|Possible time of origin||57,500–62,500;(Raghavan 2014);
45,000–55,700 BP (Karafet 2008);
43,000–56,800 BP (Hammer & Zegura 2002).
|Possible place of origin||South Asia|
|Descendants||F1, F2, F3, GHIJK|
|Defining mutations||M89/PF2746, L132.1, M213/P137/Page38, M235/Page80, P14, P133, P134, P135, P136, P138, P139, P140, P141,P142, P145, P146, P148, P149, P151, P157, P158, P159, P160, P161, P163, P166, P187, P316|
Haplogroup F, also known as F-M89 and previously as Haplogroup FT is a very common Y-chromosome haplogroup. The haplogroup and its subclades constitute over 90% of paternal lineages outside of Africa.
The vast majority of individual males with F-M89 fall into its direct descendant Haplogroup GHIJK (F1329/M3658/PF2622/YSC0001299). Apart from GHIJK, haplogroup F has four other immediate descendant subclades, all of which are rare in modern populations: the basal paragroup F-M89* (M89/PF2746), F1 (P91/P104); F2 (M427/M428) and F3 (M481).
Haplogroup GHIJK branches subsequently into two direct descendants: G (M201/PF2957) and HIJK (F929/M578/PF3494/S6397). HIJK in turn splits into H (L901/M2939) and IJK (F-L15). The descendants of Haplogroup IJK include haplogroups I, J, K, and, ultimately, several major haplogroups descended from Haplogroup K, namely: haplogroups M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, L, and T.
This megahaplogroup contains mainly lineages that are not typically found in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting that its immediate ancestor haplogroup CF may have been carried out of Africa very early in the modern human diaspora, suggesting that F-M89 appeared 38,700-55,700 years ago, probably in South Asia.
Other sources suggest that this ancient haplogroup may have first appeared in North Africa, the Levant, or the Arabian Peninsula, as much as 50,000 years ago (50,300±6500). It is sometimes believed to represent a "second-wave" of expansion out of Africa. However, the location of this lineage's first expansion and rise to prevalence appears to have been in South Asia or somewhere close to it within the extended Middle East. Most of F's descendant haplogroups appear to radiate outward from South Asia and/or the Middle East.
Some lineages derived from Haplogroup F-M89 appear to have migrated into Africa from Southwest Asia, during prehistory. Y-chromosome haplogroups associated with this hypothetical "Back to Africa" migration include J, R1b, and T.
Almost all individuals carrying F-M89 belong to subclades of GHIJK.
- F xG,H,I,J,K
F xG,H,I,J,K – that is, either basal F* (M89) or the primary subclades F1 (P91; P104), F2 (M427; M428) and F3 (M481) – is relatively rare, and the possibility of misidentification is considered to be relatively high, due to a lack of high resolution testing (especially in the past). Some cases may in fact belong to subclades of GHIJK.
While anecdotal and non-scholarly sources suggest that F xG,H,I,J,K may be present at low levels in many modern populations, ISOGG (2015) states that it has not been well studied and apparently occurs "infrequently and primarily in the Indian subcontinent". (See the discussion of F* below.)
Several samples of F xG,H,I,J,K may have been found in Bronze Age remains from Europe:
- two individuals, known as BAM 17 and BAM 26, who lived 7,850 – 7,675 years BP and were found at Alsónyék Bátaszék in Hungary, and
- DEB 20 and DEB 38, who lived about 7,000 – 7,210 years BP, and were found at the Derenburg Meerenstieg II site in Germany;
- TOLM 3, and individual who lived about 7,030 – 7,230 years BP, in the Tolna-Mözs area of Hungary, and;
- an individual known as I0411/Troc 4, who lived 7,195 – 7,080 years BP and whose remains were found in the Els Trocs cave, near Bisaurri, in the Spanish Pyrenees – haplogroups G, I1, I2a, J, L1b2, T, O2b, Q1a2a, Q1b1, R1a1a and R1b1c2 were ruled out.
F xG,H,I,J,K has also been reported among modern men originating in Indonesia. One study, which did not screen samples for other subclades of haplogroup F (including some clades of haplogroup GHIJK), found that men with the SNP P14/PF2704, which is equivalent to M89, comprise 1.8% of men in West Timor, 1.5% of Flores 5.4% of Lembata 2.3% of Sulawesi and 0.2% in Sumatra.
Basal F-M89* has been reported among 5.2% of males in India. A regional breakdown was provided by Chiaroni et al (2009): 10% in South India; 8% in Central India; about 1.0% in North India and Western India, as well as 5% in Pakistan; 10% in Sri Lanka; >4% among the Tamang people of Nepal; 2% in Borneo and Java; 4-5% in Sulawesi and Lembata.
More controversial examples, due possibly to recent admixture include:
- low levels in Polynesia;
- some individuals among Seminole and Boruca Native Americans;
- rare cases in the Netherlands, and;
- two cases in Portugal. European cases may well be a remnant of 15th and 16th century contact with India.
