Haplogroup O-M175

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Haplogroup O-M175
Haplogrupo O (ADN-Y).PNG
Possible time of origin41,750 (95% CI 30,597 <-> 46,041) years ago[1]

44,700 or 38,300 ybp[2]
Coalescence age33,943 (95% CI 25,124 <-> 37,631) years (Karmin 2022[1])

35,000 or 30,000 years ago depending on mutation rate[2]
Possible place of originEast Asia
O1 (O-F265); O2 (O-M122) 
O1a (O-M119); O1b (O-M268);
O2a (O-M324); O2b (O-F742)
Defining mutationsM175 (+ numerous other SNPs).[3]

Haplogroup O, also known as O-M175, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is primarily found among populations in Southeast Asia and East Asia. It also is found in various percentages of populations of the Russian Far East, South Asia, Central Asia, Caucasus, Crimea, Ukraine, Iran, Oceania, Madagascar and the Comoros. Haplogroup O is a primary descendant of haplogroup NO-M214.

The O-M175 haplogroup is very common amongst males from China, Korea, and Southeast Asia. It has two primary branches: O1 (O-F265) and O2 (O-M122). O1 is found at high frequencies amongst males native to Southeast Asia, Taiwan, Japan, the Korean Peninsula, Madagascar and some populations in southern China and Austroasiatic speakers of India. It is high in the Melanesian populations of the Solomon Islands and Moluccas, and shows significant to high frequencies in some populations of Papuans and Papua New Guinea. O2 is found at high levels amongst Han Chinese, Tibeto-Burman populations (including many of those in Yunnan, Tibet, Burma, Northeast India, and Nepal), Manchu, Mongolians, Koreans, Vietnamese, Malays, Indonesians, Filipinos, Thais, Polynesians, East Timorese, Bruneian, Miao people, Hmong, the Naiman tribe of Kazakhs in Kazakhstan,[4] Kazakhs in the southeast of Altai Republic,[5] and Kazakhs in the Ili area of Xinjiang.[6]


Haplogroup O-M175 is a descendant haplogroup of Haplogroup NO-M214, and first appeared according to different theories either in Southeast Asia (see Rootsi 2006, TMC & ?, Shi 2005, and Bradshaw & ?) or East Asia (see ISOGG 2012) approximately 40,000 years ago (or between 31,294 and 51,202 years ago according to Karmin et al. 2015).[7][8]

Haplogroup O-M175 is one of NO-M214's two branches. The other is Haplogroup N, which is common throughout North Eurasia.


This haplogroup appears in 80-90% of most populations in East Asia and Southeast Asia, and it is almost exclusive to that region: M175 is almost nonexistent in Western Siberia, Western Asia, Europe, most of Africa, and the Americas, where its presence may be the result of recent migrations. However, certain subclades of Haplogroup O-M175 do achieve significant frequencies among some populations of Central Asia, South Asia, and Oceania. For example, one study found it at a rate of 65.81% among the Naimans, a tribe in Kazakhstan,[4] even though the rate among Kazakhs in general is believed to be only about 9% (Wells et al. 2001). It has been estimated that 25% of the entire male population of the world carries O-M175.[8][9] Karafet et al. (2015) have assigned the Y-DNA of 46.2% (12/26) of a sample of Papuan from Pantar Island to haplogroup NO-M214;[10] considering their location in the Malay Archipelago, all or most of these individuals should belong to haplogroup O-M175.

