Haplogroup L1 (mtDNA)
|Possible time of origin||107,600–174,300 YBP|
|Possible place of origin||Central Africa|
|Defining mutations||3666, 7055, 7389, 13789, 14178, 14560|
Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It is most common in Central Africa and West Africa.
It diverged from L1-6 at about 140,000 years ago (140.6+33.7
−33.0 kya 95% CI). Its emergence is associated with the early peopling of Africa by anatomically modern humans during the Eemian, and it is now mostly found in African pygmies.
Haplogroup L1 is found most commonly in Central Africa and West Africa. It reaches its highest frequency among the Mbenga Pygmies. It is likely that it was formerly more widespread, and was constrained to its current area as a result of the Bantu migration (which is largely associated with haplogroup L2). Haplogroup L1 has been observed in specimens from the island cemetery in Kulubnarti, Sudan, which date from the Early Christian period (AD 550-800). An ancient Beaker culture individual at the Camino de las Yeseras in Spain (San Fernando de Henares, Madrid; [I4245 / RISE695] F) has also been found to carry the L1b1a mitochondrial haplogroup.
L1 has two branches, L1c and L1b (the formerly named haplogroups L1d, L1k, L1a, L1f have been[year needed] re-classified into haplogroup L0, as L0d, L0k, L0a, L0f; L1e as L5).
Haplogroup L1c emerged at about 85 kya. It reaches its highest frequencies in West and Central Africa, notably among the Mbenga Pygmy peoples. (see map). Among the Mbenga, it is carried by 100% of Ba-Kola, 97% of Ba-Benzélé, and 77% of Biaka. Other populations in which L1c is particularly prevalent include the Tikar (100%), Baka people from Gabon (97%) and Cameroon (90%), the Bakoya (97%), and the Ba-Bongo (82%). Common also in São Tomé (20%) and Angola (16-24%).
Haplogroup L1b is much more recent, dated at about 10 kya. It is frequent in West Africa. It has also been found in Mozambique (1%), Ethiopia (2%), Egypt (1%), the Nile Valley (4%), Kung (1%), Cape Verde (8%), Senegal (17%-20%), Niger/Nigeria (15%), Guinea Bissau (11%), Morocco (4%-5%), and Algeria (1%-2%).
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- Genealogical DNA test
- Genetic Genealogy
- Human mitochondrial genetics
- Population Genetics
- Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups
Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups
|Mitochondrial Eve (L)|
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