- F1 (P91)
- F2 (M427)
F2 Y-chromosomes have been found to be particularly common among the Kucong and/or Yellow Lahu minorities in South China and adjoining countries in mainland Southeast Asia. F2 is outside HIJK, but it is possible that it falls inside GHIJK.
- F3 (M481)
The newly defined and rare subclade F3 (M481; previously F5) has been found in India and Nepal, among the Tharu people and in Andhra Pradesh. F-M481 should not be confused with Haplogroup H2 (L279, L281, L284, L285, L286, M282, P96), which was previously misclassified under F-M89, as "F3".
- Haplogroup GHIJK
In Y-chromosome phylogenetics, subclades are the branches of haplogroups. These subclades are also defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or unique event polymorphisms (UEPs).
There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup F-M89. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) also provides an amateur tree.
The Genomic Research Center draft tree
he Genomic Research Center's draft tree for haplogroup F-M89 is as follows. (Only the first three levels of subclades are shown.)
- F-M89 P14, M89, M213, P133, P134, P135, P136, P138, P139, P140, P141, P142, P145, P146, P148, P149, P151, P157, P158, P159, P160, P161, P163, P166, P187, P316, L132.1, L313, L498
- F-P91 P91, P104
- F-M427 M427, M428
- F-P96 P96, M282, L279, L281, L284, L285, L286
- F-L280 L280
- G-M201 M201, P257, L116, L154, L204, L240, L269, L402, L605, L769, L770, L836, L837, L1258, U2, U3, U6, U7, U12, U17, U20, U21, U23, U33
- H-M69 M69, M370, PAGES00049
- IJK L15, L16
This is the official scientific tree produced by the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). The last major update was in 2008. Subsequent updates have been quarterly and biannual. The current version is a revision of the 2010 update.
- F (L132.1, M89/PF2746).
- F1 (P91, P104)
- F2 (M427, M428)
- F3 (M481)
- Macrohaplogroup GHIJK (F1329/M3658/PF2622/YSC0001299).
- F (L132.1, M89/PF2746).
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.
|YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)||(α)||(β)||(γ)||(δ)||(ε)||(ζ)||(η)||YCC 2002 (Longhand)||YCC 2005 (Longhand)||YCC 2008 (Longhand)||YCC 2010r (Longhand)||ISOGG 2006||ISOGG 2007||ISOGG 2008||ISOGG 2009||ISOGG 2010||ISOGG 2011||ISOGG 2012|
- Archaeogenetics of the Near East
- Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups
- Genetic Genealogy
- Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
- Molecular Phylogeny
- Y-chromosomal Aaron
- Y-chromosome haplogroups by populations
- Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic groups
- Y-DNA haplogroups in South Asian populations
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2|
|L||T||NO [χ 6]||K2b [χ 7]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 8]|
|N||O||K2b1 [χ 9]||P|
|M||S [χ 10]||Q||R|
- Estimated time that F split from C = 70,000–75,000 BP; estimated time when G split from HIJK = 45,000-50,000 M. Raghavan et. al., 2014, "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans", Nature, no. 505 (2 January), pp. 87–91.
- Karafet, Tatiana; et al. (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274.
- Hammer, M.F.; Zegura, S.L. (2002). "The human Y chromosome haplogroup tree: Nomenclature and phylogeography of its major divisions". Annual Review of Anthropology 31: 303–321. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.31.040402.085413. (subscription required (. ))
- Kivisild et al 2003, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations
- Sengupta et al 2005, Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists
- Sanghamitra Sahoo et al 2006, A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios
- Arunkumar et al 2012
- ISOGG, 2015, Y-DNA Haplogroup F and its Subclades - 2015 (8 September 2015).
- Sengupta, Sanghamitra; et al. (2006). "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists". The American Journal of Human Genetics 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607.
- Zhong et al, (2011) Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route, Mol Biol Evol January 1, 2011 vol. 28 no. 1 717-727, See Tables.
- Yousif, Hisham; Eltayeb, Muntaser. "Genetic Patterns of Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation, with Implications to the Peopling of the Sudan" (PDF). University of Khartoum. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Balaresque et al (2015), Y-chromosome descent clusters and male differential reproductive success: young lineage expansions dominate Asian pastoral nomadic populations, Supplementary Table 2
- Jean Manco, 2016, DNA from the European Neolithic (1 March 2016).
- Chiaroni, Jacques; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L. (1 December 2009). "Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (48): 20174–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910803106. PMC 2787129. PMID 19920170.
- "Nature Publishing Group: Error Page" (PDF). nature.com.
- "Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific".
- Phillip Edward Melton, 2008, Genetic History and Pre-Columbian Diaspora of Chibchan Speaking Populations: Molecular Genetic Evidence; Ann Arbor, Michigan; ProQuest, p. 29.
- Black, M.L.; Wise, C.A.; Wang, W.; Bittles, A.H. (June 2006). "Combining Genetics and Population History in the Study of Ethnic Diversity in the People's Republic of China". Human Biology 78 (3): 277–293. doi:10.1353/hub.2006.0041. PMID 17216801. (subscription required (. ))
- S. Fornarino et al., "Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation", BMC Evol Biol 2009; no. 9: p. 154. (15 September 2015).