An association with the spread of Austronesian languages in late antiquity is suggested by significant levels of O-M175 among island populations of the South Pacific and Indian Ocean, including the East African littoral. For example, Haplogroup O-M50 has even been found in Bantu-speaking populations of the Comoros along 6% of O-MSY2.2(xM50),[11] while both O-M50 and O-M95(xM88) occur commonly among the Malagasy people of Madagascar with a combined frequency of 34%.[12][13] O-M175 has been found in 28.1% of Solomon Islanders from Melanesia.[14] 12% of Uyghurs (Wells et al. 2001), 6.8% of Kalmyks[15] (17.1% of Khoshuud, 6.1% of Dörwöd, 3.3% of Torguud, 0% of Buzawa), 6.2% of Altaians (Kharkov et al. 2007), 4.1% of Uzbeks on average but Uzbeks from Bukhara 12.1%, Karakalpaks (Uzbekistan) 11.4%, Sinte (Uzbekistans) 6.7%(Wells et al. 2001) and 4.0% of Buryats.[16] In the Caucasus region it has been found in the Nogais 6%[17] but 5.3% in the Karan Nogais, it is also found in the Dargins of Dargwa speakers at 2.9%.[18] In the Iranic population, it is found in Iranian (Esfahan) at 6.3% (Wells 2001), 8.9% of Tajiks in Afghanistan[19] 4.2% in the Pathans in Pakistan (Firasat 2007) but 1% in Afghanistan (Borkar 2011), 3.1% in Burusho (Firasat 2007).

Haplogroup O-M175 ranges in various moderate to high frequencies in the ethnic minorities of South Africa. The frequency of this haplogroup is 6.14% in the Cape colored population.[20] 18% in Cape Coloured Muslim, 38% in Cape Indian Muslims and 10% in other Cape Other Muslim.[20] It's found 11.5% in the Réunion Creole.[21] Haplogroup O-M175 had also been found in Latin America and Caribbean as a result of massive Chinese male migration from the 19th century. It was found in the Jamaicans at 3.8,[22] Cubans 1.5%[23]

Haplogroup O-M175 has been found in 88.7% of Asian American. 1.6% in Hispanic American, White Americans 0.5%, and 0.3% in African American.[24] Another study gives 0.5% African American.[25]

Among the sub-branches of haplogroup O-M175 are O-M119(O1a), O-M268(O1b), and O-M122(O2).


A broad survey of Y-chromosome variation among populations of central Eurasia found haplogroup O-M175(xM119,M95,M122) in 31% (14/45) of a sample of Koreans and in smaller percentages of Crimean Tatars (1/22 = 4.5%), Tajiks (1/16 = 6.25% Dushanbe, 1/40 = 2.5% Samarkand), Uyghurs (2/41 = 4.9%), Uzbeks (1/68 = 1.5% Surxondaryo, 1/70 = 1.4% Xorazm), and Kazakhs (1/54 = 1.9%) (Wells 2001). However, nearly all of the purported Korean O-M175(xM119,M95,M122) Y-chromosomes may belong to Haplogroup O-M176,[Note 1] and later studies do not support the finding of O-M175* among similar population samples (Xue 2005, Kim 2011). The reported examples of O-M175(xM119,M95,M122) Y-chromosomes that have been found among these populations might therefore belong to Haplogroup O-M268*(xM95,M176) or Haplogroup O-M176 (O1b2).

A study published in 2013 found O-M175(xM119, M95, M176, M122) Y-DNA in 5.5% (1/18) Iranians from Teheran, 5.4% (2/37) Tajiks from Badakhshan Province of Afghanistan, and 1/97 Mongols from northwest Mongolia, while finding O-M176 only in 1/20 Mongols from northeast Mongolia.[26]

O-F265 (O1)[edit]

O1a-M119 and O1b-M268 share a common ancestor, O1-F265 (a.k.a. O-F75) approximately 33,181 (95% CI 24,461 to 36,879) YBP.[1][27] O1-F265, in turn, coalesces to a common ancestor with O2-M122 approximately 33,943 (95% CI 25,124 to 37,631) YBP.[1] Thus, O1-F265 should have existed as a single haplogroup parallel to O2-M122 for a duration of approximately 762 years (or anywhere from 0 to 13,170 years considering the 95% CIs and assuming that the phylogeny is correct) before breaking up into its two extant descendant haplogroups, O1-MSY2.2 and O1b-M268.

O-M119 (O1a)[edit]

O-M119 (which was known briefly as O-MSY2.2, until the SNP MSY2.2 was found to be unreliable) is found frequently in Austronesian-speaking people, with a moderate distribution in southern and eastern Chinese and Kra-dai peoples.

