Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) by country
None of the sampling done by research studies shown here would qualify as true random sampling, and thus any percentages of haplogroup G provided country by country are only rough approximations of what would be found in the full population. There is evidence, however, that most authors tried to obtain samples primarily from persons with histories of long residences in the locale sampled.
- 1 Africa
- 2 Anatolia, the Levant and Arabian Peninsula
- 3 Caucasus Mountains Region
- 4 Asia
- 5 Europe
- 5.1 Albania
- 5.2 Austria
- 5.3 Belgium
- 5.4 Belarus
- 5.5 Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 5.6 Bulgaria
- 5.7 Croatia
- 5.8 Czech Republic
- 5.9 Denmark
- 5.10 Estonia
- 5.11 Finland
- 5.12 France
- 5.13 Germany
- 5.14 Greece
- 5.15 Greenland
- 5.16 Hungary
- 5.17 Iceland
- 5.18 Ireland
- 5.19 Italy
- 5.20 Kosovo
- 5.21 Latvia
- 5.22 Lithuania
- 5.23 Macedonia
- 5.24 Malta
- 5.25 Moldova
- 5.26 Netherlands
- 5.27 Norway
- 5.28 Poland
- 5.29 Portugal
- 5.30 Romania
- 5.31 Russian Federation [European portion]
- 5.32 Serbia
- 5.33 Slovenia
- 5.34 Spain
- 5.35 Sweden
- 5.36 Switzerland
- 5.37 United Kingdom
- 5.38 Ukraine
- 6 Australia & Pacific Islands
- 7 North America and the Caribbean
- 8 South America
- 9 References
- 10 See also
In 46 samples taken in Algeria in a 2008 study, 2% were found to be G. SNP testing was not done, but this one sample was predicted G based on haplotype. When originally tested for SNPs, G was not an available test. In a 2011 study, none of 20 samples from Berber Mozabites in Algeria were G.
Of 147 samples from among Egyptians in Egypt (2004), 9% were G. And in a 2009 study, among 116 Egyptians, 6.9% were G. In a study of 35 samples from oasis el-Hayez in the western Egyptian desert area, none were G.
A survey of the population of Libya based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but a close approximation for the population in Tripoli in the western part of the country based on the STR markers of 63 samples from there in the YHRD database indicates 7.9% are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. Of 20 Jews of Libya, 10% were found to be G. These men seemingly were then living in Israel.
In another study 1% of 312 samples in Morocco were G.
Another study gathered samples only from hamlets in Morocco's Azgour Valley, where none of 33 samples were determined G. These hamlets were selected because they were felt to be typically Berber in composition.
A study of 20 Moroccan Jews found 30% were G. The tested men were then apparently living in Israel. Another study of Jewish men found 19.3% of 83 Jewish men from Morocco belonged to haplogroup G.
In a 2011 study, in South Africa no G was found among 8 African men. In a 2010 study, no G found in South Africa among 343 southeastern Bantu speakers or 183 Khoe-San speakers, but 5.7% of 157 South African whites were G.
Anatolia, the Levant and Arabian Peninsula
Among the Gnostic Druze, G was found in 4% of 37 samples on the Golan Heights; in 14% of 183 samples in the Galilee; and in 12% of 35 samples in the Carmel. Another study which sampled 20 Druze men apparently living in Israel, none had the G mutation.
Among Palestinians apparently living in Israel, 75% of 20 samples were found to be G2a (P15+). In the same study, among Samaritans in Israel none of 12 samples was G. In the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel (CEPH-HDGP) "Central Israel" Palestinian sample (n=17), 59% (10) were G.
A study of 329 Druze men found 12.5% were haplogroup G. This study was not confined to Israel, but was probably mostly Israeli.
Among 322 samples from Lebanon in a 2010 study, 7.7% were G. Within the religious groups, 7.1% of 195 Catholic Maronites were G, 29.4% of 17 Greek Catholics, 5% of 60 Greek Orthodox, 7.6% of 26 Sunni Muslims, 6.2% of 16 Shiite Muslims and 0% of 9 Druze men.
