Haplogroup I-M438

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Haplogroup I2 (Y-DNA))
Jump to: navigation, search
Haplogroup I-M438
Possible time of origin probably >15 kya (see subclade descriptions)
Possible place of origin south-eastern Europe
Ancestor I-M170
Descendants I-L460, I-L1251
Defining mutations M438/P215/S31
Highest frequencies

I2a1a: Sardinia[1] I2a1b: Bosnia and Herzegovina,[2]

I2a2: Britain, Germany, and Sweden[1]

Haplogroup I-M438, also known as I2 and previously I2b is a human DNA Y-chromosome haplogroup, a subclade of Haplogroup I-M170. Haplogroup I-M438 originated some time around 13,000-15,000 BCE and has three main subclades: I-M438*, I-L460, and I-L1251.

The haplogroup reaches its maximum frequency in the Dinaric Alps, where the men are on record as being the tallest in the world, with a male average height of 185.6 cm (6 ft 1.1 in).[3]

Origin and prehistoric presence[edit]

On the present evidence, I-M348 appears to have originated in south-eastern Europe. It is now concentrated in Sardinia, the Balkans, Germany, Sweden and Britain. The subclade I-P37.2 (I2a1) has also been identified in neolithic human remains in Pays Catalan, France. Two samples constitute 10% of the ancient Y-DNA found at Treilles, the type site of a Late Neolithic agricultural culture found on the slopes of the eastern Pyrenees, and dated to about 3000 BCE. The Treilles culture predates the Bell Beaker and Corded Ware cultures in Europe. The I-P37.2 individuals at Treilles constituted a genetic minority amongst their peers: 90% of the remains tested positive for Haplogroup G2a (P15+; now concentrated in the Middle East).[4] In modern times I-P37.2 is usually found in France and the Italian Alps.

Older neolithic remains (5500–4900 BCE), found at the Derenburg Meerenstieg II site in Germany did not include individuals belonging to clades or subclades of Haplogroup I.[5] (Most of the remains found at Derenburg Meerenstieg II – which has been linked to the Linear Pottery culture – tested positive for haplogroup G2a3, which is also now concentrated in the Middle East. Another two individuals, who were not precisely typed, were negative for haplogroups G, H, I, J and K, but also fell within macrohaplogroup F i. e. they did not possess markers M201, M69, M170, M304, and M9.)

Subclades[edit]