O-M268 (O1b)[edit]

O-M122 (O2)[edit]

Found frequently among populations of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and culturally Austronesian regions of Oceania, with a moderate distribution in Central Asia (Shi 2005).

  • O-M122
    • O-CTS1754 East & Southeast Asia
      • O-F953/F1886 Philippines[34]
    • O-M324
      • O-L465
        • O-CTS727
          • O-F915
            • O-F915* Shanxi[28]
            • O-Y14462
              • O-Y14462* Guangdong[28]
              • O-CTS1936 Beijing,[28] Ho Chi Minh City[28]
              • O-A18267
          • O-CTS3709
            • O-CTS11209
            • O-F2640
              • O-F2640* Beijing[28]
              • O-CTS11210
                • O-CTS11210* Han from Hunan[28]
                • O-CTS2432 Han from Hunan[28]
        • O-JST002611/CTS2483
          • O-CTS2483* China,[34] Japan,[34] Philippines[34]
          • O-CTS10573 Beijing,[51] Sichuan,[51] Henan,[51] Jiangsu[51]
          • O-F18
            • O-CTS498 China,[28] Japan (Tokyo)[28]
            • O-F449 Azerbaijan[34]
            • O-F117
              • O-F117* Fujian[28]
              • O-F11
                • O-F11* Gansu,[28] Japanese[28]
                • O-F930 Beijing,[28] Armenia,[28] Inner Mongolia,[51] Hebei,[51] Shaanxi,[51] Shandong,[51] Zhejiang,[51] Hubei[51]
                  • O-F2685 Beijing, Shanghai, Fujian, Guangdong[51]
                • O-BY169374
                • O-F539 Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan[51]
                  • O-F539*
                  • O-F319 Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City),[28] Hunan[28]
                • O-CTS12877
                  • O-F16635
                  • O-CTS257 Zhejiang, Shanghai, Guangdong, Beijing, Fujian, Heilongjiang, Hunan[51]
                • O-Y29837
                • O-BY36917 Japan[34]
                • O-F4062 Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Shaanxi, Chongqing, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Zhejiang[51]
                  • O-Y15976 China, Japan,[34] Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam
                    • O-Y15976* Zhejiang,[28] Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City)[28]
                    • O-Y26383
                  • O-FGC54474
                • O-F971 Beijing, Shanghai, Hubei, Guangdong[51]
                  • O-F971* Sichuan,[28] Zhejiang,[28] Jiangxi,[28] Japan[34]
                  • O-Y23813
                    • O-Y23813* Guangdong[28]
                    • O-Y23809
                      • O-Y23809* Guangdong[28]
                      • O-BY170727
                      • O-Y23907 Guangdong[28]
                • O-F632
                  • O-F632* Beijing[28]
                  • O-F16340 Zhejiang[28]
                  • O-F133 China, Bulgaria[34]
                    • O-F133* Beijing[28]
                    • O-Y20951
                    • O-F17
                      • O-F377 China, France[34]
                        • O-CTS7789 Han Chinese (Beijing, Shanghai,[51] Fujian, Guangdong,[51] Hunan, Sichuan[51])
                        • O-CTS7501
                      • O-F793 Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Hubei, Sichuan, Guangdong[51]
      • O-P201
O-M324 (O2a)[edit]
O-F742 (O2b)[edit]

Language families and genes[edit]

Haplogroup O is associated with populations which speak Austric languages. The following is a phylogenetic tree of language families and their corresponding SNP markers, or haplogroups, sourced mainly from Edmondson 2007 and Shi 2005. This has been called the "Father Tongue Hypothesis" by George van Driem (vanDriem 2011). It does not appear to account for O-M176, which is found among Japanese, Korean, and Manchurian males.

