Haplogroup L1 (mtDNA)
|Possible time of origin||107,600–174,300 YBP|
|Possible place of origin||Central Africa|
|Defining mutations||3666, 7055, 7389, 13789, 14178, 14560|
Haplogroup L1 is believed to have appeared approximately 110,000 to 170,000 years ago. Haplogroup L1 is a daughter of L1-6 and genetic marker changes are 3666, 7055, 7389, 13789, 14178 and 14560.
Though it is typically used to refer to a family of lineages found in Africa, L1 is sometimes referred to as haplogroup L1-6, which is the macrohaplogroup that includes the majority of African lineages and all non-African lineages. Haplogroup L1-6 is the macrohaplogroup that includes subclades L1, L2, L4, L5, L6, and also L3 which gave rise to the two non-African haplogroups M and N. Haplogroup L1-6 and its only sibling haplogroup L0 are united by the matrilineal most recent common ancestor, (MRCA) of all living humans, Mitochondrial Eve. The existence of these two lineages, implies that Mitochondrial Eve had at least two daughters, one of whom is the maternal common ancestor of haplogroup L1-6 lineages.
L1 has two branches:[Note 1]
- Haplogroup L1b is most frequent in West Africa. It is carried by 17-20% of the Senegalese population, and is also common among Nigerian Igbo, Mauritanians, El Hierro, Gran Canarians, Akan people, Algerians, the Lemba, and Egyptians.
- Haplogroup L1c reaches its highest frequencies in West and Central Africa, notably among the Mbenga Pygmy peoples. (see map). Among the Mbenga, it is carried by 100% of Ba-Kola, 97% of Ba-Benzélé, and 77% of Biaka. Other populations in which L1c is particularly prevalent include the Tikar (100%), Baka people from Gabon (97%) and Cameroon (90%), the Bakoya (97%), and the Ba-Bongo (82%). Common also in São Tomé (20%) and Angola (16-24%).
This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L1 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation and subsequent published research.
- Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)
- Genealogical DNA test
- Genetic Genealogy
- Human mitochondrial genetics
- Population Genetics
- Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups
Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups
|Mitochondrial Eve (L)|
- Soares, Pedro; Luca Ermini; Noel Thomson; Maru Mormina; Teresa Rito; Arne Röhl; Antonio Salas; Stephen Oppenheimer; Vincent Macaulay; Martin B. Richards (4 Jun 2009). "Supplemental Data Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". The American Society of Human Genetics 84 (6): 82–93. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773. Retrieved 2009-08-13.
- van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Rosa A. et al. 2004, MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a Better Understanding of the Senegambia Region.
- Liane Fendt et al., MtDNA diversity of Ghana: a forensic and phylogeographic view, 2011
- Quintana-Murci et al. 2008. Maternal traces of deep common ancestry and asymmetric gene flow between Pygmy hunter–gatherers and Bantu-speaking farmers 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America'. 105(5): 1599
- Sarah A. Tishkoff et al. 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195
- Lluis Quintana-Murci et al. MtDNA diversity in Central Africa: from hunter-gathering to agriculturalism. CNRS-Institut Pasteur, Paris
- Batini, Chiara et al 2006, Phylogeography of the human mitochondrial L1c haplogroup: Genetic signatures of the prehistory of Central Africa
- The formerly named L1 branches (L1d, L1k, L1a, L1f) have been re-classified into haplogroup L0 as L0d, L0k, L0a and L0f.