Haplogroup H (Y-DNA)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Haplogroup H (Y-DNA)
Haplogrupo H (ADN-Y).PNG
Possible time of origin 25,000–45,000 years BP
Possible place of origin South Asia or South-West Asia
Ancestor HIJK
Descendants H1 (L902/M3061);
H2 (P96);
H3 (Z5857)
Defining mutations L901/M2939
Highest frequencies South Asia and Romani people

Haplogroup H (Y-DNA), also known as H-L901/M2939 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.

The primary branch H1 (H-M69) and its subclades are the predominant haplogroups amongst some populations in South Asia, particularly its descendant H1a1 (M52). A primary branch of H-M52, H1a1a (H-M82), is found commonly among the Romani people, who originated in South Asia and migrated into the Middle East and Europe, around the beginning of the 2nd millennium CE. The much rarer primary branch H3 (Z5857) is also concentrated in South Asia.

However, the primary branch H2 (P96) seems to have been found in sparse levels primarily in Europe and West Asia, since prehistory. It has been found in remains from the Linear Pottery culture and Neolithic Iberia.[1][2] H2 may have entered Europe as long ago during the Epipaleolithic. It is found to have a somewhat higher average concentration in Sardinia, with various other individual cases spread out throughout Europe and West Asia today, suggesting a high degree of rarity.[3]

Structure[edit]

H-L901/M2939 is a direct descendant of Haplogroup GHIJK. There are, in turn, three direct descendants of H-L901/M2939 – their defining SNPs are as follows:

  • H1 (L902/M3061)
    • H1a previously haplogroup H1 (M69/Page45, M370)
    • H1b B108, Z34961, Z34962, Z34963, Z34964
  • H2 previously haplogroup F3,[4] (P96, L279, L281, L284, L285, L286, M282)
    • H2a FGC29299/Z19067
    • H2b Z41290
    • H2c Y21618, Z19080
  • H3 (Z5857)
    • H3a (Z5866)
    • H3b (Z13871)


A further primary branch provisionally designated “H0”, which split with the rest of haplogroup H about 51,000 years BP was discovered in 2016.[5]

Distribution[edit]

H-L901/M2939 is believed to have arisen in South Asia between 30,000 and 40,000 years ago.[6] Its probable site of introduction is South Asia, since it is concentrated there. It seems to represent the main Y-Chromosome haplogroup of the paleolithic inhabitants of Indian-Subcontinent.

Within South Asia, haplogroup H is by no means restricted to specific populations. For example, H is possessed by about 28.8% of Indo-Aryan castes.[7] and in tribals about 25–35%.[8][9]

South Asia[edit]

Haplogroup H1a (M69) and its subclades are very common in South Asia and among the Romani. The much rarer primary branch H3 (Z5857) is also found mostly among South Asians. Paragroup M69* was found in 9 Hazara, 2 Pashtun, 1 Dungan, 1 Tajik, 1 Turkmen, 1 Pakistani and 1 Iranian.[10]

H-M69 is common among populations of India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Nepal, with lower frequency in Afghanistan.[11] The highest frequencies of H-M69 are in India, especially in southern India at (32.9%).[7][12] and H-M52 among Kalash (20.5%) in Pakistan.[13][14]

Haplogroup H-M69 has been found in:

  • South India – 27.2% (110/405) of a sample of unspecified ethnic composition.[15][16] Another study has found haplogroup H-M69 in 26.4% (192/728) of an ethnically diverse pool of samples from various regions of India.[7]
  • Sri Lanka – in 25.3% (23/91) of a sample of unspecified ethnic composition[15][16] and in 10.3% (4/39) of a sample of Sinhalese.[14]
  • Nepal – one study has found Haplogroup H-M69 in approximately 12% of a sample of males from the general population of Kathmandu(including 4/77 H-M82, 4/77 H-M52(xM82), and 1/77 H-M69(xM52, APT)) and 6% of a sample of Newars (4/66 H-M82).[17] In another study, Y-DNA that belongs to Haplogroup H-M69 has been found in 25.7% (5/37 = 13.5% H-M69 from a village in Morang District, 9/57 = 15.8% H-M69 from a village in Chitwan District, and 30/77 = 39.0% H-M69 from another village in Chitwan District) of Tharus in Nepal.[18]
  • Pakistan – in 4.1% Burusho, 20.5% Kalash, 4.2% Pashtun, and 6.3% in other Pakistanis.[7][13] Another study has found haplogroup H-M69 in approximately 8% (3/38) of a sample of Burusho (also known as Hunza), including 5% (2/38) H-M82(xM36, M97, M39/M138) and 3% (1/38) H-M36.[19]
  • Afghanistan – in 6.1% Pashtun.[11]