•I2 M438/P215/PF3853/S31 (16638804 A->G)
• •I2a L460/PF3647/S238 (7879415 A->C)
• • •I2a1 PF37.2/PF4004 (14491684 T->C)
• • • •I2a1a CTS595 (6874115 C->T)
• • • • •I2a1a1 M26/PF4056 (21865821 G->A)
• • • • • •I2a1a1a CTS8968/PF4036 (18584762 T->C)
• • • • • • •I2a1a1a1 L672/S327 (22228628 T->A)
• • • • • • • •I2a1a1a1a L160/PF4013/S184
• • • • • • •I2a1a1a2 CTS6027 (16620529 C->G) w. Europeans
• • • • • • •I2a1a1a3 Z27395 (16681589 A->G)
• • • • • • • •I2a1a1a3a Z27410 (18891640 T->G)
• • • • • • • • •I2a1a1a3a1 Z27430 (15383072 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a1a1a3a1a Z27446 (14420039 G->A)
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a1a1a3a1a1 Z27447 (17445510 A->G)
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a1a1a3a1a1a Z27452 (7346620 C->T) Sardinians
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a1a1a3a1a1b Z27453 (22045753 C->A)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a1a1a3a1a1b1 Z27456 (13885862 T->C) Sardinians
• • • • • •I2a1a1b Z27354 (7132292 T->C)
• • • • • • •I2a1a1b1 Z27400 (2833818 C->T) Sardinians
• • • • •I2a1a2 S21825 (19126655 G->A)
• • • • • •I2a1a2a L1286 (21778662 G->A)
• • • • • • •I2a1a2a1 L1287 (21970862 G->T)
• • • • • • • •I2a1a2a1a L233/S183 (14487362 G->A)
• • • • • • • • •I2a1a2a1a1 A417 (8846964 T->C) Brits
• • • • • • •I2a1a2a2 L880 (3436270 C->T) central Europeans
• • • • • •I2a1a2b L1294 (2887401 T->C) French
• • • • •I2a1a3 S2699 (14434372 C->T)
• • • •I2a1b M423 (19096091 G->A)
• • • • •I2a1b1 L161.1/S185.1 (22513718 C->T)
• • • • • •I2a1b1a L1498/Y4008 (18668472 C->T)
• • • • • • •I2a1b1a1 FGC7218/Y5280 (21354226 G->A) Irish
• • • • • • •I2a1b1a2 FGC14448/Y5450 (7158983 A->G) Irish
• • • • • • •I2a1b1a3 FGC7108/S2640 (14107847 G->A)
• • • • • • • •I2a1b1a3a FGC7197/S7703 (17494645 G->C)
• • • • • • • • •I2a1b1a3a1 S7714 (21345894 T->A)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a1b1a3a1a S8889 (4310132 A->G)
• • • • • • • •I2a1b1a3b S2742 (19440521 A->G)
• • • • • • • •I2a1b1a3c FGC7173/Y3729 (8472670 A->T)
• • • • • • • • •I2a1b1a3c1 FGC7156/Y4665 (2685333 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a1b1a3c1a FGC7218/Y5280 (21354226 G->A)
• • • • • • • • •I2a1b1a3c2 FGC14453/Y5456 (16637771 A->G)
• • • • • • •I2a1b1a4 A1150 (15543414 A->T)
• • • • • •I2a1b1b PF4135 (18981938 G->A) Brits
• • • • • •I2a1b1c CTS8849.2 (18236845 A->G)
• • • • • •I2a1b1d PF6316.2 (18181850 T->G)
• • • • •I2a1b2 L621/S392 (18760081 G->A)
• • • • • •I2a1b2a CTS4002 (15328797 C->A)
• • • • • • •I2a1b2a1 CTS10228 (9334357 A->C)
• • • • • • • •I2a1b2a1a S17250/YP204 (15531354 G->A)
• • • • • • • • •I2a1b2a1a1 Z16971 (6676628 G->C) Slovenians, Germans, Ukrainians
• • • • • • • • •I2a1b2a1a2 Y3548 (14856842 A->G) Sardinians
• • • • • • • • • •I2a1b2a1a2a Y4882 (21135222 G->A) Poles
• • • • • • • • •I2a1b2a1a3 A356/Z16983 (17558968 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a1b2a1a3a Y6651 (23792119 A->G) Czechs
• • • • • • • •I2a1b2a1b Y4460 (9028830 G->A)
• • • • • • • • •I2a1b2a1b1 Y3118 (23548545 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a1b2a1b1a CTS5579/S5054 (16378157 G->T) Finns
• • • • • • • •I2a1b2a1b V19.2 (2189,200 T->C)
• • • • • • • •I2a1b2a1c P61.2 (14482194 G->A)
• • •I2a2 M436/P214/PF3856/S33 (18747493 G->C)
• • • •I2a2a M223 (21717307 G->A)
• • • • •I2a2a1 CTS616 (6906332 C->G)
• • • • • •I2a2a1a Y3721 (7982615 C->T)
• • • • • • •I2a2a1a1 M284 (22750461..22750464 ACAA->del)
• • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a L1195 (18865320 G->A)
• • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a1 L126/S165 (14901633 C->T)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a1a FGC20048/S7753/Y4171 (17603051 G->T)
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a1a1 FGC20065/Y4751 (18635722 A->G)
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a1a1a Y4750 (23059262 C->G)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a1a1a1 FGC20062/Y4753 (16910733 G->T) Irish, Scots
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a1a1a2 Y8599 Irish
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a1b Y7190 (7987909 C->T) Scots
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a1c F3878.2 (8752246 G->A)
• • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a2 L1193 (9448484 C->A)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a2a CTS4922 (15903939 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a2a1 FGC14237/Y5996 (8292320 G->T) Irish