Syrian Arab Republic
Among 523 samples from Turkey in a 2004 study, 9.2% were G. The G1/G1a samples were found only among the northeastern Turkey samples. The single G2b* was found in Kars Province in the far northeast. Of the 9.2% G total, the G samples were found in each of the following subgroups: (a) G2b*(M377+ M283-) n=1; (b) G1* (M342+) n=1; (c) G1a (P20+) n=4; (d) G2a* (P15+) n=37; (e) G2a1 (P16+) n=5; and (f) G2b (M286+) n=1. A 2011 study retested the same samples and found that within those listed G2a* (P15+) men, 10 were G2a3a (M406)
A 2012 study that sampled ethnic Armenians in eastern Turkey found no G1 (M285) among 207 men. But 2% of 104 samples at Sasun were G2a1 (P16) with no P16 found at Lake Van. In contrast, G2a (P15) but not G2a1 was found in 8% of Lake Van and 11% of Sasun men.
A 2008 doctoral dissertation that sampled 140 men in four towns in central Turkey found 4 of 49 men at "town 1" were G2, 1 of 30 at "town 2", and none of 31 and 30 men respectively at "town 3" and "town 4" were G2. However, the author only applied prediction software to STR samples to determine the haplogroups. He concluded that the genetic diversity found suggests "multiple ancestral populations contributed to the genetic make-up of the area." One G2 man had known origins in northeastern Turkey.
United Arab Emirates
In another study among 20 Jewish Yemenis, 5% were G2a (P15+) and another 5% were G1 (M285+). These men were apparently then living in Israel. A 2010 study of Jewish men found 0% of 74 Jewish men from Yemen were haplogroup G.
Caucasus Mountains Region
Among 100 samples taken in Armenia for a 2003 study, 11% were G. And a 2011 study. found 11% of 57 Armenian samples were G1 and 11% G2a. A 2012 study found that none of 206 Armenian samples were G2a1 (P16), but 2% of 110 men in the Ararat Valley in the west and 1% of 96 men at Gardman in the east were G1 (M285). Much more of G2a (P15) but not G2a1 was found, totalling 9% of the Ararat Valley men and 4.5% of Gardman men.
A 2010 study that concentrated on Jewish men found 21% of 57 Jewish men from Armenia were haplogroup G. Note that Jews in Armenia are mostly recent Askenazi and Georgian.
A study that sampled Jews from Azerbaijan found 16% of 57 men were haplogroup G.
Among 61 samples taken in Georgia (2001), 30% were G. Among 77 samples taken in Georgia (2003), 31% were G. Georgia has the highest percentage of G among the general population recorded in any country. Among 66 samples taken in Georgia (2009), 31.6% were G2a (P15+). Of this 31.6% figure, 1.5% were G2a3a (M406+), and the remainder were unspecified other types of G2a.
Most of states worldwide recognize Abkhazia and South Ossetia as part of Georgia. In Abkhazia 55% of 60 samples were found to be G as listed in a 2009 presentation by Khadizhat Dibirova. In a 2011 study, 47% of 162 Abkhazians were found G2a. In South Ossetia 48% of 10 samples were found G2a. G1 was absent from both locations. Another 2011 study found among 58 Abkhazians that 12% were G2a1a (P18), 21% were G2a3b1 (P303) and 24% other G2a (P15)
In a study of Jewish men, 4.8% of 62 Jewish men from Georgia were haplogroup G.
Russian Federation (Caucasus Region)
|North Ossetia||total N||% G-M201||% G2a-P15||% G2a1-P16||% G2a1a-P18||% G2a3b1-P303||source||year|
The G concentrations at Alagir and Digora represent the highest reported concentrations of G in any locale in the world. Though not stated in the 2004 studies, most of these were likely typical G2a1a type of G based on corresponding STR marker values.
|n.w. Caucasus people||total N||% G-M201||% G2a-P15||% G2a1-P16||% G2a1a-P18||% G2a3b1-P303||source||year|
The reported high G concentration among the Shapsugs of the far northwestern Caucasus represents the highest percentage of G among any group worldwide. This is the highest percentage of G in a single population in the world – slightly higher than among the Madjars of Kazakhstan.