O2 (M122) 
 Sino-Tibetan O2a2b1 (M134) 

 Sinitic O2a2b1a2 (F114) 

 Sino-Tibetan O2a2b1a1 (M117) 

 Hmong–Mien O2a2a1a2 (M7) 

 Hmong (Miao) 

 She (Ratliff 1998

 Mien (Yao) 

O1 (F265) ("Austric") 
 Austroasiatic O1b1a1a (M95) 



 Austro-Tai O1a (M119) 




 Kadai[Note 2] 





Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being, above all, timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
O-M175 26 VII 1U 28 Eu16 H9 I O* O O O O O O O O O O
O-M119 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1* O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a
O-M101 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1a O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1 O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a
O-M50 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H10 H O1b O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2
O-P31 26 VII 1U 33 Eu16 H5 I O2* O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2
O-M95 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H11 G O2a* O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a1 O2a1
O-M88 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H12 G O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1a O2a1a
O-SRY465 20 VII 1U 35 Eu16 H5 I O2b* O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b
O-47z 5 VII 1U 26 Eu16 H5 I O2b1 O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1a O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1
O-M122 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3* O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3
O-M121 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3a O3a O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1a O3a1a
O-M164 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3b O3b O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a1b O3a1b
O-M159 13 VII 1U 31 Eu16 H6 L O3c O3c O3a3a O3a3a O3a3 O3a3 O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a
O-M7 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d* O3c O3a3b O3a3b O3a4 O3a4 O3a3b O3a3b O3a3b O3a2b O3a2b
O-M113 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d1 O3c1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 - O3a4a O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a2b1 O3a2b1
O-M134 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e* O3d O3a3c O3a3c O3a5 O3a5 O3a3c O3a3c O3a3c O3a2c1 O3a2c1
O-M117 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1* O3d1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a5a O3a5a O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a2c1a O3a2c1a
O-M162 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1a O3d1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a5a1 O3a5a1 O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a2c1a1 O3a2c1a1

Original Research Publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

ISOGG 2017 tree (ver. 12.244).[58]

