|Possible time of origin||4,000-24,000 years before present (Di Giacomo 2004)|
|Possible place of origin||Western Asia|
|Descendants||J-M62, J-M365.1, J-L136, J-Z1828|
|Defining mutations||M267, L255, L321, L765, L814, L827, L1030|
- Haplogroup J1 redirects here, this page discusses the Y-chromosomal haplogroup of the same name, for the completely separate and distinct mitochondrial haplogroup also named J1 see Haplogroup J (mtDNA)
In Genetic genealogy and human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J-M267, also commonly known as Haplogroup J1 is a subclade (branch) of Y-DNA haplogroup J-P209, (commonly known as Haplogroup J) along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J-M172 (commonly known as Haplogroup J2). (All these haplogroups have had other historical names listed below.[Phylogenetics 1][Phylogenetics 2])
Men from this lineage share a common paternal ancestor, which is demonstrated and defined by the presence of the SNP mutation referred to as M267, which was announced in (Cinnioğlu 2004). This haplogroup is found today in significant frequencies in many areas in or near the Middle East, and parts of the Caucasus, Sudan and Ethiopia. It is also found in high frequencies in parts of North Africa, Southern Europe, and amongst Jewish groups, especially those with Cohen surnames. It can also be found much less commonly, but still occasionally in significant amounts, throughout Europe and as far east as Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Phylogenetics and Distribution
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Since the discovery of haplogroup J-P209 it has generally been recognized that it shows signs of having originated in or near West Asia. The frequency and diversity of both its major branches, J-M267 and J-M172, in that region makes them candidates as genetic markers of the spread of farming technology during the Neolithic, which is proposed to have had a major impact upon human populations.
J-M267 has several recognized subclades, some of which were recognized before J-M267 itself was recognized, for example J-M62 Y Chromosome Consortium "YCC" 2002. With one notable exception, J-P58, most of these are not common (Tofanelli 2009). Because of the dominance of J-P58 in J-M267 populations in many areas, discussion of J-M267's origins require a discussion of J-P58 at the same time.
North Africa and Horn of Africa
North Africa received Semitic migrations, according to some studies it may have been diffused in recent time by Arabs who, mainly from the 7th century a.d., expanded to northern Africa (Arredi 2004 and Semino 2004). However the Canary islands is not known to have had any Semitic language. There J-M267 is dominated by J-P58, and dispersed in a very uneven manner according to studies so far, often but not always being lower among Berber and/or non-urban populations. In Ethiopia there are signs of older movements of J-M267 into Africa across the Red Sea, not only in the J-P58 form. This also appears to be associated with Semitic languages. According to a study in 2011, in Tunisia, J-M267 is significantly more abundant in the urban (31.3%) than in the rural total population (2.5%). According to the authors, these results could be explained by supposing that Arabization in Tunisia was a military enterprise, therefore, mainly driven by men that displaced native Berbers to geographically marginal areas but that frequently married Berber women (Ennafaa 2011).
|Population||Sample size||J*(xJ-M172)||total J-M267||J-M267(xP58)||J-P58||publication||previous research on same samples|
|Algeria (Arabs from Oran)||102||NA||22.5%||NA||NA||Robino 2007|
|Egypt||147||NA||21.1%||1.4%||19.7%||Chiaroni 2009||Luis 2004|
|Egypt (Western Desert)||35||NA||31.4%||NA||NA||Kujanová 2009|
|Libya (Tuareg)||47||NA||0.0%||NA||NA||Ottoni 2011|
|Libya (Benghazi)||238||NA||39.5%||NA||NA||Alvarez 2014||Elmrghni 2012|
|Morocco (Amizmiz Valley)||33||NA||0%||NA||NA||Alvarez 2009|
|Morocco (Arabs)||49||NA||10.2%||NA||NA||Semino 2004|
|Morocco (Arabs)||44||NA||13.6%||NA||NA||Semino 2004|
|Morocco (Berbers)||64||NA||6.3%||NA||NA||Semino 2004|
|Morocco (Berbers)||103||NA||7.8%||NA||NA||Semino 2004|
|Morocco (Rabat)||267||NA||21.3%||NA||NA||Alvarez 2014||Aboukhalid 2010|
|Morocco (Casablanca)||166||NA||15.7%||NA||NA||Alvarez 2014||Laouina 2011|
|Morocco (Figuig Oasis)||96||NA||29.2%||NA||NA||Alvarez 2014||Palet 2010|
|Morocco (El Jadida)||49||NA||8.2%||NA||NA||Alvarez 2014|
|Morocco (Fes)||108||NA||16.7%||NA||16.7%||Regueiro 2015|
|Tunisia (Sousse)||220||NA||25.9%||NA||25.9%||Fadhlaoui-Zid 2015|
|Tunisia (Tunis)||148||NA||32.4%||1.3%||31.1%||Grugni 2012||Arredi 2004|
|Tunisia (Bou Omrane Berbers)||40||NA||0%||NA||NA||Ennafaa 2011|
|Tunisia (Bou Saad Berbers)||40||NA||5%||0%||5%||Ennafaa 2011|
|Tunisia (Jerbian Arabs)||46||NA||8.7%||NA||NA||Ennafaa 2011|
|Tunisia (Jerbian Berbers)||47||NA||0%||NA||NA||Ennafaa 2011|
|Tunisia (Sened Berbers)||35||NA||31.4%||0%||31.4%||Fadhlaoui-Zid 2011|
|Tunisia (Andalusian Zaghouan)||32||NA||43.8%||0%||43.8%||Fadhlaoui-Zid 2011|
|Tunisia (Cosmopolitan Tunis)||33||NA||24.2||0%||24.2%||Fadhlaoui-Zid 2011|
|Tunisia (Sejenane)||47||NA||34.0%||NA||NA||Alvarez 2014||Frigi 2011|
|Tunisia (Sfax)||56||NA||25%||NA||25%||Regueiro 2015|
|Tunisia (Beja)||72||NA||15.3%||NA||15.3%||Regueiro 2015|
|Canary Islands (pre-Hispanic)||30||NA||16.7%||NA||NA||Fregel 2009|
|Canary Islands (17th-18thC)||42||NA||11.9%||NA||NA||Fregel 2009|
|Canary Islands||652||NA||3.5%||NA||NA||Fregel 2009|
|Sahrawi||89||NA||20.2%||NA||NA||Fregel 2009||Bosch 2001 and Flores 2001|
|Sudan (Khartoum)||35||NA||74.3%||0.0%||74.3%||Chiaroni 2009||Tofanelli 2009 and Hassan 2008|
|Sudan-Arabic||35||NA||17.1%||0.0%||17.1%||Chiaroni 2009||Hassan 2008|
|Sudan (Nilo-Saharan languages)||61||NA||4.9%||3.3%||1.6%||Chiaroni 2009||Hassan 2008|
|Ethiopia Oromo||78||NA||2.6%||2.6%||0.0%||Chiaroni 2009||Semino 2004|
|Ethiopia Amhara||48||NA||29.2%||8.3%||20.8%||Chiaroni 2009||Semino 2004|
|Ethiopia Arsi||85||22%||NA||NA||NA||Moran 2004|
|Ethiopia General||95||21%||NA||NA||NA||Moran 2004|
|Comoros Islands||293||NA||5.0%||NA||NA||Msaidie 2011|
J*(xJ-M172) was found in India among Indian Muslims.
|Population||Sample size||J*(xJ-M172)||total J-M267||J-M267(xP58)||J-P58||Publication|
|India (Indian Shia)||161||10.6%||NA||NA||NA||Eaaswarkhanth 2009|
|India (Indian Sunni)||129||2.3%||NA||NA||NA||Eaaswarkhanth 2009|
|India (Mappla)||40||10%||NA||NA||NA||Eaaswarkhanth 2009|
The area including eastern Turkey and the Zagros and Taurus mountains, has been identified as a likely area of ancient J-M267 diversity. Both J-P58 and other types of J-M267 are present, sometimes with similar frequencies.
|Population||Sample size||Total J-M267||J-M267(xP58)||J-P58||Publication||Previous research on same samples|
|Turkey||523||9.0%||3.1%||5.9%||Chiaroni 2009||Cinnioğlu 2004|
|Iran||150||11.3%||2.7%||8.7%||Chiaroni 2009||Regueiro 2006|
|Kurds Iraq||93||11.8%||4.3%||7.5%||Chiaroni 2009|
|Assyrians modern Iraq||28||28.6%||17.9%||10.7%||Chiaroni 2009|
|Iraq (Nassiriya)||56||26.8%||1.8%||25.0%||Chiaroni 2009||Tofanelli 2009|
|Assyrians Iran||31||16.1%||9.7%||6.5%||Chiaroni 2009|
|Assyrians Turkey||25||20.0%||16.0%||4.0%||Chiaroni 2009|
Levant and Semitic populations
J-M267 is very common throughout this region, dominated by J-P58, but some specific sub-populations have notably low frequencies.
|Population||Sample size||Total J-M267||J-M267(xP58)||J-P58||Publication||Previous research on same samples|
|Syria||554||33.6%||NA||NA||El-Sibai 2009||Zalloua 2008|
|Druzes (Djebel Druze)||34||14.7%||2.9%||11.8%||Chiaroni 2009|
|Syria (Sunni from Hama)||36||47.2%||2.8%||44.4%||Chiaroni 2009|
|Syria (Ma'loula Aramaean)||44||6.8%||4.5%||2.3%||Chiaroni 2009|
|Syria (Sednaya Syriac Catholic)||14||14.3%||0.0%||14.3%||Chiaroni 2009|
|Syrian Catholic Damascus||42||9.5%||0.0%||9.5%||Chiaroni 2009|
|Alawites Syria||45||26.7%||0.0%||26.7%||Chiaroni 2009|
|Assyrian NE Syria||30||3.3%||0.0%||3.3%||Chiaroni 2009|
|Ismaili Damascus||51||58.8%||0.0%||58.8%||Chiaroni 2009|
|Galilee Druze||172||13.4%||1.2%||12.2%||Chiaroni 2009||Shlush 2008|
|Palestinians (Akka (Acre))||101||39.2%||NA||NA||Zalloua 2008|
|Jordan (Amman)||101||40.6%||NA||NA||Flores 2005|
|Jordan (Dead Sea)||45||8.9%||NA||NA||Flores 2005|
|Jews (Portugal/Trás-os-Montes)||57||12.3%||NA||NA||Nogueiro 2009|
|Jews (Cohanim)||215||46.0%||0.0%||46.0%||Hammer & Behar 2009|
|Jews (non Cohanim)||1,360||14.9%||0.9%||14.0%||Hammer 2009|
|Bedouin Negev||28||67.9%||3.6%||64.3%||Chiaroni 2009||Cann 2002|
J-P58 is the most common Y-Chromosome haplogroup among men from all of this region.
|Population||Sample size||Total J-M267||J-M267(xP58)||J-P58||Publication||Previous research on same samples|
|Saudi Arabia||157||40.1%||NA||NA||Abu-Amero 2009|
|Qatar||72||58.3%||1.4%||56.9%||Chiaroni 2009||Cadenas 2007|
|UAE||164||34.8%||0.0%||34.8%||Chiaroni 2009||Cadenas 2007|
|Yemen||62||72.6%||4.8%||67.7%||Chiaroni 2009||Cadenas 2007|
|Oman||121||38.0%||0.8%||37.2%||Chiaroni 2009||Luis 2004|
J-M267 is uncommon in most of Northern and Central Europe. It is, however, found in significant pockets at levels of 5–10% among many populations in southern Europe.
|Population||Sample size||Total J-M267||J-M267(xP58)||J-P58||publication|
|Greece (mainland)||171||4.7%||NA||NA||King 2008|
|Macedonia (Greece)||56||1.8%||NA||NA||Semino 2004|
|Greece||249||1.6%||NA||NA||Di Giacomo 2004|
|Romania||130||1.5%||NA||NA||Di Giacomo 2004|
|Russia||223||0.4%||NA||NA||Di Giacomo 2004|
|Republic of Macedonia Albanian speakers||64||6.3%||NA||NA||Battaglia 2008|
|Croats (Osijek)||29||0.0%||NA||NA||Battaglia 2008|
|Italians (northeast)||67||0.0%||NA||NA||Battaglia 2008|
|Sicily||236||3.8%||NA||NA||Di Gaetano 2008|
|Portugal (North)||101||1.0%||NA||NA||Gonçalves 2005|
|Portugal (Centre)||102||4.9%||NA||NA||Gonçalves 2005|
|Portugal (South)||100||7.0%||NA||NA||Gonçalves 2005|
The Caucasus has areas of both high and low J-M267 frequency. The J-M267 in the Caucasus is also notable because most of it is not within the J-P58 subclade.
|Population||Sample size||Total J-M267||J-M267(xP58)||J-P58||Publication|
|Chechens (Ingushetia)||112||21.0%||21.0%||0.0%||Balanovsky 2011|
|Chechens (Chechnya)||118||25.0%||25.0%||0.0%||Balanovsky 2011|
|Chechens (Dagestan)||100||16.0%||16.0%||0.0%||Balanovsky 2011|
|Azerbaijan||46||15.2%||NA||NA||Di Giacomo 2004|
The P58 marker which defines subgroup J1c3 was announced in (Karafet 2008), but had been announced earlier under the name Page08 in (Repping 2006 and called that again in Chiaroni 2011). It is very prevalent in many areas where J-M267 is common, especially in parts of North Africa and throughout the Arabian peninsula. It also makes up approximately 70% of the J-M267 among the Amhara of Ethiopia. Notably, it is not common among the J-M267.
Chiaroni 2009 proposed that J-P58 (that they refer to as J1e) might have first dispersed during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, "from a geographical zone, including northeast Syria, northern Iraq and eastern Turkey toward Mediterranean Anatolia, Ismaili from southern Syria, Jordan, Palestine and northern Egypt." They further propose that the Zarzian material culture may be ancestral. They also propose that this movement of people may also be linked to the dispersal of Semitic languages by hunter-herders, who moved into arid areas during periods known to have had low rainfall. Thus, while other haplogroups including J-M267 moved out of the area with agriculturalists who followed the rainfall, populations carrying J-M267 remained with their flocks (King 2002 and Chiaroni 2008).
According to this scenario, after the initial neolithic expansion involving Semitic languages, which possibly reached as far as Yemen, a more recent dispersal occurred during the Chalcolithic or Early Bronze Age (approximately 3000–5000 BCE), and this involved the branch of Semitic which leads to the Arabic language. The authors propose that this involved a spread of some J-P58 from the direction of Syria towards Arab populations of the Arabian Peninsula and Negev.
On the other hand, the authors agree that later waves of dispersion in and around this area have also had complex effects upon the distributions of some types of J-P58 in some regions. They list three regions which are particularly important to their proposal:
- The Levant (Syria, Jordan, Israel and Palestine). In this area, Chiaroni 2009 note a "patchy distribution of J1c3 or J-P58 frequency" which is difficult to interpret, and which "may reflect the complex demographic dynamics of religion and ethnicity in the region".
- The northern area of eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and northwest Iran. In this area, Chiaroni 2009 recognize signs that J-M267 might have an older presence, and on balance they accept the evidence but note that it could be in error.
- The southern area of Oman, Yemen and Ethiopia. In this area, Chiaroni 2009 recognize similar signs, but reject it as possible a result of "either sampling variability and/or demographic complexity associated with multiple founders and multiple migrations."
The "YCAII=22-22 and DYS388≥15" cluster
Not only is the J-P58 group itself very dominant in many areas where J-M267 or J1 is common, but J-P58 in turn contains a large cluster which had been recognized before the discovery of P58, and is still a subject of research. This relatively young cluster, compared to J-M267 overall, was identified by STR markers haplotypes - specifically YCAII as 22-22, and DYS388 having unusual repeat values of 15 or higher, instead of more typical 13 (Chiaroni 2011) This cluster was found to be relevant in some well-publicized studies of Jewish and Palestinian populations (Nebel 2000 and Hammer 2009). More generally, since then this cluster has been found to be frequent among men in the Middle East and North Africa, but less frequent in areas of Ethiopia and Europe where J-M267 is nevertheless common. The pattern is therefore similar to the pattern of J-P58 generally, described above, and may be caused by the same movements of people (Chiaroni 2009).
Tofanelli 2009 refers to this overall cluster with YCAII=22-22 and high DYS388 values as an "Arabic" as opposed to a "Eurasian" type of J-M267. This Arabic type includes Arabic speakers from Maghreb, Sudan, Iraq and Qatar, and it is a relatively homogeneous group, implying that it might have dispersed relatively recently compared to J-M267 generally. The more diverse "Eurasian" group includes Europeans, Kurds, Iranians and Ethiopians (despite Ethiopia being outside of Eurasia), and is much more diverse. The authors also say that "Omanis show a mix of Eurasian pool-like and typical Arabic haplotypes as expected, considering the role of corridor played at different times by the Gulf of Oman in the dispersal of Asian and East African genes." Chiaroni 2009 also noted the anomalously high apparent age of Omani J-M267 when looking more generally at J-P58 and J-M267 more generally.
This cluster in turn contains three well-known related sub-clusters. First, it contains the majority of the Jewish "Cohen modal haplotype", found among Jewish populations, but especially in men with surnames related to Cohen. It also contains both the Galilee modal haplotype and Palestinian & Israeli Arab modal haplotype associated with Palestinians and Israeli Arabs by Nebel 2000 and Hammer 2009. Nebel 2002 then pointed out that the Galilee modal is also the most frequent type of J-P209 haplotype found in northwest Africans, and in Yemen, so it is not isolated to the area of Israel and the Palestine. But notably, this particular variant "is absent from two distinct non-Arab Middle Eastern populations, Jews and Muslim Kurds", even though both these populations do have high levels of J-P209 haplotypes.
Nebel 2002 noted not only the presence of the Galilee modal of J-M267 in the Maghreb but also that J-M267 in this region had very little diversity generally. They concluded that J-M267 in this region "is derived not only from the early Neolithic dispersion but also from recent expansions from the Arabian peninsula" proposing that they might have been carried from the Middle East with the Arab expansion in the seventh century AD. Semino 2004 later agreed that this seemed consistent with the evidence and generalized from this that distribution of the entire YCAII=22-22 cluster of J-M267 in the Arabic speaking areas of the Middle East and North Africa might in fact mainly have an origin in historical times.
More recent studies have emphasized doubt that the Islamic expansions are old enough to completely explain the major patterns of J-M267 frequencies. Chiaroni 2009 rejected this for J-P58 as a whole, but accepted that "some of the populations with low diversity, such as Bedouins from Israel, Qatar, Sudan and UAE, are tightly clustered near high-frequency haplotypes suggesting founder effects with star burst expansion in the Arabian Desert". They did not comment on the Maghreb.
Tofanelli 2009 take a stronger position of rejecting any strong correlation between the Arab expansion and either the YCAII=22-22 STR-defined sub-cluster as discussed by Semino 2004 or the smaller "Galilee modal" as discussed by (Nebel 2002). They also estimate that the Cohen modal haplotype must be older than 4500 years old, and maybe as much as 8600 years old - well before the supposed origin of the Cohanim. Only the so-called Palestinian & Israeli Arab modal had a strong correlation to an ethnic group, but it was also rare. In conclusion, the authors were negative about the usefulness of STR defined modals for any "forensic or genealogical purposes" because "they were found across ethnic groups with different cultural or geographic affiliation".
Hammer 2009 disagreed, at least concerning the Cohen modal haplotype. They said that it was necessary to look at a more detailed STR haplotype in order to define a new "Extended Cohen Modal Haplotype" which is extremely rare outside Jewish populations, and even within Jewish populations is mainly only found in Cohanim. They also said that by using more markers and a more restrictive definition, the estimated age of the Cohanim lineage is lower than the estimates of Tofanelli 2009, and it is consistent with a common ancestor at the approximate time of founding of the priesthood which is the source of Cohen surnames.
The correspondence between P58 and high DYS388 values, and YCAII=22-22 is not perfect. For example the J-M267 subclade of J-P58 defined by SNP M368 has DYS388=13 and YCAII=19-22, like other types of J-M267 outside the "Arabic" type of J-M267, and it is therefore believed to be a relatively old offshoot of J-P58, that did not take part in the most recent waves of J-M267 expansion in the Middle East (Chiaroni 2009). These DYS388=13 haplotypes are most common in the Caucasus and Anatolia, but also found in Ethiopia (Tofanelli 2009).
Phylogenetics and Distribution
There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup J-M267. The following phylogeny or family tree of J-M267 haplogroup subclades is based on the ISOGG (2012) tree, which is in turn based upon the YCC 2008 tree and subsequent published research.
J1 (L255, L321, M267)
- J1* J1* clusters are found in Eastern Anatolia & parts of the Caucasus.
- J1a (M62) found in a very small frequency in Britain.
- J1b (M365.1) found in a small frequency in Eastern Anatolia, Iran & parts of Europe.
- J1c (L136)
- J1c* Found in a very small frequency in Europe.
- J1c1 (M390)
- J1c2 (P56) found sporadically in Anatolia, East Africa, the Arabian Peninsula & Europe.
- J1c3* found in a low frequency in the Levant & the Arabian Peninsula.
- J1c3a (M367.1, M368.1) - formerly J1e1.
- J1c3b (M369) - formerly J1e2.
- J1c3c (L92, L93) found in a small frequency in South Arabia.
- J1c3d (L147.1) accounts for the majority J1, the predominant haplogroup in Yemen.
- J1c3d* accounts for the majority of J1 in Yemen, Cohen Jews and Ethiopia. as well as Quraysh including Seyyed.
- J1c3d1 (L174.1)
- J1c3d2 (L222.2) Found in the majority of J1c3d in Saudi Arabia & Sudan. An important element of J1c3d in North Africa.
- J1c3d2a (L65.2/S159.2)
- Jl829 found in a part of Idrisid family
- Archaeogenetics of the Near East
- Genetic history of Europe
- Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups
- Genetic Genealogy
- Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
- Molecular Phylogeny
- Y-chromosomal Aaron
- Y-chromosome haplogroups by populations
- Y-DNA haplogroups in European populations
- Y-DNA haplogroups by populations of East and Southeast Asia
- Y-DNA haplogroups by populations of Near East and North Africa
- Y-DNA haplogroups by populations of the Caucasus
- Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic groups
Y-DNA J Subclades
Y-DNA Backbone Tree
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2|
|L||T||NO [χ 6]||K2b [χ 7]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 8]|
|N||O||K2b1 [χ 9]||P|
|M||S [χ 10]||Q||R|
- Alvarez et al.,2014, Y-chromosome analysis in a Northwest Iberian population: Unraveling the impact of Northern African lineages, doi:10.1002/ajhb.22602
- Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. 2015, Sousse: extreme genetic heterogeneity in North Africa, Journal of Human Genetics (2015) 60, 41–49; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.99; published online 4 December 2014
- -Middle Eastern and Sub-Saharan lineages in Indian Muslim populations
- El-Sibai et al.,2009, Percentage of haplogroups
- Moran, CN; Scott RA; Adams SM; Warrington SJ; Jobling MA; Wilson RH; Goodwin WH; Georgiades E; Wolde B; Pitsiladis YP. (Nov 2004). "Y chromosome haplogroups of elite Ethiopian endurance runners". Hum Genet. 115 (6): 492–7. doi:10.1007/s00439-004-1202-y. PMID 15503146.
- Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Underhill, Peter A (2009). "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions". BMC Genetics 10 (1): 59. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59. PMC 2759955. PMID 19772609.
- Alvarez, Luis; Santos, Cristina; Montiel, Rafael; Caeiro, Blazquez; Baali, Abdellatif; Dugoujona, Jean-Michel; Aluja, Maria Pilar (2009). "Y-chromosome variation in South Iberia: insights into the North African contribution". American Journal of Human Biology 21 (3): 407–9. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20888. PMID 19213004.
- Arredi, B; Poloni, E; Paracchini, S; Zerjal, T; Fathallah, D; Makrelouf, M; Pascali, V; Novelletto, A; Tyler-Smith, C (2004). "A predominantly neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa". American Journal of Human Genetics 75 (2): 338–45. doi:10.1086/423147. PMC 1216069. PMID 15202071.
- Balanovsky, O.; Dibirova, K.; Dybo, A.; Mudrak, O.; Frolova, S.; Pocheshkhova, E.; Haber, M.; Platt, D.; et al. (2011). "Parallel evolution of genes and languages in the Caucasus region". Molecular Biology and Evolution 28 (10): 2905–20. doi:10.1093/molbev/msr126. PMC 3355373. PMID 21571925.
- Battaglia, Vincenza; Fornarino, Simona; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Rootsi, Siiri; et al. (2009). "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6): 820–30. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100. PMID 19107149.
- Cadenas, Alicia M; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L; Underhill, Peter A; Herrera, Rene J (2008). "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman". European Journal of Human Genetics 16 (3): 374–86. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934. PMID 17928816.
- Cann, H. M. (2002). "A Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel". Science 296 (5566): 261–262. doi:10.1126/science.296.5566.261b. PMID 11954565.
- Capelli, Cristian; Onofri, Valerio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Scarnicci, Francesca; Masullo, Mara; Ferri, Gianmarco; Tofanelli, Sergio; et al. (2009). "Moors and Saracens in Europe: estimating the medieval North African male legacy in southern Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6): 848–52. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.258. PMC 2947089. PMID 19156170.
- Chiaroni, J; King, Roy J; Underhill, Peter A (2008). "Correlation of annual precipitation with human Y-chromosome diversity and the emergence of Neolithic agricultural and pastoral economies in the Fertile Crescent". Antiquity 82 (316): 281–289. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00096800.
- Chiaroni, Jacques; King, Roy J; Myres, Natalie M; Henn, Brenna M; Ducourneau, Axel; Mitchell, Michael J; Boetsch, Gilles; Sheikha, Issa; et al. (2010). "The emergence of Y-chromosome haplogroup J1e among Arabic-speaking populations". European Journal of Human Genetics 18 (3): 348–353. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.166. PMC 2987219. PMID 19826455.
- Cinnioğlu, Cengiz; King, Roy; Kivisild, Toomas; Kalfoğlu, Ersi; Atasoy, Sevil; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Lillie, Anita S.; Roseman, Charles C; et al. (2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". Human Genetics 114 (2): 127–148. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639.
- Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Cerutti, Nicoletta; Crobu, Francesca; Robino, Carlo; Inturri, Serena; Gino, Sarah; Guarrera, Simonetta; Underhill, Peter A; et al. (2009). "Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome". European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (1): 91–99. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.120. PMC 2985948. PMID 18685561.
- El-Sibai, Mirvat; Platt, Daniel E.; Haber, Marc; Xue, Yali; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Wells, R. Spencer; Izaabel, Hassan; Sanyoura, May F.; et al. (2009). "Geographical structure of the Y-chromosomal genetic landscape of the Levant: a coastal-inland contrast". Annals of Human Genetics 73 (Pt 6): 568–581. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00538.x. PMC 3312577. PMID 19686289.
- Ennafaa, Hajer; Fregel, Rosa; Khodjet-El-Khil, Houssein; González, Ana M; Mahmoudi, Hejer Abdallah El; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, José M; Benammar-Elgaaïed, Amel (2011). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome microstructure in Tunisia". Journal of Human Genetics 56 (10): 734–741. doi:10.1038/jhg.2011.92. PMID 21833004.
- Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Martinez-Cruz, Begoña; Khodjet-El-Khil, Houssein; Mendizabal, Isabel; Benammar-Elgaaïed, Amel; Comas, David (2011). "Genetic structure of Tunisian ethnic groups revealed by paternal lineages". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 146 (2): 271–280. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21581. PMID 21915847.
- Flores, Carlos; Maca-Meyer, Nicole; Larruga, Jose M.; Cabrera, Vicente M.; Karadsheh, Naif; Gonzalez, Ana M. (2005). "Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan". Journal of Human Genetics 50 (9): 435–441. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0274-4. PMID 16142507.
- Fregel, Rosa; Gomes, Verónica; Gusmão, Leonor; González, Ana M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Amorim, António; Larruga, Jose M (2009). "Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European". BMC Evolutionary Biology 9 (1): 181. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-181. PMC 2728732. PMID 19650893.
- Di Giacomo, F.; Luca, F.; Popa, L. O.; Akar, N.; Anagnou, N.; Banyko, J.; Brdicka, R.; Barbujani, G.; et al. (2004). "Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe". Human Genetics 115 (5): 357–371. doi:10.1007/s00439-004-1168-9. PMID 15322918.
- Gonçalves, Rita; Freitas, Ana; Branco, Marta; Rosa, Alexandra; Fernandes, Ana T.; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Underhill, Peter A.; Kivisild, Toomas; Brehm, Antonio (2005). "Y-chromosome lineages from Portugal, Madeira and Açores record elements of Sephardim and Berber ancestry". Annals of Human Genetics 69 (Pt 4): 443–454. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00161.x. PMID 15996172.
- Hammer, Michael F.; Behar, Doron M.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Mendez, Fernando L.; Hallmark, Brian; Erez, Tamar; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Rosset, Saharon; Skorecki, Karl (2009). "Extended Y chromosome haplotypes resolve multiple and unique lineages of the Jewish priesthood". Human Genetics 126 (5): 707–717. doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0727-5. PMC 2771134. PMID 19669163.
- Hassan, Hisham Y.; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L.; Ibrahim, Muntaser E. (2008). "Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: restricted gene flow, concordance with language, geography, and history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137 (3): 316–323. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20876. PMID 18618658.
- Karafet, T. M.; Mendez, F. L.; Meilerman, M. B.; Underhill, Peter A.; Zegura, S. L.; Hammer, M. F. (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research 18 (5): 830–838. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274. See also Supplementary Material.
- King, R; Underhill, Peter A (2002). "Congruent distribution of Neolithic painted pottery and ceramic figurines with Y-chromosome lineages". Antiquity 76 (293): 707–714. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00091158.
- King, R. J.; Özcan, S. S.; Carter, T.; Kalfoğlu, E.; Atasoy, S.; Triantaphyllidis, C.; Kouvatsi, A.; Lin, A. A.; et al. (2008). "Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic". Annals of Human Genetics 72 (Pt 2): 205–214. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x. PMID 18269686.
- Kujanová, Martina; Pereira, Luísa; Fernandes, Verónica; Pereira, Joana B.; Černý, Viktor (2009). "Near eastern neolithic genetic input in a small oasis of the Egyptian Western Desert". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 140 (2): 336–46. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21078. PMID 19425100.
- Luis, J; Rowold, D; Regueiro, M; Caeiro, B; Cinnioğlu, C; Roseman, C; Underhill, P; Cavalli-Sforza, L; Herrera, R (2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations". The American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (3): 532–544. doi:10.1086/382286. PMC 1182266. PMID 14973781.. (Also see Errata)
- Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J (2011). "Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean". European Journal of Human Genetics 19 (1): 89–94. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.128. PMC 3039498. PMID 20700146.
- Nebel, A; Filon, D; Weiss, DA; Weale, M; Faerman, M; Oppenheim, A; Thomas, MG (2000). "High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews". Hum Genet. 107 (6): 630–641. doi:10.1007/s004390000426. PMID 11153918.
- Nebel, A; Filon, D; Brinkmann, B; Majumder, P; Faerman, M; Oppenheim, A (2001). "The Y chromosome pool of Jews as part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East". American Journal of Human Genetics 69 (5): 1095–1112. doi:10.1086/324070. PMC 1274378. PMID 11573163.
- Nebel, A; Landau-Tasseron, E; Filon, D; Oppenheim, A; Faerman, M (2002). "Genetic evidence for the expansion of Arabian tribes into the Southern Levant and North Africa". American Journal of Human Genetics 70 (6): 1594–1596. doi:10.1086/340669. PMC 379148. PMID 11992266.
- Nogueiro, I.; Manco, L.; Gomes, V.; Amorim, A.; Gusmão, L. (2010). "Phylogeographic analysis of paternal lineages in NE Portuguese Jewish communities". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 141 (3): 373–381. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21154. PMID 19918998.
- Onofri, Valerio; Alessandrini, Federica; Turchi, Chiara; Pesaresi, Mauro; Tagliabracci, Adriano (2008). "Y-chromosome markers distribution in Northern Africa: High-resolution SNP and STR analysis in Tunisia and Morocco populations". Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series 1: 235–236. doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2007.10.173.
- Ottoni, Claudio; Larmuseau, Maarten H.D.; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Primativo, Giuseppina; Biondi, Gianfranco; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga (2011). "Deep into the roots of the Libyan Tuareg: A genetic survey of their paternal heritage". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 145 (1): 118–124. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21473. PMID 21312181.
- Regueiro, M.; Cadenas, A.M.; Gayden, T.; Underhill, P.A.; Herrera, R.J. (2006). "Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration". Human Heredity 61 (3): 132–143. doi:10.1159/000093774. PMID 16770078.
- Repping, S; van Daalen, SK; Brown, LG; Korver, Cindy M; Lange, Julian; Marszalek, Janet D; Pyntikova, Tatyana; van der Veen, Fulco; et al. (2006). "High mutation rates have driven extensive structural polymorphism among human Y chromosomes". Nat Genet 38 (4): 463–467. doi:10.1038/ng1754. PMID 16501575.
- Robino, C.; Crobu, F.; Di Gaetano, C.; Bekada, A.; Benhamamouch, S.; Cerutti, N.; Piazza, A.; Inturri, S.; Torre, C. (2008). "Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample". International Journal of Legal Medicine 122 (3): 251–255. doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0203-5. PMID 17909833.
- Semino, Ornella; Magri, Chiara; Benuzzi, Giorgia; Lin, Alice A.; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Maccioni, Liliana; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; et al. (2004). "Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area". American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (5): 1023–1034. doi:10.1086/386295. PMC 1181965. PMID 15069642.
- Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; King, Roy; Mehdi, S.Q; Edmonds, Christopher A.; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T.; Lin, Alice A.; Mitra, Mitashree; et al. (2006). "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists". American Journal of Human Genetics 78 (2): 202–221. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607.
- Shen, Peidong; Lavi, Tal; Kivisild, Toomas; Chou, Vivian; Sengun, Deniz; Gefel, Dov; Shpirer, Issac; Woolf, Eilon; et al. (2004). "Reconstruction of patrilineages and matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli populations from Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA sequence variation". Human Mutation 24 (3): 248–260. doi:10.1002/humu.20077. PMID 15300852.
- Shlush, Liran I.; Behar, Doron M.; Yudkovsky, Guennady; Templeton, Alan; Hadid, Yarin; Basis, Fuad; Hammer, Michael; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Skorecki, Karl (2008). "The Druze: a population genetic refugium of the Near East". PLoS ONE 3 (5): e2105. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002105. PMC 2324201. PMID 18461126.