Romani people[edit]

Haplogroup H-M82 is a major lineage cluster in the Romani, especially Balkan Romani, among whom it accounts for approximately 60% of males.[20] A 2-bp deletion at M82 locus defining this haplogroup was also reported in one-third of males from traditional Romani populations living in Bulgaria, Spain, and Lithuania (Gresham et al. 2001). High prevalence of Asian-specific Y chromosome haplogroup H-M82 supports their Indian origin and a hypothesis of a small number of founders diverging from a single ethnic group in India (Gresham et al. 2001).

Important studies show a limited introgression of the typical Romani Y-chromosome haplogroup H1 in several European groups, including approximately 0.61% in Gheg Albanians, 2.48% in Tosk Albanians and 0.9% in Serbians.[21]

Europe, Central Asia & Middle East[edit]

H1

Haplogroup H1 has been found very rarely outside of the Indian subcontinent and the Romani populations, including approximately 12.5% (2 out of 16 individuals) H-M52 in a sample of Tajiks from Dushanbe,[22] 6% (1/17) H-M52 in a sample of Turks,[22] 5% (1/20) H-M69 in a sample of Syrians,[23] 4% (2/45) H-M52 in a sample of Uzbeks from Samarkand,[22] 4% (2/53) H-M52 in a sample of Iranians from Samarkand,[22] 3% (2/70) H-M52 in a sample of Uzbeks from Khorezm,[22] 3% (1/38) H-M82 in a sample of Balkarians,[24] 2.6% (3/117) H-M82 in a sample from southern Iran,[25] 2% (1/41) H-M52 in a sample of Uyghurs from Kazakhstan,[22] 1% (1/92 H-M82)[24] to 2% (1/50 H-M69)[23] of Ukrainians, 2% (1/56) H-M52 in a sample of Uzbeks from Bukhara,[22] 2% (1/57) H-M82 in a sample of Macedonian Greeks,[24] 2% (1/63) H-M52 in a sample of Uzbeks from the Fergana Valley,[22] 0.9% (1/113) H-M82 in a sample of Serbians,[20] 0.6% (3/523) H-M370 in a sample of Turks,[26] and 0.5% (1/201) H-M52 in a sample of Somali immigrants in Denmark.[27]

In the Arabian Peninsula, Haplogroup H-M69 has been found in 4.3% (7/164) of males from the United Arab Emirates (including 4/164 = 2.4% H-M69(xM52,Apt) and 3/164 = 1.8% H-M82),[28] approximately 2% of males from Oman,[29] 1.9% (3/157) of males from Saudi Arabia (including 2/157 = 1.3% H-M69(xM52) and 1/157 = 0.6% H-M82),[30] and 1.4% (1/72 H-M82) of males from Qatar.[28]

The subclade H-APT (H1a2a) has been found in 1.3% (1/77) of a sample of Greeks.[13]

H2

H-P96 (H2, ex-F3), which is defined by seven SNPs – P96, M282, L279, L281, L284, L285, and L286 – is the only primary branch found mainly outside South Asia. H-P96 represents a rare mutation found in Europe, mostly located in Sardinia, with various individual cases spread out throughout Europe and West Asia.[3] A recent study of 1,194 Sardinians (Francalacci et al. 2015) found seven men with the mutation, a frequency of less than one percent.[3]