  • O (M175)
    • O1 (F265/M1354, CTS2866, F75/M1297, F429/M1415, F465/M1422)
      • O1a (M119)
        • O1a1 (B384/Z23193)
          • O1a1a (M307.1/P203.1)
            • O1a1a1 (F446)
              • O1a1a1a (F140)
                • O1a1a1a1 (F78)
                  • O1a1a1a1a (F81)
                    • O1a1a1a1a1 (CTS2458)
                      • O1a1a1a1a1a (F533)
                        • O1a1a1a1a1a1 (F492)
                          • O1a1a1a1a1a1a (F656)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1a1 (A12440)
                              • O1a1a1a1a1a1a1a (A12439)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1a2 (A14788)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1a3 (F65)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1a4 (MF1068)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1a5 (Z23482)
                          • O1a1a1a1a1a1b (FGC66168)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1b1 (CTS11553)
                          • O1a1a1a1a1a1c (Y31266)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1c1 (Y31261)
                          • O1a1a1a1a1a1d (A12441)
                          • O1a1a1a1a1a1e (MF1071)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1e1 (MF1074)
                        • O1a1a1a1a1a2 (CTS4585)
                    • O1a1a1a1a2 (MF1075)
                • O1a1a1a2 (YP4610/Z39229)
                  • O1a1a1a2a (AM00330/AMM480/B386)
                    • O1a1a1a2a1 (AM00333/AMM483/B387)
                      • O1a1a1a2a1a (B388)
                  • O1a1a1a2b (SK1555)
              • O1a1a1b (SK1568/Z23420)
                • O1a1a1b1 (M101)
                • O1a1a1b2 (Z23392)
                  • O1a1a1b2a (Z23442)
                    • O1a1a1b2a1 (SK1571)
            • O1a1a2 (CTS52)
              • O1a1a2a (CTS701)
                • O1a1a2a1 (K644/Z23266)
          • O1a1b (CTS5726)
        • O1a2 (M110)
          • O1a2a (F3288)
            • O1a2a1 (B392)
              • O1a2a1a (B393)
        • O1a3 (Page109)
      • O1b (M268)
        • O1b1 (F2320)
          • O1b1a (M1470)
            • O1b1a1 (PK4)
              • O1b1a1a (M95)
                • O1b1a1a1 (F1803/M1348)
                  • O1b1a1a1a (F1252)
                    • O1b1a1a1a1 (F2924)
                      • O1b1a1a1a1a (M111)
                        • O1b1a1a1a1a1 (F2758)
                          • O1b1a1a1a1a1a (Z24083)
                            • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1 (Z24089)
                              • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1a (F923)
                                • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1a1 (CTS2022)
                                  • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1a1a (F1399)
                                    • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1 (F2415)
                                • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1a2 (Z24131)
                                • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1a3 (Z24100)
                              • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1b (SK1627/Z24091)
                                • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1b1 (Z39410)
                            • O1b1a1a1a1a1a2 (Z24088)
                        • O1b1a1a1a1a2 (F2890)
                          • O1b1a1a1a1a2a (Z24048)
                            • O1b1a1a1a1a2a1 (Z24050)
                          • O1b1a1a1a1a2b (Z24014)
                      • O1b1a1a1a1b (CTS5854)
                        • O1b1a1a1a1b1 (Z23810)
                          • O1b1a1a1a1b1a (CTS7399)
                            • O1b1a1a1a1b1a1 (FGC19713/Y14026)
                              • O1b1a1a1a1b1a1a (Z23849)
                                • O1b1a1a1a1b1a1a1 (FGC61038)
                          • O1b1a1a1a1b1b (CTS651)
                            • O1b1a1a1a1b1b1 (CTS9884)
                        • O1b1a1a1a1b2 (F4229)
                          • O1b1a1a1a1b2a (F809)
                            • O1b1a1a1a1b2a1 (F2517)
                    • O1b1a1a1a2 (SK1630)
                      • O1b1a1a1a2a (SK1636)
                  • O1b1a1a1b (F789/M1283)
                    • O1b1a1a1b1 (FGC29900/Y9322/Z23667)
                      • O1b1a1a1b1a (B426/FGC29896/Y9033/Z23671)
                        • O1b1a1a1b1a1 (FGC29907/YP3930)
                        • O1b1a1a1b1a2 (B427/Z23680)
                      • O1b1a1a1b1b (Z39485)
                      • O1b1a1a1b1c (B418)
                    • O1b1a1a1b2 (SK1646)
                • O1b1a1a2 (CTS350)
                • O1b1a1a3 (Page103)
              • O1b1a1b (F838)
                • O1b1a1b1 (F1199)
