Haplogroup K or K-M9 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. A sublineage of haplogroup IJK, K-M9 and its descendant clades represent a geographically widespread and diverse haplogroup. The lineages have long been found among males on every continent.
Y-DNA haplogroup K-M9 is an old lineage that arose approximately 47,000-50,000 years ago, probably in South Asia or West Asia.
Basal K* is exceptionally rare and under-researched; while it has been reported at very low frequencies on many continents it is not always clear if the examples concerned have been screened for subclades. Confirmed examples of K-M9* now appear to be most common amongst some populations in Island South East Asia and Melanesia.
Primary descendants of haplogroup LT are L (M20), also known as K1a, and T (M184), also known as K1b.
The descendants of haplogroup K2 include:
K2a (detected in paleolithic specimens Oase1 and Ust'-Ishim), the subclades of which include the major haplogroups N and O, and;
The structure of K2a demonstrates relatively rapid divergence, with its emergence being followed by a series of branchings with only one known subclade (and no "siblings"). That is, K2a1 is the only primary subclade of K2a, and K2a1 has one known primary branch, in NO. Likewise, NO1 is the only known primary branch of NO. (Haplogroup NO1 is the "parent" of the major haplogroups N and O.)
K2a1* (M2313) – so far found only in one Telugu male and one ethnic Malay.
NO (M214; a.k.a. K2a2) – The two primary branches of NO include the major
• N, which is found mainly in populations across Northern Eurasia (and at lower frequencies in regions including East Asia, Central Asia,
Southeast Asia and Anatolia) and;
• O, which is now numerically dominant among males from China, South East Asia and the Pacific Islands.
S (B254) which is numerically dominant in the highlands of Papua New Guinea; subclades of S1, such as S1a3 (P315) and S1a1a1 (P308), have also been reported at levels of up to 27% among indigenous Australians, whileS1a (P405; previously K2b1a) has also been found at significant levels in other parts of Oceania. S2 (P336; previously K2b1b) has been found on Alor, Timor and Borneo and; S3 (P378; previously K2b1c) found among Aeta people of the Philippines.
R1b West Europe, Chadic Languages, Armenian Highlands (Found in several Bell Beakers from Germany and in late antique Basques of whom it is still common in as well as 13.3% (4):one P probably R1b2 (V88): of Guanches from the Canary Islands, (reports of King Tut belonging to R1b, by iGENEA belonging to R1b have not been verified.)
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^Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Tan, Ping-Ping; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Ma, Runlin Z. (2010). "Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28 (1): 717–27. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq247. PMID20837606.
^As of 2017, S1a1a1 (P308) – formerly K2b1a1 – included an unnamed subclade, identified by the SNP P60 (and previously by P304, which has been removed by ISOGG as unreliable). S1a1a1 and any sublades have only been found among indigenous Australians.
^Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID24166809.