Out of the four male individuals found in the Starčevo culture of South Eastern Europe, two of the four samples came back as H2, the others being G2a2a1 and G2a2b2b1a.[31] One of the two Y-dna results found at the El Portalón cave in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain was recorded as H2, suggesting that it was present in the gene pool during the early Neolithic.[32] H2 has also been found in remains from Neolithic Iberia and in the Linear Pottery culture.[1]

Occurrences of H2 (P96) in prehistoric West Eurasia
Date Location Country Culture Accompanying haplogroups Source
7300-6750 BC Motza Israel Levantine Neolithic (PPNB) E1b1b1, T1a1, T1a2a (PPNB from Jordan) [33]
6500-6200 BC Barcin site, Yenişehir Valley Turkey Anatolian Neolithic G2a, I2C, C1a, J2a [34]
6500-6200 BC Barcin site, Yenişehir Valley Turkey Anatolian Neolithic G2a, I2C, C1a, J2a [34]
5832–5667 BC Bátaszék Hungary Starčevo G2a2a1, G2a2b2b [31]
5702–5536 BC Bátaszék Hungary Starčevo G2a2a1, G2a2b2b [31]
5400-5000 BC Szemely Hungary Vinca G2a2a, G2a2b2a1a [31]
3900–3600 BC La Mina site, Soria Spain Megalithic I2a2a1 [31]
3336-3028 BC Dzhulyunitsa Bulgaria Bulgaria_BA G2a2a1a2 [35]
3200-2600 BC Sierra de Atapuerca Spain Pre-Bell Beaker I2a2a [32]
2470-2060 BC Budapest-Bekasmegyer Hungary Kurgan Bell Beaker R1b1a1a2a1a2b1 [36]

Although not much has been written on how H2 arrived in Europe, it's connection with G2a suggests that it was assimilated (already found in Europe) or originated with the early Neolithic farmers as they traveled out of West Asia.[37] Haplogroup G2a was the dominant lineage of Neolithic farmers who introduced agriculture to Europe between 9000 and 6000 years ago, meeting the existing population who were mainly holders of Haplogroup I.[38]

With the advancement of the Proto-Indo Europeans into the continent, H2 probably fell fate in a similar fashion to G2a, which saw a huge decline as most carriers were killed or took refuge in isolated areas such as Sardinia and The Alps. Sardinia has one of the highest frequencies of G2a today,[39] and therefore it should not be unexpected that H2 is also found there, likely for the same reasons as the former.[39] With H2 already being a minor lineage associated with Neolithic Europe, it is not a surprise that its decline to the new invaders made it almost non-existent, unlike G2a which had large enough numbers to still be present, albeit at much lower numbers than it once was.[40]

East & South-East Asia[edit]

At the easternmost extent of its distribution, Haplogroup H-M69 has been found in Thais from Thailand (1/17 = 5.9% H-M69 Northern Thailand;[41] 2/290 = 0.7% H-M52 Northern Thai;[42] 2/75 = 2.7% H-M69(xM52) and 1/75 = 1.3% H-M52(xM82) general population of Thailand[43]), Balinese (19/551 = 3.45% H-M69),[16] Tibetans (3/156 = 1.9% H-M69(xM52, APT)),[17] Filipinos from southern Luzon (1/55 = 1.8% H-M69(xM52)[43]), Bamars from Myanmar (1/59 = 1.7% H-M82, with the relevant individual having been sampled in Bago Region),[44] Chams from Binh Thuan, Vietnam (1/59 = 1.7% H-M69),[41] and Mongolians (1/149 = 0.7% H-M69).[15] The subclade H-M39/M138 has been observed in the vicinity of Cambodia, including one instance in a sample of six Cambodians[7] and one instance in a sample of 18 individuals from Cambodia and Laos.[19]

Subclade distribution by population[edit]

The following gives a summary of most of the studies which specifically tested for the subclades H1a1a (H-M82) and H2 (H-P96), formerly F3, showing its distribution in different part of the world.[45]

