Haplogroup K or K-M9 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. A sublineage of haplogroup IJK, K-M9 and its descendant clades represent a geographically widespread and diverse haplogroup. The lineages have long been found among males on every continent.
The direct descendants of K-M9 are
Haplogroup K2 (formerly KxLT; K-M526) and Haplogroup LT (L298 = P326).  
Origins and distribution [ edit ]
Y-DNA haplogroup K-M9 is an old lineage that arose approximately 47,000 years ago,
probably in  South Asia or West Asia.
The basal paragroup K* is exceptionally rare, although it has been reported at low frequencies in various parts of
Eurasia, Oceania and Africa.  
The descendants of haplogroup K2 include:
K2a, the subclades of which include the major haplogroups  N and O, and; 
K2b – the ancestor of haplogroups M, P, Q, R, S. 
The structure of K2a demonstrates relatively rapid divergence, with its emergence being followed by a series of branchings with only one known subclade (and no "siblings"). That is,
K2a1 is the only primary subclade of K2a, and K2a1 has one known primary branch, in NO. Likewise, NO1 is the only known primary branch of NO. (Haplogroup NO1 is the "parent" of the major haplogroups N and O.) 
Structure [ edit ]
Haplogroup K-M9 tree
                   
(L298; a.k.a. K1) has never been found in basal form (LT*). Subclades are widely distributed at low concentrations. Haplogroup L is found at its highest frequency in LT India, Pakistan and among the Balochs of Afghanistan. T is most common among: Fulanis, Toubou, Tuareg, Somalis, Egyptians, some Middle East, the  Aegean Islands and among Kurru, Bauris and Lodha in India.
K2* (M526) has been found in an estimated 27% of indigenous Australians (based on large scale surveys in which 56% of the samples were assumed to be non-indigenous.) 
K2a (K-M2308) 
S (B254) which is numerically dominant in the highlands of Papua New Guinea; subclades of S1, such as S1a3 (P315) and S1a1a1 (P308),  have also been reported at levels of up to 27% among indigenous Australians, while   S1a (P405; previously K2b1a) has also been found at significant levels in other parts of Oceania. S2 (P336; previously K2b1b) has been found on Alor, Timor and Borneo and; S3 (P378; previously K2b1c) found among Aeta people of the Philippines.
M (P256, Page93/S322) a.k.a. K2b1b (previously K2b1d) is the most common haplogroup in both West Papua and Papua New Guinea; also found in Australia, and neighbouring parts of  Melanesia and Polynesia.
P* (K2b2*) 28% of
Aeta (Philippines), 10% in Timor
P1* (M45/PF5962) 22.2–35.4% in Tuvans, Kizhi, and Todjins
Q (M242) Native Americans and Siberia/Central Asia ( Kets, Selkups, Turkmen, Altai, Tuvans, Xirong, Mongolian Altai Kurgans)
R* found only in remains from 24,000 years BP at Mal'ta' in Siberia
R2 found in India, Sri Lanka, North Pakistan isolates
R1a found in Eastern Europe, South Asia, Central Asia (especially Altai populations and Uighurs), and Scandinavia. Ancient samples include 10 out of 11 samples from Xiaohe Tomb complex, Andronovo, Pazyryk, Mongolian Altai Kurgans (R1a/Z93 mixed with Q1a2a1/L54), The Tagar Culture, Karasuk culture, Tashtyk culture, some Corded ware folk
R1b West Europe, Chadic Languages, Armenian Highlands (Found in several Bell Beakers from Germany and in late antique Basques of whom it is still common in as well as 13.3% (4):one P probably R1b2 (V88): of Guanches from the Canary Islands, (reports of King Tut belonging to R1b, by iGENEA belonging to R1b have not been verified.)
K2c (P261). Minor lineage of
K2d (P402). Minor lineage of
K2e (M147). Highly rare lineage; two cases in
South Asia. 
References [ edit ]
^ a b c d e International Society of Genetic Genealogy , 2015 Y-DNA Haplogroup K and its Subclades – 2015 (5 April 2015).
^ Chiaroni, J.; Underhill, P. A.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (December 2009). "Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (48): 20174–9. Bibcode: 2009PNAS..10620174C. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910803106. JSTOR 25593348. PMC . 2787129 PMID 19920170.
^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Res. 18 (5): 830–8. doi: 10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC . 2336805 PMID 18385274.
^ Rowold, Daine J.; et al. (2016). "On the Bantu expansion". Gene. 593 (1): 48–57. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2016.07.044 . Retrieved . 13 October 2016
^ a b c d G. David Poznik et al., 2016, "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences", , no. 48, pp. 593–599. (24 March 2017) Nature Genetics
^ Rootsi, Siiri; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Baldovič, Marian; Kayser, Manfred; Kutuev, Ildus A; Khusainova, Rita; Bermisheva, Marina A; Gubina, Marina; Fedorova, Sardana A; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Osipova, Ludmila P; Stoneking, Mark; Lin, Alice A; Ferak, Vladimir; Parik, Jüri; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A; Villems, Richard; et al. (2007). "A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (2): 204–211. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201748. PMID 17149388.