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a1a2b CTS3792/S2380 (15183633 C->T)
• • • • • • •I2a2a1a2 Z2057 (4770006 T->C)
• • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a L1229 (14937828 C->A)
• • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1 Y3681 (22519059 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a Z2058 (5317533 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a1 Z2054 (2980725 C->T)
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a1a BY524/Y9443 (6371561 A->G)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a1a1 L812/S391 (14850035 G->A)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a1a1a Y5308 (16820196 G->A)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a1a2 Y10648 (8267867 C->G)
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a1b Y7244 (8271590 C->T) Germans
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a1b1 P53.3 (14491649 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a1b2 Y7243 (2911078 G->A)
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a1c FGC15106/Y4334 (7845669 G->T)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a1c1 FGC15128/Y4714 (15945966 G->C) Irish
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a1c2 Y4760 (15025945 A->T) Brits, Germans
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a1a1d BY138 (2809424 A->T) Mexicans, English
• • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a2 S18331 (16449714 C->T) Brits
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2a2a L1230 (3436442 G->A) Brits
• • • • • • • •I2a2a1a2b Y7240 (2688254 T->G) English
• • • • • •I2a2a1b CTS10057 (19232160 C->T)
• • • • • • •I2a2a1b1 L702 (7629205 C->T)
• • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1a P78 (6740387 G->A)
• • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1a1 S25733 (23595728 C->T)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1a1a A427 (23281929 G->T)
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1a1a1 S23612 (21826246 C->T) Brits, Italians, Germans
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1a1a1a Y5360 (23185624 G->T)
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1a1a1b S10702 (7822881 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1a1a2 Y5369 (23185624 G->T) Brits
• • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1a2 Y7219 (8447173 C->A)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1a2a Y7214 (4901002 C->A) Dutch
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1a2b Y8945 (4567154 G->A)
• • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1b L699 (2663920 A->G)
• • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1b1 L704 (17595966 C->A)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1b1a S12195 (9105096 C->T)
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1b1a1 Y6973 (8430276 A->G)
• • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1b2 Z26416 (18851267 G->A) Sardinians
• • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1b3 PF6901 (17558585 C->G) Sardinians
• • • • • • • •I2a2a1b1c PF6896 (8904322 C->T) Brits, French
• • • • • • •I2a2a1b2 Z161 (2696497 C->G)
• • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a L801/S390 (21763755 A->C)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1 CTS1977 (14140273 G->A)
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1a Y5282 (7982615 C->T)
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1a1 S8522 (3162610 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1a1a P95 (14869706 G->T) Poles, n.w. Europeans
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1a2 CTS1858 (14098206 G->T)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1a2a CTS10148 (19291083 A->T) African Americans
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b Y7152 (5852771 C->T)
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1c BY526 or Y8935
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a2 CTS6433 (16889964 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a2a S2364 (23052606 A->G)
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a2a1 FGC3618/S2361 (17355245 A->G)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a2a1a Z78 (9154908 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a2a1a1 CTS8584
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a2a1a1a Z185 (22929384 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a1a1 Z180 (22065434 A->G)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a1a1a L1198 (18405788 C->T))