Continent/subcontinental region Country &/or ethnicity Sample size H1a1a (M82) freq. (%) H2 (P96) freq. (%) Source
East/Southeast Asia Tibet 156 0 Gayden et al. 2007
East/Southeast Asia Cambodia 6 16.67 Sengupta et al. 2006
East/Southeast Asia Cambodia/Laos 18 5.56 Underhill et al. 2000
East/Southeast Asia Japan 23 0 Sengupta et al. 2006
South Asia Nepal 188 4.25 Gayden et al. 2007
South Asia Afghanistan 204 3.43 Haber et al. 2012
South Asia Malaysian Indians 301 18.94 Pamjav et al. 2011
South Asia Terai-Nepal 197 10.66 Fornarino et al. 2009
South Asia Hindu New Delhi 49 10.2 Fornarino et al. 2009
South Asia Andhra Pradesh Tribals 29 27.6 Fornarino et al. 2009
South Asia Chenchu Tribe India 41 36.6 Kivisild et al. 2003
South Asia Koya Tribe India 41 70.7 Kivisild et al. 2003
South Asia West Bengal India 31 9.6 Kivisild et al. 2003
South Asia Konkanastha Brahmin India 43 9.3 Kivisild et al. 2003
South Asia Gujarat India 29 13.8 Kivisild et al. 2003
South Asia Lambadi India 35 8.6 Kivisild et al. 2003
South Asia Punjab India 66 4.5 Kivisild et al. 2003
South Asia Sinhalese Sri Lanka 39 10.3 Kivisild et al. 2003
South Asia Northwest India 842 14.49 Rai et al.2012
South Asia South India 1845 20.05 Rai et al.2012
South Asia Central India 863 14.83 Rai et al.2012
South Asia North India 622 13.99 Rai et al.2012
South Asia East India 1706 8.44 Rai et al.2012
South Asia West India 501 17.17 Rai et al.2012
South Asia Northeast India 1090 0.18 Rai et al.2012
South Asia Andaman Island 20 0 Thangaraj et al. 2003
North Asia Siberia 18 0 Sengupta et al. 2006
Middle East and North Africa Qatar 72 1.39 Cadenas et al. 2008
Middle East and North Africa United Arab Emirates 164 1.84 Cadenas et al. 2008
Middle East and North Africa Yemen 62 0 Cadenas et al. 2008
Middle East and North Africa Saudi Arabia 157 0.64 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Oman 121 0 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Egypt 147 0 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Somalia 201 0 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Lebanese 916 0 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Jordan 146 0 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Iraq 203 0 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Turkish 523 0.19 Cinnioglu et al. 2004
Middle East and North Africa Iran 150 2 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Iran 938 1.2 Grugni et al. 2012
Caucasus Caucasians 1789 0 Yunusbayev et al. 2011
Caucasus Georgians 66 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Caucasus Balkarians 38 2.6 Battaglia et al. 2009
Europe Slovakian Romani 62 30.65 Pamjev et al. 2011
Europe Portuguese Romani 126 16.67 Gusmao et al. 2008
Europe Kosovo, Belgrade, Vojvodina Romani 88 43.18 Regueiro et al. 2011
Europe Bulgarian Romani 248 39.52 Gresham et al. 2001
Europe Spanish Romani 27 18.52 Gresham et al. 2001
Europe Croatian Romani 377 20.16 Battaglia et al. 2009
Europe Macedonian Romani (Skopje) 257 13.23 Peričić et al. 2005
Europe Hungarian Romani 424 16.98 Pamjav et al. 2011
Europe Lithuanian Romani 20 50 Gresham et al. 2001
Europe Greeks 92 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Europe Macedonian Greeks 57 2 Battaglia et al. 2008
Europe Albanians 55 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Europe Bosniaks 324 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Europe Slovenians 75 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Europe Northeastern Italians 67 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Europe Hungarians 53 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Europe Czechs 75 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Europe Poles 99 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Europe Ukrainians 92 1.1 Battaglia et al. 2009
Europe Herzegovinians (Mostar, Široki Brijeg) 141 0 Peričić et al. 2005
Europe Serbians (Belgrade) 113 0.9 Peričić et al. 2005

