Haplogroup I-M438

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Haplogroup I-M438
Possible time of origin probably >15 kya (see subclade descriptions)
Possible place of origin south-eastern Europe
Ancestor I-M170
Descendants I-L460, I-L1251
Defining mutations M438/P215/S31
Highest frequencies

I2a1a: Sardinia[1] I2a1b: Bosnia and Herzegovina,[2]

I2a2: Britain, Germany, and Sweden[1]

Haplogroup I-M438, also known as I2 and previously I2b is a human DNA Y-chromosome haplogroup, a subclade of Haplogroup I-M170. Haplogroup I-M438 originated some time around 13,000-15,000 BCE and has three main subclades: I-M438*, I-L460, and I-L1251.

The haplogroup reaches its maximum frequency in the Dinaric Alps, where the men are on record as being the tallest in the world, with a male average height of 185.6 cm (6 ft 1.1 in).[3]

Origin and prehistoric presence[edit]

Haplogroup I2a may be the haplogroup pertaining to the first anatomically modern humans to inhabit Europe, Cro-Magnon. A recent 2015 study has found Y DNA haplogroup I2a in a 13,000 year old, purportedly Cro-Magnon fossil from Bichon Switzerland, belonging to the Azilian culture. [4]

Sub-haplogroups[edit]

Haplogroup I is divided into I1 and I2. Sub-haplogroup I2 is further divided into I2a and I2b (ISOGG 2010). Further division is made up by SNPs (or Snips), Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

I-P37.2[edit]

The I-P37.2+ (or P37.2, L68) is the SNP that defines I2a. The subclade divergence for I-P37.2 occurred 10.7±4.8 kya. The age of YSTR variation for the P37.2 subclade is 8.0±4.0 kya.[1] It is the predominant Y-DNA lineage in Eastern Europe and the Balkans.[5] The I2a is further made up by sub-groups I-M26, I-M423, I-L1286, I-L880.

I-L158[edit]

Haplogroup I-M26 (or M26) has previously and is still sometimes called Eu-8, I1b2 (YCC), I1b1a, I2a1 or I2a2.

Haplogroup I-L158 (L158, L159.1/S169.1, M26) accounts for approximately 40% of all patrilines among the Sardinians.[6][7] It is also found at low to moderate frequency among populations of the Pyrenees (9.5% in Bortzerriak, Navarra; 9.7% in Chazetania, Aragon; 8% in Val d'Aran, Catalunya; 2.9% in Alt Urgell, Catalunya; and 8.1% in Baixa Cerdanya, Catalunya) and Iberia, and it has been found in 1.6% of a sample of Albanians living in the Republic of Macedonia[8] and 1.2% (3/257) of a sample of Czechs.[9] The age of YSTR variation for the M26 subclade has been calculated at 8.0±4.0 kya.[1]

I-L178[edit]

I-L178 is very rare, but has been found in two persons from Germany and one from Poland. The age of YSTR variation for the M423 subclade is 8.8±3.6 kya.[10]

I-L69.2[edit]

I-L69.2 (L69.2(=T)/S163.2) {rs9786274} is typical of the South Slavic populations of south-eastern Europe, being highest in Bosnia-Herzegovina (>50%).[2] Haplogroup I-L69.2 is also commonly found in north-eastern Italians.[11] There is also a high concentration of I-L69.2 in north-east Romania, Moldova and western Ukraine. Several groups have determined the common occurrence of this subclade in the South Slavic-speaking populations to be the result of "pre-Slavic" paleolithic settlement in the region. Peričić et al. for instance places its expansion to have occurred "not earlier than the YD to Holocene transition and not later than the early Neolithic”.[12][13][14] Decidedly, the Slavic population can be divided into two genetically distinct groups: one encompassing all Western-Slavic (Poles, Slovaks etc.), Eastern-Slavic (Russians, Ukrainians etc.), and a few Southern-Slavic populations (north-western Croats and Slovenes), characterized by Haplogroup R1a, and one encompassing all remaining Southern Slavs, but also the non-Slavic Romanians, characterized by Haplogroup I2a2 (I-L69.2). According to Rebała et al., this phenomenon is explained by "contribution to the Y chromosomes of peoples who settled in the Balkan region before the Slavic expansion to the genetic heritage of Southern Slavs.."[15] It is attributed to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in Ukraine, Romania and Moldova. L69/S163 - Removed from I in 2011 and IJK in 2012.[16]