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a1a1a1 Z190 (17473966 G->T)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a1a1a1a S434/Z79 (17147721 G->A) English
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a1a1a1a1 Y5729 (14394460 C->T) English
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a1a1a1a2 Y7682 (not yet reported)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a1a1a1b Y7280 (17305030 T->G)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a1a1a2 FGC3617/S2368/Z166 (14010863 G->T)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a1a1a3 P195.2 (22665262 A->G) Brits
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a1a1b Y5748 (14106278 C->T)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a1a1b1 Y7272 (19264274 G->A)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a1a1c Y7273 (16449864 A>G)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1a2 Y9161 (9154908 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1b Y4925/ZS20 (23977120 A->C)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1b1 CTS661/L1272 (6931960 G->A)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1b1a Y5717 (6931960 G->A)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1b2 FGC17399/Y4926 (23549293 G->A)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1b2a S8104 (7432604 A->G)
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1c Y4955 (15362162 G->A)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1c1 Y5695 (14574229 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1c1a Y7263 (7900806 C->A)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1c1a1 Y7265 (9147689 T->C)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1c1b FGC20004/Y5692 (18993826 A->T)
• • • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b1c2 Y10659 (4616653 A->G)
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b2 L1425 (14491835 C->T)
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b2a CTS5332.2/PF7472.2 (16212441 G->A)
• • • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b2b Y4769 (18201094 A->G) Germans
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b3 Y7426 (18830768 A->G) English
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b4 S243/Z63 (14401486 C->T)
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b5 M3268.2/PF3292.2 (8519704 G->A) Germans
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b6 DF5.2/S191.2 (18393814 A->G) Brits
• • • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a1b7 F3406.2 (23119516 G->A)
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a2 L1290 (14623983 T->C) n. Europeans
• • • • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2a3 Y7202 (2913976 G->A) Germans
• • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2b L623 (16202490 A->T)
• • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2c CTS11871/S3673 (23326304 C->T) Brits, Germans
• • • • • • • •I2a2a1b2d Y5188 (7838639 G->A) Maltese
• • • • • • •I2a2a1b3 S12606 (9879942 T->G)
• • • • • • • •I2a2a1b3a CTS12640/S4904/ZS21 (28652639 C->T)
• • • • •I2a2a2 S9403/SK1254 (6742730 T->C)
• • • • • •I2a2a2a L1228 (15446045 C->G) w. Europeans
• • • • • •I2a2a2b Y6099 (7527993 G->A)
• • • •I2a2b L38/S154 (15668070 A->G)
• • • • •I2a2b1 L533/S295 (2887198 G->C) n.w. Europeans
• • • • •I2a2b2 S2606 (22527402 C->A)
• • • • • •I2a2b2a S2523 (14951410 C->T)
• • • • • • •I2a2b2a1 S24121 (22201497 C->A)
• • • • • • • •I2a2b2a1a S11558 (8491250 G->A)
• • • • • • • •I2a2b2a1b F780.2 (6384078 G->A)
• • • • •I2a2b3 M8990/S3846 (7534645 A->C)
• • • • • •I2a2b3a S2488 (12733783 T->A) English
• • • • • •I2a2b3b S4556 (14124389 A->G)
• • • • •I2a2b4 P15.2/PF3112.2 (3244026 C->T)
• •I2b L415/S435 (2888663 C->T) or L417/S332 (8426321 T->C) Germans, Italians
• •I2c L596/PF6907/S292 (14197631 G->A) or L597/S333 (18887888 T->A)
• • •I2c1 PF3892 (8487200 T->C)
• • • •I2c1a L1251 (2888598 C->T) Germans
• • • •I2c1b CTS4092 (15391894 G->A)
• • • • •I2c1b1 CTS7767.1 (17651573 C->A)
• • • • • •I2c1b1a PF6328 (21797244 C->A)
• • • • • • •I2c1b1a1 F2044 (15944600 T->A) Brits
• • • •I2c1c S6685 (14185048 G->C)
• • • • •I2c1c1 S6648 (14459289 T->A)
• • • • • •I2c1c1a FGC18548 (7380574 A->G) Sardinians
• • • • • •I2c1c1b S6716 (16173282 G->C)
• • • • • • •I2c1c1b1 S6622 (14264992 A->G)
• • • • • • • •I2c1c1b1a S6595 (21430083 G->A)
• • • • • • • • •I2c1c1b1a1 S6656 (17410728 G->C)
• • • • • •I2c1c1c S9234 (6512608 A->G)
• • •I2c2 PF3827 (22444389 T->A)
• • •I2c3 S6800 (16180130 G->A)