See also[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Günther T, Valdiosera C, Malmström H, Ureña I, Rodriguez-Varela R, Sverrisdóttir ÓO, et al. (September 2015). "Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (38): 11917–22. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11211917G. doi:10.1073/pnas.1509851112. PMC 4586848Freely accessible. PMID 26351665. 
  2. ^ Haak W, Balanovsky O, Sanchez JJ, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, Adler CJ, et al. (November 2010). "Ancient DNA from European early neolithic farmers reveals their near eastern affinities". Plos Biology. 8 (11): e1000536. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536. PMC 2976717Freely accessible. PMID 21085689. 
  3. ^ a b c St Clairl M (March 2018). "Haplogroup H-M2713" (PDF). St. Clair Database. 
  4. ^ Magoon GR, Banks RH, Rottensteiner C, Schrack BE, Tilroe VO, Robb T, Grierson AJ (2013). "Generation of high-resolution a priori Y-chromosome phylogenies using next-generation sequencing data". bioRxiv 000802Freely accessible. 
  5. ^ Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, Willems TF, Massaia A, Wilson Sayres MA, et al. (June 2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. doi:10.1038/ng.3559. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036. supp. fig. 15 
  6. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup H and its Subclades – 2015. isogg.org
  7. ^ a b c d e Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, Mehdi SQ, Edmonds CA, Chow CE, et al. (February 2006). "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists". American Journal of Human Genetics. 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230Freely accessible. PMID 16400607. 
  8. ^ Cordaux R, Aunger R, Bentley G, Nasidze I, Sirajuddin SM, Stoneking M (February 2004). "Independent origins of Indian caste and tribal paternal lineages". Current Biology. 14 (3): 231–5. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.01.024. PMID 14761656. 
  9. ^ Thanseem I, Thangaraj K, Chaubey G, Singh VK, Bhaskar LV, Reddy BM, et al. (August 2006). "Genetic affinities among the lower castes and tribal groups of India: inference from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA". BMC Genetics. 7: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-7-42. PMC 1569435Freely accessible. PMID 16893451. 
  10. ^ Di Cristofaro J, Pennarun E, Mazières S, Myres NM, Lin AA, Temori SA, Metspalu M, Metspalu E, Witzel M, King RJ, Underhill PA, Villems R, Chiaroni J (2013). "Afghan Hindu Kush: where Eurasian sub-continent gene flows converge". PLOS One. 8 (10): e76748. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...876748D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076748. PMC 3799995Freely accessible. PMID 24204668. Figure S.7 
  11. ^ a b Haber M, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, Youhanna SC, Soria-Hernanz DF, Martínez-Cruz B, et al. (2012). "Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events". PLOS One. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501Freely accessible. PMID 22470552. 
  12. ^ Sahoo S, Singh A, Himabindu G, Banerjee J, Sitalaximi T, Gaikwad S, et al. (January 2006). "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: evaluating demic diffusion scenarios" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103 (4): 843–8. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103..843S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507714103. PMC 1347984Freely accessible. PMID 16415161. 
  13. ^ a b c Firasat S, Khaliq S, Mohyuddin A, Papaioannou M, Tyler-Smith C, Underhill PA, et al. (January 2007). "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (1): 121–6. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201726. PMC 2588664Freely accessible. PMID 17047675. 
  14. ^ a b Kivisild T, Rootsi S, Metspalu M, Mastana S, Kaldma K, Parik J, et al. (February 2003). "The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations". American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (2): 313–32. doi:10.1086/346068. PMC 379225Freely accessible. PMID 12536373. 
  15. ^ a b c Hammer MF, Karafet TM, Park H, Omoto K, Harihara S, Stoneking M, Horai S (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". Journal of Human Genetics. 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082. 
