|Possible time of origin||48,000 years BP (45,000-55,700)  50,300±6500 Estimated time that F split from C (70,000-75,000) estimated time when G split from HIJK (45,000-50,000) |
|Possible place of origin||South Asia|
|Descendants||F-89*, F1, F2, F3, GHIJK|
|Defining mutations||M89/PF2746, L132.1, M213/P137/Page38, M235/Page80, P14, P133, P134, P135, P136, P138, P139, P140, P141,P142, P145, P146, P148, P149, P151, P157, P158, P159, P160, P161, P163, P166, P187, P316|
Haplogroup F, also known as F-M89 and, previously, as Haplogroup FT is a very common Y-chromosome haplogroup. This haplogroup and its subclades contain more than 90% of the world's existing non-African male population.
- 1 Structure
- 2 Origins
- 3 Distribution
- 4 Phylogenetics
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The vast majority of individual males with F-M89 fall into its direct descendant Haplogroup GHIJK (F1329/M3658/PF2622/YSC0001299). Apart from GHIJK, Haplogroup F has four other direct descendants, all of which are rare in modern populations: the basal descendant F-M89* (M89/PF2746), F1 (P91/P104); F2 (M427/M428) and F3 (M481).
Haplogroup GHIJK branches subsequently into two direct descendants: G (M201/PF2957) and HIJK (F929/M578/PF3494/S6397). HIJK in turn splits into H (L901/M2939) and IJK (F-L15). The descendants of Haplogroup IJK include aplogroups I, J, K, and, ultimately, several major haplogroups descended from Haplogroup K, namely: haplogroups M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, L, and T.
This megahaplogroup contains mainly lineages that are not typically found in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting that its ancestral haplogroup CF may have been carried out of Africa very early in the modern human diaspora, and F-M89 may have appeared 48,000 (38,700-55,700) years ago, probably in South Asia.
F is found in the Dravidian, Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan and Tibeto-Burman populations in China, Nepal and India, and the minor sub-groups of F-M89 are also observed in Siberia by Balanovsk et al. (2008), and in Indonesia by Hammer et al. (2006). F*(xG,H,I,J,K) is also found among Turkic people in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, which is reported in the genetic study of Balaresque et al. (2015).
Other sources mention that this ancient haplogroup may have first appeared in North Africa, the Levant, or the Arabian Peninsula as much as 50,000 years ago (50,300±6500). It is sometimes believed to represent a "second-wave" of expansion out of Africa. However, the location of this lineage's first expansion and rise to prevalence appears to have been in South Asia or somewhere close to it within the extended Middle East. All of Haplogroup F's descendant haplogroups also show a pattern of radiation from South Asia (haplogroups H, F* and K) or the Middle East (haplogroups G and IJ).
Several lineages derived from Haplogroup F-M89 appear to have migrated into Africa from a homeland in Southwest Asia sometime during prehistory. Y-chromosome haplogroups associated with this hypothetical "Back to Africa" migration include J, R1b, and T.
Instances of individuals belonging to FxGHIJK – basal F* (M89), or its subclades F1 (P91; P104), F2 (M427; M428) and F3 (M481) – are relatively rare and poorly-understood. The possibility of misidentification is considered to be relatively high, due to a lack of high resolution testing and some cases may in fact belong to GHIJK.
F*-M89 is found 5.2% in India It is possible that an as-yet unnamed subclade of F* has been identified in Indonesia. Men with F-P14* (P14/PF2704) comprise 1.8% of men in West Timor, 1.5% of Flores 5.4% of Lembata 2.3% of Sulawesi and 0.2% in Sumatra. However, these Indonesian cases were not examined for other clades of haplogroup F or even the most divergent types of haplogroup H, meaning that the individuals concerned may instead belong to H or another clade of haplogroup F.
- F1 (P91)
|This section requires expansion. (December 2012)|
- F2 (M427)
|This section requires expansion. (December 2012)|
F2 Y-chromosomes have been found to be particularly common among the Kucong and/or Yellow Lahu minorities in South China and adjoining countries in mainland Southeast Asia. F2 is outside of HIJK, but it is unknown whether it falls inside of GHIJK or is basal to it.
- F3 (M481)
The newly defined and rare subclade F3 (M481; previously F5) has been found in India and Nepal, among the Tharu people and in Andhra Pradesh. F-M481 should not be confused with Haplogroup H2 (L279, L281, L284, L285, L286, M282, P96), which was previously misclassified under F-M89, as "F3".
|This section requires expansion. (September 2015)|
- Haplogroup GHIJK
In Y-chromosome phylogenetics, subclades are the branches of haplogroups. These subclades are also defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or unique event polymorphisms (UEPs).