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- Zalloua, Pierre A.; Xue, Yali; Khalife, Jade; Makhoul, Nadine; Debiane, Labib; Platt, Daniel E.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Herrera, Rene J.; et al. (2008). "Y-chromosomal diversity in Lebanon is structured by recent historical events". American Journal of Human Genetics 82 (4): 873–882. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.01.020. PMC 2427286. PMID 18374297.
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- ISOGG; Schrack, Janzen (2013). "Y-DNA Haplogroup J and its Subclades". International Society of Genetic Genealogists "ISOGG". Ongoing Corrections/Additions by citizen scientists.
Haplotype/SNP research Projects. See also Y-DNA haplogroup projects (ISOGG Wiki)
- Schrack; Janzen; Rottensteiner; Ricci; Mas (2013). "Y-DNA J Haplogroup Project". Family Tree DNA. This is an ongoing research project by citizen scientists. Over 2300 members.
- Givargidze; Hrechdakian (2013). "J1* Y-DNA Project". Family Tree DNA. This is an ongoing research project by citizen scientists. Over 150 members.
- Al Haddad (2013). "J1c3 (J-L147)". Family Tree DNA. This is an ongoing research project by citizen scientists. Over 550 members.
- Cone; Al Gazzah; Sanders (2013). "J-M172 Y-DNA Project (J2)". Family Tree DNA. This is an ongoing research project by citizen scientists. Over 1050 members.
- Aburto; Katz; Al Gazzah; Janzen (2013). "J-L24-Y-DNA Haplogroup Project (J2a1h)". Family Tree DNA. This is an ongoing research project by citizen scientists. Over 450 members.
Haplogroup-Specific Ethnic/Geographical Group Projects
- Eddali (2013). "Arab Tribes". Family Tree DNA. This is an ongoing research project by citizen scientists. Over 950 J members.
- Al Gazzah (2013). "J2-Middle East Project مشروع سلالة ج2 في العالم العربي والشرق الأوسط". Family Tree DNA. This is an ongoing research project by citizen scientists. Over 400 members.
- Behar, Doron M.; Thomas, Mark G.; Skorecki, Karl; Hammer, Michael F.; Bulygina, Ekaterina; Rosengarten, Dror; Jones, Abigail L.; Held, Karen; et al. (2003). "Multiple Origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y Chromosome Evidence for Both Near Eastern and European Ancestries". The American Journal of Human Genetics 73 (4): 768–79. doi:10.1086/378506. PMC 1180600. PMID 13680527.
- Behar, Doron M.; Garrigan, Daniel; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Mobasher, Zahra; Rosengarten, Dror; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Ostrer, Harry; et al. (2004). "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and host non-Jewish European populations". Human Genetics 114 (4): 354–65. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1073-7. PMID 14740294.
- Consortium, T. Y C. (2002). "A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups". Genome Research 12 (2): 339–48. doi:10.1101/gr.217602. PMC 155271. PMID 11827954.
- Firasat, Sadaf; Khaliq, Shagufta; Mohyuddin, Aisha; Papaioannou, Myrto; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Underhill, Peter A; Ayub, Qasim (2006). "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan". European Journal of Human Genetics 15 (1): 121–6. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201726. PMC 2588664. PMID 17047675.
- Flores, Carlos; Maca-Meyer, Nicole; González, Ana M; Oefner, Peter J; Shen, Peidong; Pérez, Jose A; Rojas, Antonio; Larruga, Jose M; Underhill, Peter A (2004). "Reduced genetic structure of the Iberian peninsula revealed by Y-chromosome analysis: Implications for population demography". European Journal of Human Genetics 12 (10): 855–63. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201225. PMID 15280900.
- Semino, O.; Passarino, G; Oefner, PJ; Lin, AA; Arbuzova, S; Beckman, LE; De Benedictis, G; Francalacci, P; et al. (2000). "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective". Science 290 (5494): 1155–9. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453.
- This table shows the historic names for J-M267 and its earlier discovered and named subclade J-M62 in published peer reviewed literature.
YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-M267 J-M62 Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 - 9 Underhill 2000 - VI Hammer 2001 - Med Karafet 2001 - 23 Semino 2000 - Eu10 Su 1999 - H4 Capelli 2001 - B YCC 2002 (Longhand) - J1 YCC 2005 (Longhand) J1 J1a YCC 2008 (Longhand) J1 J1a YCC 2010r (Longhand) J1 J1a
- This table shows the historic names for J-P209 (AKA J-12f2.1 or J-M304) in published peer reviewed literature. Note that in Semino 2000 Eu09 is a subclade of Eu10 and in Karafet 2001 24 is a subclade of 23.
YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-P209
(AKA J-12f2.1 or J-M304)
Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 9 Underhill 2000 VI Hammer 2001 Med Karafet 2001 23 Semino 2000 Eu10 Su 1999 H4 Capelli 2001 B YCC 2002 (Longhand) J* YCC 2005 (Longhand) J YCC 2008 (Longhand) J YCC 2010r (Longhand) J