Haplogroup L4 (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup L4
Possible place of originEast Africa
DescendantsL4a, L4b
Defining mutations5460, 16362[1]

Haplogroup L4 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It is a small maternal clade primarily restricted to Africa.[2]



Projected spatial frequency distribution for haplogroup L4.
Schematic tree of mtDNA haplogroup L4. Ages (in ka) indicated are maximum likelihood estimates obtained for the whole-mtDNA genome.

L4 is important in East Africa and Horn of Africa. The highest frequencies are in Tanzania among the Hadza at 60-83% and Sandawe at 48%.[3]



This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L4 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[1] and subsequent published research.

Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)

  • L1-6
    • L2-6
      • L2'3'4'6
        • L3'4'6
          • L3'4
            • L4
              • L4a (Formerly known as L7)
                • L4a1
                  • L4a1a
                • L4a2
              • L4b
                • L4b1
                • L4b2 (Formerly known as L3g or L4g)
                  • L4b2a
                    • L4b2a1
                    • L4b2a2
                      • L4b2a2a
                      • L4b2a2b
                  • L4b2b


  1. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation. 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-20. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  2. ^ Haplogroups L4.
  3. ^ Tishkoff, S. et al. 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195

External links[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6  
L1 L2   L3     L4 L5 L6
M N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT   P   U