^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. doi: 10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC . 2336805 PMID 18385274.
^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Sudoyo H, Lansing JS, Hammer MF (June 2014). "Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia". European Journal of Human Genetics. 23: 369–373. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2014.106. PMC . 4326703 PMID 24896152.
^ Raghavan M, Skoglund P, Graf KE, et al. (January 2014). "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans". Nature. 505 (7481): 87–91. doi: 10.1038/nature12736. PMC . 4105016 PMID 24256729.
^ Rasmussen M, Anzick SL, Waters MR, et al. (February 2014). "The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana". Nature. 506 (7487): 225–9. doi: 10.1038/nature13025. PMID 24522598.
^ Hollard C, Keyser C, Giscard PH, et al. (September 2014). "Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers". Forensic Science International: Genetics. 12: 199–207. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.05.012. PMID 25016250.
^ Fregel R, Gomes V, Gusmão L, et al. (2009). "Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 181. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-181. PMC . 2728732 PMID 19650893.
^ Grugni V, Battaglia V, Hooshiar Kashani B, et al. (2012). "Ancient migratory events in the Middle East: new clues from the Y-chromosome variation of modern Iranians". PLOS ONE. 7 (7): e41252. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041252. PMC . 3399854 PMID 22815981.
^ Haber M, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, et al. (2012). "Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events". PLOS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC . 3314501 PMID 22470552.
^ Bekada A, Fregel R, Cabrera VM, et al. (2013). "Introducing the Algerian mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome profiles into the North African landscape". PLOS ONE. 8 (2): e56775. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056775. PMC . 3576335 PMID 23431392.
^ Rosser ZH, Zerjal T, Hurles ME, et al. (December 2000). "Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language". American Journal of Human Genetics. 67 (6): 1526–43. doi: 10.1086/316890. PMC . 1287948 PMID 11078479.
^ Pichler I, Mueller JC, Stefanov SA, et al. (August 2006). "Genetic structure in contemporary south Tyrolean isolated populations revealed by analysis of Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu polymorphisms". Human Biology. 78 (4): 441–64. doi: 10.1353/hub.2006.0057. PMID 17278620.
^ Robino C, Varacalli S, Gino S, et al. (October 2004). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios". Forensic Science International. 145 (1): 61–4. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.02.026. PMID 15374596.
^ Trivedi, R.; Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Singh, Anamika; Bindu, G. Hima; Banerjee, Jheelam; Tandon, Manuj; Gaikwad, Sonali; Rajkumar, Revathi; Sitalaximi, T; Ashma, Richa; Chainy, G. B. N.; Kashyap, V. K. (2007). "High Resolution Phylogeographic Map of Y-Chromosomes Reveal the Genetic Signatures of Pleistocene Origin of Indian Populations" (PDF). Anthropology Today.
^ Hirbo, Jibril Boru (2011). Complex Genetic History of East African Human Populations (PhD Thesis). hdl: 1903/11443.
^ "Y chromosome SNP haplogroups in Danes, Greenlanders and Somalis". International Congress Series. 1261: 347–349. doi: 10.1016/S0531-5131(03)01635-2.
^ Cruciani F, Trombetta B, Sellitto D, et al. (July 2010). "Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages". European Journal of Human Genetics. 18 (7): 800–7. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2009.231. PMC . 2987365 PMID 20051990.
^ Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Tan, Ping-Ping; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Ma, Runlin Z. (2010). "Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28 (1): 717–27. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msq247. PMID 20837606.
^ Magoon, Gregory R; Banks, Raymond H; Rottensteiner, Christian; Schrack, Bonnie E; Tilroe, Vincent O; Robb, Terry; Grierson, Andrew J (2013). "Generation of high-resolution a priori Y-chromosome phylogenies using 'next-generation' sequencing data". bioRxiv . 000802
^ a b c Nagle, N. et al., 2015, "Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes", American Journal of Physical Anthropology (epub ahead of print version; abstract).
^ As of 2017, S1a1a1 (P308) – formerly K2b1a1 – included an unnamed subclade, identified by the SNP P60 (and previously by P304, which has been removed by ISOGG as unreliable). S1a1a1 and any sublades have only been found among indigenous Australians.
External links [ edit ]
Phylogenetic tree of human
Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1] [χ 2]
A0-T [χ 3]
A1 [χ 4]
LT [χ 5]
T [χ 6]
K2a [χ 7]
K2b [χ 8]
K2e [χ 9]
K2b1 [χ 10]
P [χ 11]
S [χ 12]
M [χ 13]
^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi: 10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.
^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), . (Access date: 1 February 2015.) Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015
^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A-L1085 (and previously as A0'1'2'3'4).
^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T-M184 was known as "Haplogroup K2". That name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. doi: 10.1038/ng.3559. PMC . 4884158 PMID 27111036. In the past, other haplogroups, including NO (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)