|n.e. Caucasus people||total N||% G-M201||% G2a-P15||% G2a1-P16||% G2a1a-P18||% G2a3b1-P303||source||year|
|Chechen (Chechnya & Ingushetia)||178||6%||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||||2009|
|Terek Cossacks||86||54%||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||||2009|
Note: The study by Yunusbaev (2006) showed the tiny population of Northeast Caucasian language family Andic-speaking Chamalal to be 19% (N=5/27) G2a-P15, and all of this was an unknown sub-clade of G2a-P15 listed as "G2c" (currently classified as G2b)which was not defined in 2006 when this study was conducted (no SNP testing was done for true G2b-M377). Since this study tested only G-M201 and G2a-P15, it is possible that this sub-clade may actually be G2a1-P16, since a number of the likely G haplotypes from Daghestan are actually G2a1-P16. He also reported that 12% (N=76) of the Kumyks tested were G – with that figure composed of 11% G2a (P15+) and 1% (1/76) listed as "G2c", which again at the time a sub-clade of G2a-P15, likely G2a1-P16).
In these Russian tablulations above (1) G2a3a-M406 man among the Avars and (1) G1-M285 man each found among Chechens and Adyghe were omitted to simplify the charts. Also, the 2011 Balanovsky study found 12% G2a3a-M406 among the Lezgins which are not included in the chart entry for them.
These percentages of G were found in the following number of samples from China in a 2006 study: (a) The Uyghurs who live primarily in far northwestern China 4.5% of 67. (b) The northern Han 2.3% of 44. (c) The southern Han 0% of 40. (d) Tibet 0% of 105. (e) The Zhuang who live in southern China or Vietnam, 0% of 20. (f) The Yao of southern China 0% of 60. (g) In Manchuria or among the Manchus in northeastern China, 0% of 93. (h) The Evenks who live principally along the border of northeastern China 0% of 31. (i) The Oroqen of northeastern China 0% of 22. (j) The Yi who live principally in southern China and who speak a Burmese language 0% of 43. (k) The Tujia of central China, 0% of 47.
A 2005 study that sampled five southern Chinese groups found the following percentages of G: (1) The Han less than 1% G in 166 samples. (2) The Miao 0% of 58. (3) The She 0% of 51. (4) The Tujia 0% of 49. (5) The Yao 0% of 60.
Another 2007 study that sampled Tibet found 0% G among 156 samples
A 2010 study of northwestern China found G (M201) in 2% of 41 Kazakhs; 2% of 31 Tajikes; and 2% of 23 Ozbeks. No G was found among Tu, Xibo, Mongolian, Tataer, Ughur, Yugu, Kirghiz, Russ, Dongxiang, Bao'an and Salar persons.
A 2011 study found only a few G samples among hundreds of samples around China of the majority Han population. The Han locales with single G samples were Liaoning in the northeast with one G2b (M377) man, Henan in the east central area with one G2a1 (P16) and Henan again with one G2a (P15) man not M286 or P16. This same study found 2% of Uyghur were G2a (P15) but not M286 or P16. These were all in Xinjiang in the northwest. And among 62 Hui men from Ningxia in the north central area, 1.6% were G1 and 1.6% were G2a (P15) but not P16 or M286. No G at all found among Hui elsewhere or in Tibet (262 samples) or among the Xibe, Hazak, Evenks, Bulang, Wa, Jing, Dai, Zhuang, Dong, Mulao, Buyi, Li, Maonan, Shui, Gelao, Miao, Yao, She, Bai, Hani, Jingpo, Lahu, Lisu Naxi, Yi, Tujia, Hui, Man or Kyrgyz men sampled at various locations.
A study that sampled 1052 men within 25 diverse populations in India, only one man was G. This person was included in the samples labeled Kash. Pandit.
A 2006 study that sampled 1074 men within 77 diverse Indian populations found only one man in central India who was G.
Another study from 2009 found in 560 samples from northern India that 4% were G. The authors found no G among 96 Bhargavas or 88 Chaturvedis (both Brahmins), but 1.7% of 118 other Brahmins, 9.7% of 154 Shia and 5.8% of 104 Sunni samples were G.