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.
|YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)||(α)||(β)||(γ)||(δ)||(ε)||(ζ)||(η)||YCC 2002 (Longhand)||YCC 2005 (Longhand)||YCC 2008 (Longhand)||YCC 2010r (Longhand)||ISOGG 2006||ISOGG 2007||ISOGG 2008||ISOGG 2009||ISOGG 2010||ISOGG 2011||ISOGG 2012|
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2013)|
There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup F-M89. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) also provides an amateur tree.
The Genomic Research Center Draft Tree (ytree.ftdna.com)
This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's Draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup F-M89 (Krahn & FTDNA 2013)[clarification needed]. For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.
- F-M89 P14, M89, M213, P133, P134, P135, P136, P138, P139, P140, P141, P142, P145, P146, P148, P149, P151, P157, P158, P159, P160, P161, P163, P166, P187, P316, L132.1, L313, L498
- F-P91 P91, P104
- F-M427 M427, M428
- F-P96 P96, M282, L279, L281, L284, L285, L286
- F-L280 L280
- G-M201 M201, P257, L116, L154, L204, L240, L269, L402, L605, L769, L770, L836, L837, L1258, U2, U3, U6, U7, U12, U17, U20, U21, U23, U33
- H-M69 M69, M370, PAGES00049
- IJK L15, L16
The Y-Chromosome Consortium tree
This is the official scientific tree produced by the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). The last major update was in 2008. Subsequent updates have been quarterly and biannual. The current version is a revision of the 2010 update.
|This section requires expansion. (January 2013)|
The ISOGG Tree
- F (L132.1, M89/PF2746). F* is found at: 10% in southern India; 8% in central India; in northern and western India about 1%; in Pakistan at 5%; in Sri Lanka at 10%; in Nepal (Tamang) at >4%; in Borneo and Java at 2%; Sulawesi and Lembata 4-5%. More controversial examples, due possibly to recent admixture include: low levels in Polynesia; some individuals among Seminole Native Americans and; rare cases in the Netherlands.
- Archaeogenetics of the Near East
- Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups
- Genetic Genealogy
- Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
- Molecular Phylogeny
- Y-chromosomal Aaron
- Y-chromosome haplogroups by populations
- Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic groups
- Y-DNA haplogroups in South Asian populations
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups [n 1] [n 2]|
|A00||A0-T [n 3]|
|I||J||LT [n 5]||K2|
|L||T||NO [n 6]||K2b [n 7]||K2c||K2d||K2e [n 8]|
|N||O||K2b1 [n 9]||P|
- Karafet, Tatiana; et al. (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274.
- Hammer, M.F.; Zegura, S.L. (2002). "The human Y chromosome haplogroup tree: Nomenclature and phylogeography of its major divisions". Annual Review of Anthropology 31: 303–321. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.31.040402.085413. (subscription required (. ))
- Kivisild et al 2003, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations
- Sengupta et al 2005, Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists
- Sanghamitra Sahoo et al 2006, A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios
- Arunkumar et al 2012, 
- ISOGG, 2015, Y-DNA Haplogroup F and its Subclades - 2015 (8 September 2015).
- Sengupta, Sanghamitra; et al. (2006). "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists". The American Journal of Human Genetics 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607.
- Zhong et al, (2011) Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route, Mol Biol Evol January 1, 2011 vol. 28 no. 1 717-727, See Tables.
- Balaresque et al (2015), Y-chromosome descent clusters and male differential reproductive success: young lineage expansions dominate Asian pastoral nomadic populations, Supplementary Table 2
- "Nature Publishing Group: Error Page" (PDF). nature.com.
- Black, M.L.; Wise, C.A.; Wang, W.; Bittles, A.H. (June 2006). "Combining Genetics and Population History in the Study of Ethnic Diversity in the People's Republic of China". Human Biology 78 (3): 277–293. doi:10.1353/hub.2006.0041. PMID 17216801. (subscription required (. ))
- S. Fornarino et al., "Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation", BMC Evol Biol 2009; no. 9: p. 154. (15 September 2015).
- Chiaroni, Jacques; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L. (1 December 2009). "Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (48): 20174–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910803106. PMC 2787129. PMID 19920170.
- "Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific".