup is outside M174, but shares 7 SNPs with it that E lacks. In part because of the likely deep-rooting of haplogroup "D0", as well as recently calculated early divergence times for it and it's parent haplogroup, the authors suggest an African origin for D0 and its parent haplogroup DE, as well as for the common ancestor (now known as D-CTS3946 or "D") of D0 and D-M174. According to Haber et al., D0 is a branch of the DE lineage near the DE split but on the D branch, diverging around 71,000 years ago. The authors find divergence times for DE*, E, and D0, all likely within a period of about 76,000-71,000 years ago, and a likely date for the exit of the ancestors of modern Eurasians out of Africa (and ensuing Neanderthal admixture) later around 50,300-59,400 years ago, which they argue, also supports an African origin for those haplogroups. Thus D-CTS3946 is proposed to have spread both within and outside of Africa: with one branch diverging into D0 in Africa, and another branch outside Africa eventually diverging into D-M174 (i.e. with the M174 mutation later arising from the D-CTS3946 that had spread to Asia). "D0" has also been named "D2", and former D (D-M174) has now also been termed "D1" due to this discovery.
Three other samples of D2 were also found in West Asia (also in 2019): two in Saudi Arabia and another one in Syria. The sample found in Syria is to date the most basal sample of D2. The recent evidence (as also proposed by Haber et al.) suggests that D2 is a highly divergent haplogroup close to the DE split but on the D branch and lacking the M174 mutation possessed by the other known D lineages (belonging to its sibling D-M174).
Phylogeny of the subclades
ISOGG (version: 14.151).
- DE (YAP)
|Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2 [χ 6]|
|L||T||K2a [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|K-M2313 [χ 10]||K2b1 [χ 11]||P [χ 12]|
|NO||S [χ 13]||M [χ 14]||P1||P2|
- Haber M, Jones AL, Connel BA, Asan, Arciero E, Huanming Y, Thomas MG, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C (June 2019). "A Rare Deep-Rooting D0 African Y-chromosomal Haplogroup and its Implications for the Expansion of Modern Humans Out of Africa". Genetics: genetics.302368.2019. doi:10.1534/genetics.119.302368. PMID 31196864.
- Estes, Roberta (2019-06-21). "Exciting New Y DNA Haplogroup D Discoveries!". DNAeXplained - Genetic Genealogy. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
- Y-DNA Haplogroup D and its Subclades - 2019
- Hammer MF, Karafet TM, Park H et al. (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". J. Hum. Genet. 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082.
- "D YTree". www.yfull.com. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
- Y-DNA Haplogroup D and its Subclades - 2014