In a 2006 study of 728 Indian samples taken from among 36 populations and 18 castes, 1.2% were G. These were all G2a (P15+) men. In this study many of the G2a men were contained within the samples of the Dravidian upper caste where G persons comprised 11.9% of 59 samples.
In a 2010 study of Muslims in India, in Uttar Pradesh in n. India 2.3% of 129 Indian Sunni men were G as were 8% of 161 Indian Shia there. In Andhra Pradesh in southern India, 8% of 25 Iranian Shia were G. Among the Dawoodi Bohra of west and south India, no G was found in 76 samples, as was the case among Mappla of southern India.
In a 2009 study of 621 samples from various components of the Indian caste system, G was found in 10.9% of 64 Gujarat Brahmins in the west and 3.3% there among 32 Maharashtra Brahmins and none among Gujarat Bhils. In the east, 11.1% of 27 Bihar Paswan were G, but none found among Bihar Brahmins and West Bengal Brahmins. In the central area, no G found among Uttar Pradesh Kols and Gonds, and among Madhya Pradesh Brahmins, Gonds and Saharia. In the north, 3.6% of 49 Punjab Brahmins were G and 2% of 51 J&K Kashmiri Pandists, but none found among J&K Kashmir Gujars or among Uttar Pradesh or Himachal Brahmins.
Of 33 samples taken in northern Iran, 15.2% were G. Of these 5 samples, 4 were G2a (P15+). And 12.8% of 117 samples from the south of that country were G. In this latter location the percentage of G1 almost equaled the G2a percentage. The authors did not provide information about locations sampled.
Of 91 samples taken at unstated location(s) in northern Iran (2009), 2.2% were G.
In a study of Jewish men, there were no haplogroup G men among 49 men with Iranian origins.
In another study, among 23 samples taken in Japan, none were G.
A study of the Kazakh Madzhars (Madjars) in the Torgay area of Kazakhstan, 86.7% of 45 samples were G. This is the highest concentration of G reported anywhere in the world so far. All the samples were G1.
A limited study has found Haplogroup G-M285 (G1) among four out of five Argyns sampled in central Kazakhstan. The Argyns, who were previously known as the Basmyl, were first documented in the 6th century, residing in what is now the Xinjiang region of China.
Of 638 samples taken in Pakistan, 2.7% were G. This same study found the percentage of G among 96 samples from Pakistani Pathans was 11.5%; among 44 samples from Kalash men was 18.1% and among 97 samples from Burusho men was 1% – all groups of northern Pakistan.
Among 176 Pakistani samples gathered in another study, G2a (P15+) men represented 4.6% of the total. G1 (M285+) men represented 0.6%, and G2b (M377+) men were 1.1%.
Papua New Guinea
In 46 samples taken in Papua New Guinea (2006), 0% were G.
In another study (2008) 19 samples taken on the island of New Britain none were found to be G, and none of 52 samples in the Trobriand Islands were G. In this same study, on the mainland of Papua New Guinea none of 197 samples were listed as G.
Russian Federation [Asian portion]
In a 2006 study, in Russia among 98 Altai samples, 1% were G. The Altai or Altay are a Turkic group overlapping Mongolia and south central Russia. In this same study among the Buryats, a Mongol people who live principally just north of Mongolia, 1.2% of 81 samples were G, and no G at all was found among 31 samples from the Evens who live principally in the far northeastern area of Russia.
In another 2006 study concentrating on the southern Siberian border region, going from west to east: (a) Of 92 samples from the Turkic Altaian-Kizhi, 1.1% G. (b) Of 47 samples from the Teleuts, 0% G. (c) Of 51 samples from the Turkic Shors 0% G. (d) Of 53 samples from the Turkic Khakassians, 0% G. (e) Of 113 samples from the Mongolized Turkic Tuvinians, 0.9% G. (f) Of 36 samples from the Turkic Todjins, 0% G. (g) Of 53 samples from the Turkic Tofalars, 0% G. (g) Of 34 samples from Sojots, 2.9% G. (h) Of 238 samples from the Mongol Buryats, 0.4% G. Much farther to the north among 50 Evenks, 0% G.