  16. ^ a b c Karafet TM, Lansing JS, Redd AJ, Reznikova S, Watkins JC, Surata SP, et al. (February 2005). "Balinese Y-chromosome perspective on the peopling of Indonesia: genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter-gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders". Human Biology. 77 (1): 93–114. PMID 16114819. 
  17. ^ a b Gayden T, Cadenas AM, Regueiro M, Singh NB, Zhivotovsky LA, Underhill PA, et al. (May 2007). "The Himalayas as a directional barrier to gene flow". American Journal of Human Genetics. 80 (5): 884–94. doi:10.1086/516757. PMC 1852741Freely accessible. PMID 17436243. 
  18. ^ Fornarino S, Pala M, Battaglia V, Maranta R, Achilli A, Modiano G, et al. (July 2009). "Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 154. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-154. PMC 2720951Freely accessible. PMID 19573232. 
  19. ^ a b Underhill PA, Shen P, Lin AA, Jin L, Passarino G, Yang WH, et al. (November 2000). "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations". Nature Genetics. 26 (3): 358–61. doi:10.1038/81685. PMID 11062480. 
  20. ^ a b Pericić M, Lauc LB, Klarić IM, Rootsi S, Janićijevic B, Rudan I, et al. (October 2005). "High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (10): 1964–75. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443. 
  21. ^ Ferri G, Tofanelli S, Alù M, Taglioli L, Radheshi E, Corradini B, et al. (September 2010). "Y-STR variation in Albanian populations: implications on the match probabilities and the genetic legacy of the minority claiming an Egyptian descent". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 124 (5): 363–70. doi:10.1007/s00414-010-0432-x. PMID 20238122. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Wells RS, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, Underhill PA, Evseeva I, Blue-Smith J, et al. (August 2001). "The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (18): 10244–9. Bibcode:2001PNAS...9810244W. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. PMC 56946Freely accessible. PMID 11526236. 
  23. ^ a b Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, et al. (November 2000). "The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective". Science. 290 (5494): 1155–9. Bibcode:2000Sci...290.1155S. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453. 
  24. ^ a b c Battaglia V, Fornarino S, Al-Zahery N, Olivieri A, Pala M, Myres NM, King RJ, Rootsi S, Marjanovic D, Primorac D, Hadziselimovic R, Vidovic S, Drobnic K, Durmishi N, Torroni A, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Underhill PA, Semino O (June 2009). "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in Southeast Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics. 17 (6): 820–30. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100Freely accessible. PMID 19107149. 
  25. ^ Regueiro M, Cadenas AM, Gayden T, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ (2006). "Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration". Human Heredity. 61 (3): 132–43. doi:10.1159/000093774. PMID 16770078. 
  26. ^ Cinnioğlu C, King R, Kivisild T, Kalfoğlu E, Atasoy S, Cavalleri GL, et al. (January 2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". Human Genetics. 114 (2): 127–48. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639. 
  27. ^ Sanchez JJ, Hallenberg C, Børsting C, Hernandez A, Morling N (July 2005). "High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males". European Journal of Human Genetics. 13 (7): 856–66. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201390. PMID 15756297. 
  28. ^ a b Cadenas AM, Zhivotovsky LA, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ (March 2008). "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman". European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (3): 374–86. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934. PMID 17928816. 
  29. ^ Luis JR, Rowold DJ, Regueiro M, Caeiro B, Cinnioğlu C, Roseman C, et al. (March 2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations". American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (3): 532–44. doi:10.1086/382286. PMC 1182266Freely accessible. PMID 14973781. 
  30. ^ Abu-Amero KK, Hellani A, González AM, Larruga JM, Cabrera VM, Underhill PA (September 2009). "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions". BMC Genetics. 10: 59. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59. PMC 2759955Freely accessible. PMID 19772609. 