I-P37.2[edit]

The subclade divergence for I-P37.2 occurred 10.7±4.8 kya. The age of YSTR variation for the P37.2 subclade is 8.0±4.0 kya[1]

I-L158[edit]

Haplogroup I-L158 (L158, L159.1/S169.1, M26) accounts for approximately 40% of all patrilines among the Sardinians.[6][7] It is also found at low to moderate frequency among populations of the Pyrenees (9.5% in Bortzerriak, Navarra; 9.7% in Chazetania, Aragon; 8% in Val d'Aran, Catalunya; 2.9% in Alt Urgell, Catalunya; and 8.1% in Baixa Cerdanya, Catalunya) and Iberia, and it has been found in 1.6% of a sample of Albanians living in the Republic of Macedonia[8] and 1.2% (3/257) of a sample of Czechs.[9] The age of YSTR variation for the M26 subclade has been calculated at 8.0±4.0 kya.[1]

I-L178[edit]

I-L178 is very rare, but has been found in two persons from Germany and one from Poland. The age of YSTR variation for the M423 subclade is 8.8±3.6 kya.[10]

I-L69.2[edit]

I-L69.2 (L69.2(=T)/S163.2) {rs9786274} is typical of the South Slavic populations of south-eastern Europe, being highest in Bosnia-Herzegovina (>50%).[2] Haplogroup I-L69.2 is also commonly found in north-eastern Italians.[11] There is also a high concentration of I-L69.2 in north-east Romania, Moldova and western Ukraine. Several groups have determined the common occurrence of this subclade in the South Slavic-speaking populations to be the result of "pre-Slavic" paleolithic settlement in the region. Peričić et al. for instance places its expansion to have occurred "not earlier than the YD to Holocene transition and not later than the early Neolithic”.[12][13][14] Decidedly, the Slavic population can be divided into two genetically distinct groups: one encompassing all Western-Slavic (Poles, Slovaks etc.), Eastern-Slavic (Russians, Ukrainians etc.), and a few Southern-Slavic populations (north-western Croats and Slovenes), characterized by Haplogroup R1a, and one encompassing all remaining Southern Slavs, but also the non-slavic Romanians, characterized by Haplogroup I2a2 (I-L69.2). According to Rebała et al., this phenomenon is explained by "contribution to the Y chromosomes of peoples who settled in the Balkan region before the Slavic expansion to the genetic heritage of Southern Slavs.."[15] It is attributed to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in Ukraine, Romania and Moldova.

I-M223[edit]

Haplogroup I2a2a (ISOGG 2014). The age of YSTR variation for the I-M223 subclade is 13.2±2.7 kya[1] and 12.3±3.1 kya.[10] I-M223 has a peak in Germany and another in eastern Sweden, but also appears in Romania/Moldova, Russia, Greece, Italy and around the Black Sea.[16] Haplogroup I2a2a has been found in over 4% of the population only in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark. England (excluding Cornwall), Scotland, also the southern tips of Sweden and Norway in Northwest Europe; the provinces of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Perche in northwestern France; the province of Provence in southeastern France; the regions of Tuscany, Umbria, and Latium in Italy; Moldavia and the area around Russia's Ryazan Oblast and Republic of Mordovia in Eastern Europe. Of historical note, both haplogroups I-M253 and I-M223 appear at a low frequency in the historical regions of Bithynia and Galatia in Turkey. Haplogroup I2a2a also occurs among approximately 1% of the Sardinians. The subclade divergence for M223 occurred 14.6±3.8 kya (Rootsi 2004).

Haplogroup I-M223 can be further subdivided in several subclades designated in the Y2012 ISOGG tree as follows: Haplogroup I-M223* with no further known polymorphisms, Haplogroup I-M284 defined by M284 polymorphism and including an undergroup Haplogroup I-L126 reserved for individuals derived for the L126/S165, L137/S166 polymorphisms, Haplogroup I-L701 associated with L701 polymorphism, and Haplogroup I-Z161 denoting individuals derived for the Z161 polymorphism.[citation needed]


I-M284[edit]

Haplogroup I2a2a1a1 (ISOGG 2014). I-M284 has been found almost exclusively among the population of Great Britain, suggesting that the clade may have arisen in that island. I-M284 is comparatively rare in Ireland except in the north-east. In regard to north-east Ireland, the presence of this subclade "provides some tentative evidence of ancient flow with eastern areas that could support the idea that the La Tene cultural package was accompanied by some migration."[17] Where it is found in those of Irish descent with Gaelic surnames, this suggests an ancestor who arrived in Ireland from Celtic Britain.[17] Men with several Gaelic surnames such as McGuinness and McCartan bear this subclade, family groups that have a historically recorded 6th-century common ancestor, thus it is not the result of known recent gene flow between Britain and Ireland.[17] While subclades of I-M284 are atypical of Ireland they are relatively common in continental Europe.[17] The observed mutational divergence between men with this subclade suggests its foundation very approximately at 300 BC, thus dates and geography are circumstantially associated but not securely with Iron Age continental Europe.[17]

I-CTS10057[edit]

Continentals. Mother Haplogroup for group I-Z161 (Continental 1 and 2) and I-L701 group (Continental 3). Around 10.000 years old.

I-Z161[edit]

Haplogroup I2a2a1b2 (ISOGG 2014). Z161+ defines the I2 Continental clade (except Continental 3). Its age is estimated around 7.000 years old. It is mainly found in North Europe, especially in Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and England. In Northwest Sicily it can also be found believed to be due to remnants of a Norman settlement.