Another 2006 study covered primarily the northeastern area of Siberia where Yakuts and Yakut-speaking Evenks live. The authors did not test for G, but the report suggests the men all belonged instead to the haplogroups shown in the report.
Among 48 samples taken among Taiwanese aboriginals, none were G.
A study of 15 Jewish men from Uzbekistan found 0% were haplogroup G. This same study, however, referred to a mixture of studies in which 22% of other Uzbek Jewish men samples belonged to haplogroup G.
Among 55 samples taken in Albania in a 2009 study, 1.8% were G2a (P15+). None were G2a3a (M406+). In a 2010 study, no G was found among sampled Gabel and Jevg men, but 1.2% of Gheg and 3.3% of Tosk were G (M201+).
A survey of the general population of Austria based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of samples from there in the YHRD database indicates 7.0% (n=16) of 230 samples in the Tyrol and none of 66 samples from Vienna and 1.5% (n=1) at Graz are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. Several additional samples are borderline for being G.
A 2010 study of DNA Project Oud-Hertgodom Brabant found that 3.6% of 893 samples were haplogroup G2a among those with eastern Belgian ancestry. In that same year a study of 477 Brabant men found the following G percentages in these locations: North Brabant 3.1%, Antwerp 2.8%, Campine 2.6%, Mechelen 4.8% and Flemish Brabant 3.7%.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Among 81 Serbs in Bosnia, 1.2% were found to be G2a (P15+), and among 90 Croats in Bosnia none were G. And in this same study among 84 Bosnians 3.6% were G2a (P15+). In none of these groups was any G2a3a (M406+) found.
In the big sample of 808 Bulgarians of Karachanak 4.6% are G2a
Among 89 samples taken in Croatia in a 2009 study, 1.1% were G2a (P15+). In this same study, 29 samples were taken separately in the far eastern city of Osijek, and 13.8% were G2a (P15+). The G2a samples were also tested for G2a3a (M406), and none was found.
In another study from 2005, among 108 samples from 5 Croatian mainland locations, 0.9% were G.
In yet another study from 2003, among 99 samples on the Croatian mainland, less than 1% were G. On the island of Krk, among 74 samples, none were G; on the island of Brač 6% of 49 samples were G; on the island of Korčula, 10.4% of 134 samples were G; and 1.1% of 91 samples on the island of Hvar were G.
In another study, among 75 samples from Czechs, 4.0% were G2a (P15+). None of these was G2a3a (M406+)
A survey of the general population of Denmark based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of 247 samples from there in the YHRD database indicates 1.2% (n=3) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. There are several additional samples that might be G.
A survey of the general population of Estonia based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of 133 samples from Tartu in the YHRD database indicates none are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. Several additional samples are borderline for being G.
A survey of the general population of Finland based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of 399 samples from there in the YHRD database indicates 0.5% (n=2) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor.
An approximation method based on use of STR markers from 109 samples from Paris in the YHRD database indicates 1.8% (n=2) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. And in 99 similar samples from Strasbourg in the far northeast, 4% (n=4) are G.
A survey of the general population of Germany based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation method based on STR markers in samples in the YHRD database using the Athey haplogroup predictor indicates the following G percentages among samples from these German cities: (a) Freiburg in the southwest, 433 samples of which 4.4% (n=19) are G; (b) Munich in the southeast, 281 samples of which 5.3% (n=15) are G; (c) Chemnitz in the northeast. 820 samples of which 3.8% (n=31) are G.
In another study (2009) 3.3% of 92 Greek samples were G. This 3.3% was composed of 1.1% G2a3a (M406+) and the remainder other types of G2a.
In a 2011 study, among 57 men at Nea Nikomedeia 4% were G with none G2a3a (M406+) and among 57 at Sesklo/Dimini 4% were G2a3a and additional unspecified G men were 2%. And on the Peloponnese, of 57 men in the area of Lerna/Franchtihi Cave, 4% were G2a3a and 2% other G.
Another study that focused on Crete (2007), found 7.7% of 104 samples in the central part of the island were G, and that 6.3% of 64 samples on the eastern end were G.