  31. ^ a b c d e Lipson M, Szécsényi-Nagy A, Mallick S, Pósa A, Stégmár B, Keerl V, et al. (November 2017). "Parallel palaeogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early European farmers". Nature. 551 (7680): 368–372. Bibcode:2017Natur.551..368L. doi:10.1038/nature24476. PMID 29144465. 
  32. ^ a b Günther T, Valdiosera C, Malmström H, Ureña I, Rodriguez-Varela R, Sverrisdóttir ÓO, et al. (September 2015). "Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (38): 11917–22. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11211917G. doi:10.1073/pnas.1509851112. PMC 4586848Freely accessible. PMID 26351665. 
  33. ^ Lazaridis I, Nadel D, Rollefson G, Merrett DC, Rohland N, Mallick S, et al. (August 2016). "Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East". Nature. 536 (7617): 419–24. Bibcode:2016Natur.536..419L. doi:10.1038/nature19310. PMID 27459054. 
  34. ^ a b Mathieson I, Lazaridis I, Rohland N, Mallick S, Patterson N, Roodenberg SA, Harney E, Stewardson K, Fernandes D (2015-10-10). "Eight thousand years of natural selection in Europe". bioRxiv 016477Freely accessible. 
  35. ^ Mathieson, Iain; Roodenberg, Songül Alpaslan; Posth, Cosimo; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Olade, Iñigo; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Cheronet, Olivia (2017-05-09). "The Genomic History Of Southeastern Europe". bioRxiv: 135616. doi:10.1101/135616. 
  36. ^ Olalde Í (2016). From the Mesolithic to the Bronze Age: unraveling 5,000 years of European population history with paleogenomics (PDF) (Ph.D. thesis). Barcelona, Spain: Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra). 
  37. ^ Hofmanová Z, Kreutzer S, Hellenthal G, Sell C, Diekmann Y, Díez-Del-Molino D, et al. (June 2016). "Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (25): 6886–91. doi:10.1073/pnas.1523951113. PMC 4922144Freely accessible. PMID 27274049. 
  38. ^ Szécsényi-Nagy A, Brandt G, Haak W, Keerl V, Jakucs J, Möller-Rieker S, et al. (April 2015). "Tracing the genetic origin of Europe's first farmers reveals insights into their social organization". Proceedings. Biological Sciences. 282 (1805). doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.0339. PMC 4389623Freely accessible. PMID 25808890. 
  39. ^ a b Francalacci P, Morelli L, Angius A, Berutti R, Reinier F, Atzeni R, et al. (August 2013). "Low-pass DNA sequencing of 1200 Sardinians reconstructs European Y-chromosome phylogeny". Science. 341 (6145): 565–9. Bibcode:2013Sci...341..565F. doi:10.1126/science.1237947. PMC 5500864Freely accessible. PMID 23908240. 
  40. ^ Maciamo. "Haplogroup G2a (Y-DNA)". Eupedia. Retrieved 2018-06-29. 
  41. ^ a b He JD, Peng MS, Quang HH, Dang KP, Trieu AV, Wu SF, et al. (2012). "Patrilineal perspective on the Austronesian diffusion in Mainland Southeast Asia". PLOS One. 7 (5): e36437. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...736437H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036437. PMC 3346718Freely accessible. PMID 22586471. 
  42. ^ Brunelli A, Kampuansai J, Seielstad M, Lomthaisong K, Kangwanpong D, Ghirotto S, Kutanan W (2017). "Y chromosomal evidence on the origin of northern Thai people". PLOS One. 12 (7): e0181935. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1281935B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181935. PMC 5524406Freely accessible. PMID 28742125. 
  43. ^ a b Trejaut JA, Poloni ES, Yen JC, Lai YH, Loo JH, Lee CL, He CL, Lin M (June 2014). "Taiwan Y-chromosomal DNA variation and its relationship with Island Southeast Asia". BMC Genetics. 15: 77. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-15-77. PMC 4083334Freely accessible. PMID 24965575. 
  44. ^ Peng MS, He JD, Fan L, Liu J, Adeola AC, Wu SF, et al. (August 2014). "Retrieving Y chromosomal haplogroup trees using GWAS data". European Journal of Human Genetics. 22 (8): 1046–50. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.272. PMC 4350590Freely accessible. PMID 24281365. 
  45. ^ Rai N, Chaubey G, Tamang R, Pathak AK, Singh VK, Karmin M, et al. (2012). "The phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup h1a1a-m82 reveals the likely Indian origin of the European Romani populations". PLOS One. 7 (11): e48477. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...748477R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048477. PMC 3509117Freely accessible. PMID 23209554. 

External links[edit]