Haplogroup H10e (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup H10e is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It is defined by mutation C16221T. It is between 5,700[1] and 7,000 years old.[2]


According to Behar et al., the woman who founded this line was estimated to have lived between 2,400 and 7,000 years ago.[2] From a neolithic burial at the Bom Santo cave (near Lisbon/Portugal), however, we know that H10e existed already at 3735 BCE ± 45 years. Hence H10e is at least 5,753 years old.[1]

Almost a thousand years later an H10e find was associated with a Corded Ware Culture burial in Eulau. The site Eulau, Burgenlandkreis, is located in the valley of the Saale river in Germany. What is interesting to note in this context, is that H10e was first found at the Bom Santo cave which is located near the epicenter of the birth of the Bell Beaker culture. Then the find at Eulau was geographically located at the boundary between the Bell Beaker area of influence and the Corded Ware Culture area of influence. Therefore we may see evidence that some women of Bell Beaker ethnic origin became part of the Corded Ware Culture.[3]

Descendant branches[edit]

Haplogroup H10e has currently three descendent branches, namely H10e1, H10e2 and H10e3.[4]

Archeological record[edit]

Haplogroup H10e has been found at a neolithic site, namely the Bom Santo cave near Lisbon, Portugal. This is the oldest sample of H10 which has ever been found and it has been dated to 3735 BCE (+- 45 years). Out of 14 individuals analyzed there was only a single sample belonging to haplogroup H, namely a migrant male belonging to haplogroup H10e.[2]

In 2008 mitochondrial DNA was extracted from a gravesite in Eulau (2,600 BCE) which has been associated with the Corded Ware Culture. Haplogroup H10e was found in one individual out of nine tested.[5]

Furthermore, H10e has been found in a 10th century sample from a male individual buried at the Zvonimirovo cemetery site in Croatia.[6]

There is also a strong Viking component with this haplogroup. The following samples from Scandianavia of the Viking age have all been associated with H10e:[7]

Viking era archeological samples of H10e from Scandinavia
Country Age Region Sex mtDNA Haplogroup Laboratory ID
Sweden 900-1050 AD Gotland Male H10e Gotland_Kopparsvik-212/65
Denmark 850-900 AD Sealand Female H10e1 Denmark_Lejre Grav 804
Estonia 8th century AD Saaremaa Male H10e Estonia_Salme_I-7
Estonia 8th century AD Saaremaa Male H10e Estonia_Salme_II-K

H10e has been found twice at the medieval Tuukkala archeological site in Finland. The Tuukkala site is located in north eastern Finland and has been dated to 1200 AD - 1400 AD. Two individuals (TU631 and TU645) both shared the same H10e-haplotype.[8]

Prominent members of H10e[edit]

Pierre Terrail (1473 – 30 April 1524), seigneur de Bayard, the legendary medieval French knight "without fear and beyond reproach", is thought to have carried mtDNA haplogroup H10e. This has been determined by DNA-testing both his exhumed remains and DNA-matching with living relatives on the maternal line.[9]

Marguerite de Baugé, dame de Mirabel (1200–1252), is an ancestor of Pierre Terrail and the presently oldest known member of H10e with an unbroken genealogical tree on the maternal line up the present.[10]


  1. ^ a b de Carvalho AF (2014). Bom Santo cave (Lisbon) and the middle neolithic societies of southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve. ISBN 9789899766631. OCLC 946308166.
  2. ^ a b c Behar DM, van Oven M, Rosset S, Metspalu M, Loogväli EL, Silva NM, Kivisild T, Torroni A, Villems R (April 2012). "A "Copernican" reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root". American Journal of Human Genetics. 90 (4): 675–84. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.03.002. PMC 3322232. PMID 22482806.
  3. ^ Brotherton P, Haak W, Templeton J, Brandt G, Soubrier J, Jane Adler C, Richards SM, Der Sarkissian C, Ganslmeier R, Friederich S, Dresely V, van Oven M, Kenyon R, Van der Hoek MB, Korlach J, Luong K, Ho SY, Quintana-Murci L, Behar DM, Meller H, Alt KW, Cooper A (2013-04-23). "Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes and the genetic origins of Europeans". Nature Communications. 4 (1): 1764. Bibcode:2013NatCo...4.1764.. doi:10.1038/ncomms2656. PMC 3978205. PMID 23612305.
  4. ^ Canada R (2016-06-06). "H10e". Haplogroup. Retrieved 2018-10-12.
  5. ^ Haak W, Brandt G, de Jong HN, Meyer C, Ganslmeier R, Heyd V, Hawkesworth C, Pike AW, Meller H, Alt KW (November 2008). "Ancient DNA, Strontium isotopes, and osteological analyses shed light on social and kinship organization of the Later Stone Age". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105 (47): 18226–31. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10518226H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0807592105. PMC 2587582. PMID 19015520.
  6. ^ Csősz A, Szécsényi-Nagy A, Csákyová V, Langó P, Bódis V, Köhler K, Tömöry G, Nagy M, Mende BG (September 2016). "Maternal Genetic Ancestry and Legacy of 10(th) Century AD Hungarians". Scientific Reports. 6 (1): 33446. Bibcode:2016NatSR...633446C. doi:10.1038/srep33446. PMC 5025779. PMID 27633963.
  7. ^ Willerslev, Eske; Werge, Thomas; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kristiansen, Kristian; Hedeager, Lotte; Sindbæk, Søren; Bill, Jan; Allentoft, Morten; Gilbert, M. Thomas (2019-07-17). "Population genomics of the Viking world". bioRxiv. 585 (7825): 390–396. doi:10.1101/703405. PMID 32939067.
  8. ^ Översti, Sanni; Majander, Kerttu; Salmela, Elina; Salo, Kati; Arppe, Laura; Belskiy, Stanislav; Etu-Sihvola, Heli; Laakso, Ville; Mikkola, Esa; Pfrengle, Saskia; Putkonen, Mikko (2019-11-15). "Human mitochondrial DNA lineages in Iron-Age Fennoscandia suggest incipient admixture and eastern introduction of farming-related maternal ancestry". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 16883. Bibcode:2019NatSR...916883O. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-51045-8. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6858343. PMID 31729399.
  9. ^ "Chevalier Bayard, une identification ADN et des questions" [Chevalier Bayard, a DNA identification and questions]. FIGARO (in French). 2017-03-02. Retrieved 2018-10-12.
  10. ^ "Bayard, le chevalier sans peur et sans reproche is Marguerite de Baugé, dame de Mirabel's 8th great grandson!". geni_family_tree. Retrieved 2018-10-13.