Haplogroup H10e (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup H10e is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It is defined by mutation C16221T. It is between 5,700[1] and 7,000 years old.[2]


According to Behar et al., the woman who founded this line was estimated to have lived between 2,400 and 7,000 years ago.[2] From a neolithic burial at the Bom Santo cave (near Lisbon/Portugal), however, we know that H10e existed already at 3735 BCE ± 45 years. Hence H10e is at least 5,753 years old.[1]

Almost a thousand years later an H10e find was associated with a Corded Ware Culture burial in Eulau. The site Eulau, Burgenlandkreis, is located in the valley of the Saale river in Germany. What is interesting to note in this context, is that H10e was first found at the Bom Santo cave which is located near the epicenter of the birth of the Bell Beaker culture. Then the find at Eulau was geographically located at the boundary between the Bell Beaker area of influence and the Corded Ware Culture area of influence. Therefore, we may see evidence that some women of Bell Beaker ethnic origin became part of the Corded Ware Culture.[3]

Descendant branches[edit]

Haplogroup H10e has currently three descendent branches, namely H10e1, H10e2 and H10e3, that are recognized by PhyloTree.[4][5] Additional branches, from H10e4 through H10e9, were named by YFull.[6]

Archeological record[edit]

Haplogroup H10e has been found at a neolithic site, namely the Bom Santo cave near Lisbon, Portugal. This is the oldest sample of H10 which has ever been found and it has been dated to about 3735 BCE (± 45 years). Out of 14 individuals analyzed there was only a single sample belonging to haplogroup H, namely a migrant male belonging to haplogroup H10e.[2]

In 2008 mitochondrial DNA was extracted from a gravesite in Eulau (2,600 BCE) which has been associated with the Corded Ware Culture. Haplogroup H10e was found in one individual out of nine tested.[7]

Furthermore, H10e has been found in a 10th-century sample from a male individual buried at the Zvonimirovo cemetery site in Croatia.[8]

There is also a strong Viking component with this haplogroup. The following samples from Scandianavia of the Viking age have all been associated with H10e:[9]

Viking era archeological samples of H10e from Scandinavia
Country Age Region Sex mtDNA Haplogroup Laboratory ID
Sweden 900-1050 AD Gotland Male H10e Gotland_Kopparsvik-212/65
Denmark 850-900 AD Sealand Female H10e1 Denmark_Lejre Grav 804
Estonia 8th century AD Saaremaa Male H10e Estonia_Salme_I-7
Estonia 8th century AD Saaremaa Male H10e Estonia_Salme_II-K

H10e has been found twice at the medieval Tuukkala archeological site in Finland. The Tuukkala site is located in north eastern Finland and has been dated to 1200 AD – 1400 AD. Two individuals (TU631 and TU645) both shared the same H10e-haplotype.[10]

GenBank samples[edit]

The following sequences that are informative of the past and present distributions of haplogroup H10e are among those that are part of the public database GenBank.

Haplogroup GenBank ID Population Source
H10e HQ662520 French FamilyTreeDNA
H10e JX153206 Finland Raule 2014[11]
H10e JX153631 Finland Raule 2014[11]
H10e JX171093 Finland Soini 2012[12]
H10e KF161060 Denmark Li 2014[13]
H10e KF161301 Denmark Li 2014[13]
H10e KF162739 Denmark Li 2014[13]
H10e KM576763 Swedish FamilyTreeDNA
H10e KY670894 Russia Malyarchuk 2017[14]
H10e MF070512 Swedish FamilyTreeDNA
H10e MG009577 English FamilyTreeDNA
H10e MN540515 ancient Finland Översti 2019[10]
H10e MN540519 ancient Finland Översti 2019[10]
H10e MN888511 Germany FamilyTreeDNA
H10e MT232751 English YSEQ
H10e OR438625 Poland Piotrowska-Nowak 2023[15]
H10e1 KF162232 Denmark Li 2014[13]
H10e1 KF162434 Denmark Li 2014[13]
H10e1a OM194244 Kazakh Askapuli 2022[16]
H10e2 HM101252 English FamilyTreeDNA
H10e2 KF162694 Denmark Li 2014[13]
H10e2 MG646161 Poland Piotrowska-Nowak 2019[17]
H10e2 OR438506 Poland Piotrowska-Nowak 2023[15]
H10e3 MF464490 Russian FamilyTreeDNA
H10e3 MZ846245 Shetland Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3 MZ846248 Shetland Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3 MZ846250 Shetland Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3 MZ846346 Shetland Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3 MZ846703 Shetland Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3a KF162333 Denmark Li 2014[13]
H10e3a MZ846610 Shetland Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3a MZ846743 Orkney Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3a MZ846755 Orkney Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3a MZ846781 Orkney Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3a MZ847073 Orkney Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3a MZ847222 Orkney Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3a MZ847226 Orkney Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3a MZ847710 Orkney Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3a MZ847741 Orkney Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3a MZ847750 Orkney Dulias 2022[18]
H10e3a MZ847752 Orkney Dulias 2022[18]

Prominent members of H10e[edit]

Pierre Terrail (1473 – 30 April 1524), seigneur de Bayard, the legendary medieval French knight "without fear and beyond reproach", is thought to have carried mtDNA haplogroup H10e. This has been determined by DNA-testing both his exhumed remains and DNA-matching with living relatives on the maternal line.[19]

Marguerite de Baugé, dame de Mirabel (1200–1252), is an ancestor of Pierre Terrail and the presently oldest known member of H10e with an unbroken genealogical tree on the maternal line up the present.[20]


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