I-M223[edit]

Haplogroup I2a2a (ISOGG 2014). The age of YSTR variation for the I-M223 subclade is 13.2±2.7 kya[1] and 12.3±3.1 kya.[10] I-M223 has a peak in Germany and another in eastern Sweden, but also appears in Romania/Moldova, Russia, Greece, Italy and around the Black Sea.[17] Haplogroup I2a2a has been found in over 4% of the population only in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark. England (excluding Cornwall), Scotland, also the southern tips of Sweden and Norway in Northwest Europe; the provinces of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Perche in northwestern France; the province of Provence in southeastern France; the regions of Tuscany, Umbria, and Latium in Italy; Moldavia and the area around Russia's Ryazan Oblast and Republic of Mordovia in Eastern Europe. Of historical note, both haplogroups I-M253 and I-M223 appear at a low frequency in the historical regions of Bithynia and Galatia in Turkey. Haplogroup I2a2a also occurs among approximately 1% of the Sardinians. The subclade divergence for M223 occurred 14.6±3.8 kya (Rootsi 2004).

Haplogroup I-M223 can be further subdivided in several subclades designated in the Y2012 ISOGG tree as follows: Haplogroup I-M223* with no further known polymorphisms, Haplogroup I-M284 defined by M284 polymorphism and including an undergroup Haplogroup I-L126 reserved for individuals derived for the L126/S165, L137/S166 polymorphisms, Haplogroup I-L701 associated with L701 polymorphism, and Haplogroup I-Z161 denoting individuals derived for the Z161 polymorphism.[citation needed]


I-M284[edit]

Haplogroup I2a2a1a1 (ISOGG 2014). I-M284 has been found almost exclusively among the population of Great Britain, suggesting that the clade may have arisen in that island. I-M284 is comparatively rare in Ireland except in the north-east. In regard to north-east Ireland, the presence of this subclade "provides some tentative evidence of ancient flow with eastern areas that could support the idea that the La Tene cultural package was accompanied by some migration."[18] Where it is found in those of Irish descent with Gaelic surnames, this suggests an ancestor who arrived in Ireland from Celtic Britain.[18] Men with several Gaelic surnames such as McGuinness and McCartan bear this subclade, family groups that have a historically recorded 6th-century common ancestor, thus it is not the result of known recent gene flow between Britain and Ireland.[18] While subclades of I-M284 are atypical of Ireland they are relatively common in continental Europe.[18] The observed mutational divergence between men with this subclade suggests its foundation very approximately at 300 BC, thus dates and geography are circumstantially associated but not securely with Iron Age continental Europe.[18]

I-CTS10057[edit]

Continentals. Mother Haplogroup for group I-Z161 (Continental 1 and 2) and I-L701 group (Continental 3). Around 10.000 years old.

I-Z161[edit]

Haplogroup I2a2a1b2 (ISOGG 2014). Z161+ defines the I2 Continental clade (except Continental 3). Its age is estimated around 7.000 years old. It is mainly found in North Europe, especially in Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and England. In Northwest Sicily it can also be found believed to be due to remnants of a Norman settlement.

I-L701[edit]

Called Continental 3. Continental 3 has a wide distribution. Found in Central Europe from Germany, Austria to Poland, Romania and Ukraine, but also in lower frequencies in Greece, Italy, France, Spain, England, Ireland, and Armenia. It may have been disseminated in part by the Goths. It is nearly absent from Scandinavia and Scotland.