A survey of the general population of Greenland based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of 342 samples from there in the YHRD database indicates none are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor.
In another study, among 53 samples from Hungary, 1.9% were G2a (P15+). None of these were G2a3a (M406+)
A survey of the general population of Iceland based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of 100 samples from there in the YHRD database indicates none are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor.
Among 796 samples taken in all areas of Ireland, none were G. The actual figure in the population is certainly not zero because there are dozens of samples from Irish ancestry persons in various databases.
In a large 2007 study of 11 regions of peninsular Italy and Elba, 10.7% of 699 samples were G. The authors did not sample the northwestern Milan area and the high mountains of the central north. The Val Badia samples in the far northeast of Italy had an aytpical low 3% of 34 samples. The other areas all ranged 7% to 15% G. Elba had 11% of 95 samples as G.
In another 202 samples taken in Sardinia 13.9% were G. The authors noted the percentage at the sampled sites in the north of the island were 10.4% G, in the central-eastern area 11.1% but only 6.5% in the southwestern area.
And another Sardinian study of 930 males found 12.6% as G. Among a subgroup of these 930 where geographical information was available, the percentage on the southeastern coast was 13.9%; on the northeastern coast 20.9% and 13.9% in the inland central area. This study indicated an unusual percentage of G men there with STR marker value of 23 at DYS390—a percentage not seen in continental Europe where the 23 value is uncommon.
In another Sardinian study confined to towns in the northern sector of the island, 14% of 100 samples were all found to be G2a (P15+) based only on a probability calculation. The G2 category as represented by P15 became G2a in the period in which this study was conducted. The men were predicted just "G2" in the study. But P15 (now G2a) was probably the intended category.
A study that sampled only northeastern Italy found 11.3% G2a (P15+) among 67 samples. None of these were G2a3a (M406+).
A study that concentrated on 19 upland areas in the Marches region of central Italy found 7.4% G among 162 samples.
A study that concentrated on Sicily found among 236 samples 5.9% were G. This 5.9% figure was divided into 5.5% G2a (P15+) and the remainder other types of G. There were notable high G2a percentages in Caccamo (25% of 16 samples), in Troina (13.3% of 30 samples) and in Sciacca (10.7% of 27 samples).
A survey of the general population of Latvia based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of 145 samples from Riga in the YHRD database indicates none are definitively G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. Several samples are possibly G.
A survey of the general population of Lithuania based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of 157 samples from Vilnius in the YHRD database indicates 1.3% (n=2) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. One additional sample is borderline for being G.
In a study of Greeks in Macedonia 1.8% of 57 samples were found to be G2a3a (M406+). In this same study, a separate sampling of Albanians in Macedonia, 1.6% of 64 samples were G2a (P15+) but not G2a3a (M406+).
A survey of the general population of the Netherlands based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of 211 samples from there in the YHRD database indicates 4.3% (n=9) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor.
A survey of the general population of Norway based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of 230 samples from there in the YHRD database indicates 1.3% (n=3) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. Several additional samples are borderline for being G.
Additional information is available in the form of approximations based on the Polish STR-marker samples in the YHRD database. The G samples were identified using the Athey haplogroup predictor. Among 182 samples taken in the general population at Białystok in the northeast, 0.5% (n=1) were G. At this same locale among Belarusians 0.6% (n=1) of 157 samples were G; among 129 Old Believers none were G; among 124 Tatars 0.8% (n=1) were G. In the northwest at Szczecin among 105 samples 1% (n=1) was G. In the south at Krakow among 207 samples, 0.5% (n=1) were G. In the southeast at Lublin among 246 samples, 0.5% (n=1) were G.
In a 2004 study, among 109 samples taken in northern Portugal, 7.3% were G. In a 2005 study, 5.5% of 657 Portuguese men at 18 locations were G. The highest percentage was recorded in Évora in the east central area (29 samples), and at the other extreme none found at Viseu (30 samples) and Beja (8 samples), north and south respectively of the other town.