I-L701[edit]

Called Continental 3. Continental 3 has a wide distribution. Found in Central Europe from Germany, Austria to Poland, Romania and Ukraine, but also in lower frequencies in Greece, Italy, France, Spain, England, Ireland, and Armenia. It may have been disseminated in part by the Goths. It is nearly absent from Scandinavia and Scotland.

See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups [n 1] [n 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [n 3]
A0 A1[n 4]
A1* A1a A1b
A1b* A1b1 BT
B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJK
G HIJK
H IJK
IJ K
I J LT (K1)  K2
L T NO (K2a) K2b[n 5]   K2c K2d K2e [n 6]
N O MS P
M S Q R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) was previously known as Haplogroup MPS.
  6. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as ex-K2a and/or "Haplogroup X".

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Rootsi, Siiri et al. (2004). "Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics 75: 128–137. doi:10.1086/422196. PMC 1181996. PMID 15162323. 
  2. ^ a b Peričić, Marijana et al. (October 2005). "High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations". Molecular Biology and Evolution 22 (10): 1964–1975. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443.  Figure 3
  3. ^ "Average height of adolescents in the Dinaric Alps. They are also reputed to have the tallest males in Europe. Study claims it is not complete as yet". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  4. ^ Marie Lacan, Christine Keyser, François-Xavier Ricaut, Nicolas Brucato, Francis Duranthon, Jean Guilaine, Eric Crubézy, and Bertrand Ludes, Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, online May 31, 2011 before print.
  5. ^ Haak, Wolfgang et al. (November 2010). "Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities". PLoS Biology 8 (11). doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536. PMC 2976717. PMID 21085689. 
  6. ^ Rootsi, S. (2006). "Y-chromosome haplogroup I prehistoric gene flow in Europe" (PDF). Documenta Praehistorica 33: 17–20. 
  7. ^ Francalacci et al. (2013), Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny
  8. ^ "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in Southeast Europe" 17 (6). June 2009. pp. 820–830. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100. PMID 19107149.  figure 2: Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroups and their frequencies (%) in the examined populations.
  9. ^ Luca, F.; Giacomo, F. Di; Benincasa, T. et al. (2007). "Y-Chromosomal Variation in the Czech Republic". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 132 (1): 132–139. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20500. PMID 17078035. 
  10. ^ a b Peter Underhill et al., New phylogenetic relationships for Y-chromosome haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory, in Rethinking the Human Evolution, ed. P. Mellars et al. (2007), pp. 33-42.
  11. ^ "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6). doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100. PMID 19107149. 
  12. ^ Rootsi et al. (2004). "Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe". Am J. Hum. Genet 75: 128–137. 
  13. ^ Marjanović, Damir; et al. "The peopling of modern Bosnia-Herzegovina: Y-chromosome haplogroups in the three main ethnic groups." Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Sarajevo. November 2005.
  14. ^ Marijana, Peričić et al. (2005). "High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations". Molecular Biology and Evolution 22 (10): 1964–1975. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443. 
  15. ^ Rebała, K. et al. (2007). "Y-STR variation among Slavs: evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin". J Hum Genet 52 (5): 406–14. 
  16. ^ Jacques Chiaroni et al., Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution, PNAS (2009), corrected supplementary information.
  17. ^ a b c d e McEvoy and Bradley, Brian P and Daniel G (2010). Celtic from the West Chapter 5: Irish Genetics and Celts. Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK. pp. 117 They identify this haplogroup subclade as a mutation of I1c, using the old nomenclature. ISBN 978-1-84217-410-4. 

External links[edit]

Relationship to haplogroups and subclades[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups [n 1] [n 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [n 3]
A0 A1[n 4]
A1* A1a A1b
A1b* A1b1 BT
B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJK
G HIJK
H IJK
IJ K
I J LT (K1)  K2
L T NO (K2a) K2b[n 5]   K2c K2d K2e [n 6]
N O MS P
M S Q R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) was previously known as Haplogroup MPS.
  6. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as ex-K2a and/or "Haplogroup X".
Haplogroup I
I1

I1a



I1b



I1c



I1d



I1e



I2

I2a



I2b



I2*