Subclades list[edit]

See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1[χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1 F2 F3 GHIJK
G HIJK
H IJK
IJ K
I J LT [χ 5]  K2
L T NO [χ 6] K2b [χ 7]   K2c K2d K2e [χ 8]
N O K2b1 [χ 9]    P
M S [χ 10] Q R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similiar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  10. ^ Haplogroup S (S-M230) was previously known as Haplogroup K5.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Rootsi, Siiri; et al. (2004). "Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics 75: 128–137. doi:10.1086/422196. PMC 1181996. PMID 15162323. 
  2. ^ a b Peričić, Marijana; et al. (October 2005). "High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations". Molecular Biology and Evolution 22 (10): 1964–1975. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443.  Figure 3
  3. ^ "Average height of adolescents in the Dinaric Alps. They are also reputed to have the tallest males in Europe. Study claims it is not complete as yet". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  4. ^ http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/151116/ncomms9912/full/ncomms9912.html
  5. ^ Stefano Goffredo; Zvy Dubinsky (9 September 2013). The Mediterranean Sea: Its history and present challenges. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 538–. ISBN 978-94-007-6704-1. With respect to the I2a-P37.2 lineage (Karafet et al. 2008), it is the predominant Y-chromosome lineage in Eastern Europe and the Balkans (31–40%), whereas its sub-clade I2a1-M26 (Karafet et al. 2008) is found in Western Europe at a very ... 
  6. ^ Rootsi, S. (2006). "Y-chromosome haplogroup I prehistoric gene flow in Europe" (PDF). Documenta Praehistorica 33: 17–20. 
  7. ^ Francalacci et al. (2013), Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny
  8. ^ "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in Southeast Europe" 17 (6). June 2009: 820–830. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100. PMID 19107149.  figure 2: Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroups and their frequencies (%) in the examined populations.
  9. ^ Luca, F.; Giacomo, F. Di; Benincasa, T.; et al. (2007). "Y-Chromosomal Variation in the Czech Republic". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 132 (1): 132–139. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20500. PMID 17078035. 
  10. ^ a b Peter Underhill et al., New phylogenetic relationships for Y-chromosome haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory, in Rethinking the Human Evolution, ed. P. Mellars et al. (2007), pp. 33-42.
  11. ^ "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6). doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100. PMID 19107149. 
  12. ^ Rootsi; et al. (2004). "Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe". Am J. Hum. Genet 75: 128–137. 
  13. ^ Marjanović, Damir; et al. "The peopling of modern Bosnia-Herzegovina: Y-chromosome haplogroups in the three main ethnic groups." Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Sarajevo. November 2005.
  14. ^ Marijana, Peričić; et al. (2005). "High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations". Molecular Biology and Evolution 22 (10): 1964–1975. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443. 
  15. ^ Rebała, K.; et al. (2007). "Y-STR variation among Slavs: evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin". J Hum Genet 52 (5): 406–14. 
  16. ^ http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpI.html
  17. ^ Jacques Chiaroni et al., Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution, PNAS (2009), corrected supplementary information.
  18. ^ a b c d e McEvoy and Bradley, Brian P and Daniel G (2010). Celtic from the West Chapter 5: Irish Genetics and Celts. Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK. pp. 117 They identify this haplogroup subclade as a mutation of I1c, using the old nomenclature. ISBN 978-1-84217-410-4. 

External links[edit]

Relationship to haplogroups and subclades[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1[χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1 F2 F3 GHIJK
G HIJK
H IJK
IJ K
I J LT [χ 5]  K2
L T NO [χ 6] K2b [χ 7]   K2c K2d K2e [χ 8]
N O K2b1 [χ 9]    P
M S [χ 10] Q R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similiar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  10. ^ Haplogroup S (S-M230) was previously known as Haplogroup K5.
Haplogroup I
I1

I1a



I1b



I1c



I1d



I1e



I2

I2a



I2b



I2*