In a 2005 Portuguese study that also included the Atlantic islands, 3.1% of samples in Madeira were G, and 8.3% of 121 samples from the Azores were G. In northern Portugal, 5% of 101 samples were G; in central Portugal 7.8% of 102 samples were G; and 7% of 100 samples in southern Portugal.
In a 2008 study of Portuguese Roma, of 126 men sampled less than 1% was G. In a 2010 study of northeastern Portuguese Jews, 3.5% of 57 men from Trás-os-Montes were G as compared to 3.3% of 30 non-Jewish men from the same area.
In a more general survey of the Romanian population based on 102 samples of STR markers in the YHRD database 2.0% (n=2) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. One additional sample is borderline for being G.
Russian Federation [European portion]
In a 2008 study, 259 samples taken in three areas in the northernmost third of European Russia (ethnic Russians/Pomors), about 1% were G2a (P15+) and 0% G1. In 246 samples from three areas in the central third of European Russia about 1% were G, with more G1 men than G2a found. In 132 samples from two areas near the border with Latvia and Estonia 0% were G. In 107 samples from Roslavl area near the border with Belarus, 0% were G. In 394 samples from four areas near the border with the Ukraine about 1% were G2a and 0% G1. And in 90 samples from among the Kuban Cossacks in the south, 1.1% were G2a and 0% G1.
And in a 2006 study of 414 samples presumably from western Russia (according to a map provided) 1.2% were G. In this same study among 68 Kalmyks (a people of Mongolian origin) who live near the Caspian Sea in the south of western Russia, none were G. In another study of the Kalmyks in the Russian Republic of Kalmykia the authors found 1% G among 99 samples.
Another study in 2008 reported on 545 samples from 12 locations in western Russia. Of these, 1.8% of the samples were G. The highest percentage was 9.5% of 42 samples in Orlovskaja Oblast, east of Belarus and north of the Ukraine.
- Among 113 samples taken in Belgrade, none were G (Peričić et al. 2006).
- Among 179 samples taken, 2.2% were G (Mirabal et al. 2010).
Among 24 samples taken in the northeastern corner of Spain in a 2003 study, 8.3% were G. In a larger 2008 study covering about 600 mainland Spanish samples outside the Basque area, the average was about 5% G with the highest percentage recorded in Castilla-La Mancha (10%), and the lowest in parts of Andalusia and Castile (3%).
In a 2004 study, among 258 samples taken in 5 populations in southern Spain, about 3% were G. This same study found in 3 populations in northwestern Spain among 149 samples, about 7% were G, and in the northeastern quarter of Spain in two populations none of 52 samples were G.
Among 221 samples from Basque people in Spain in a 2008 study, 1.4% were G. Of these 168 were living in the three Basque provinces. All were G2a (P15+). Another study found 0% of 116 samples in Basque country were G.
A 2009 study only of Andalusia in southern Spain found that 2.1% of Andalusians were G. And of 68 separate samples specifically from the Pedroches Valley (Valle de los Pedroches) in Andalusia 2.9% were G.
Among 305 samples taken in seven regions of Sweden in a 2006 study, 1.6% were G. The authors also found 0% G in 38 samples from nomadic Saami men of Sweden. In a 2009 study, which totaled 883 Swedish samples, no G was found in the regions of Norrland in the north and Götaland on the southern end. But in the central Svealand area 2.8% of 394 samples were G. If Stockholm is excluded, the percentage increases to 3.7% among 166 samples. While specific Svealand locations were typically 0-1% G, Uppsala on the east central coast showed 12.1% but based on only 33 samples.
A survey of the general population of Switzerland based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of 348 samples from there in the YHRD database indicates 4.3% (n=15) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. An additional sample is borderline for being G.
A survey of the general population of the United Kingdom for G based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers in the YHRD database indicates 3.4% (n=8) of 285 samples from London are G and 1% (n=1) of 97 samples from Birmingham are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor.
Australia & Pacific Islands
Wallis and Futuna
North America and the Caribbean
Among 2517 persons in the United States of America from a wide variety of locales, 2.5% were found to be G. When restricted to those with European ancestry the percentage rises to about 4%. African-Americans were about 1% G, and Native Americans 0.3%.
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