            • O1b1a2 (Page59)
              • O1b1a2a (F993)
                • O1b1a2a1 (F1759)
                  • O1b1a2a1a (CTS1127)
              • O1b1a2b (F417/M1654)
                • O1b1a2b1 (F840)
                  • O1b1a2b1a (F1127)
                • O1b1a2b2 (CTS1451)
              • O1b1a2c (CTS9996)
        • O1b2 (P49, M176)
          • O1b2a (F1942/Page92)
            • O1b2a1 (CTS9259)
              • O1b2a1a (F1204)
                • O1b2a1a1 (CTS713)
                  • O1b2a1a1a (CTS1875)
                    • O1b2a1a1a1 (CTS10682)
                  • O1b2a1a1b (Z24598)
                  • O1b2a1a1c (CTS203)
                • O1b2a1a2 (F2868)
                  • O1b2a1a2a (L682)
                    • O1b2a1a2a1 (CTS723)
                      • O1b2a1a2a1a (CTS7620)
                      • O1b2a1a2a1b (A12446)
                        • O1b2a1a2a1b1 (PH40)
                  • O1b2a1a2b (F940)
                • O1b2a1a3 (CTS10687)
                  • O1b2a1a3a (CTS1215)
              • O1b2a1b (CTS562)
            • O1b2a2 (Page90)
    • O2 (M122)
      • O2a (M324)
        • O2a1 (L127.1)
          • O2a1a (F1876/Page127)
            • O2a1a1 (F2159)
              • O2a1a1a (F1867/Page124)
                • O2a1a1a1 (F852)
                  • O2a1a1a1a (F2266)
                    • O2a1a1a1a1 (L599)
                      • O2a1a1a1a1a (Z43961)
                        • O2a1a1a1a1a1 (Z43963)
                  • O2a1a1a1b (F854)
                    • O2a1a1a1b1 (Z43966)
                  • O2a1a1a1c (Page130)
              • O2a1a1b (F915)
                • O2a1a1b1 (F1478)
                  • O2a1a1b1a (PF5390)
                    • O2a1a1b1a1 (CTS1936)
                    • O2a1a1b1a1a (Z43975)
                    • O2a1a1b1a2 (FGC33994)
          • O2a1b (M164)
          • O2a1c (IMS-JST002611)
            • O2a1c1 (F18)
              • O2a1c1a (F117)
                • O2a1c1a1 (F13)
                  • O2a1c1a1a (F11)
                    • O2a1c1a1a1 (F632)
                      • O2a1c1a1a1a (F110/M11115)
                        • O2a1c1a1a1a1 (F17)
                          • O2a1c1a1a1a1a (F377)
                            • O2a1c1a1a1a1a1 (F1095)
                              • O2a1c1a1a1a1a1a (F856)
                                • O2a1c1a1a1a1a1a1 (F1418)
                                • O2a1c1a1a1a1a1a2 (Z25097)
                            • O2a1c1a1a1a1a2 (CTS7501)
                          • O2a1c1a1a1a1b (F793)
                        • O2a1c1a1a1a2 (Y20951)
                          • O2a1c1a1a1a2a (Y20932)
                    • O2a1c1a1a2 (F38)
                    • O2a1c1a1a3 (F12)
                    • O2a1c1a1a4 (F930)
                      • O2a1c1a1a4a (F2685)
                    • O2a1c1a1a5 (F1365/M5420/PF1558)
                      • O2a1c1a1a5a (Y15976)
                        • O2a1c1a1a5a1 (Y16154)
                          • O2a1c1a1a5a1a (Y26383)
                            • O2a1c1a1a5a1a1 (SK1686)
                      • O2a1c1a1a5b (FGC54486)
                        • O2a1c1a1a5b1 (FGC54507)
                    • O2a1c1a1a6 (CTS12877)
                      • O2a1c1a1a6a (F2527)
                        • O2a1c1a1a6a1 (CTS5409)
                        • O2a1c1a1a6a2 (F2941)
                    • O2a1c1a1a7 (F723)
                    • O2a1c1a1a8 (CTS2107)
                    • O2a1c1a1a9 (SK1691)
                  • O2a1c1a1b (PH203)
              • O2a1c1b (F449)
                • O2a1c1b1 (F238)
                  • O2a1c1b1a (F134)
                    • O2a1c1b1a1 (F1273)
                    • O2a1c1b1a2 (F724)
                • O2a1c1b2 (F1266)
              • O2a1c1c (CTS498)
            • O2a1c2 (FGC3750/SK1673)
        • O2a2 (IMS-JST021354/P201)
          • O2a2a (M188)
            • O2a2a1 (F2588)
              • O2a2a1a (CTS445)
                • O2a2a1a1 (CTS201)
                  • O2a2a1a1a (M159/Page96)
                • O2a2a1a2 (M7)
                  • O2a2a1a2a (F1276)
                    • O2a2a1a2a1 (CTS6489)
                      • O2a2a1a2a1a (F1275)
                        • O2a2a1a2a1a1 (M113)
                        • O2a2a1a2a1a2 (N5)
                        • O2a2a1a2a1a3 (Z25400)
                    • O2a2a1a2a2 (F1863)
                      • O2a2a1a2a2a (F1134)
                        • O2a2a1a2a2a1 (F1262)
                  • O2a2a1a2b (Y26403)
              • O2a2a1b (F1837)
            • O2a2a2 (F879)
              • O2a2a2a (F1226)
                • O2a2a2a1 (F2859)
          • O2a2b (P164)
            • O2a2b1 (M134)
              • O2a2b1a (F450/M1667)
                • O2a2b1a1 (M117/Page23)
                  • O2a2b1a1a (M133)
                    • O2a2b1a1a1 (F438)
                      • O2a2b1a1a1a (Y17728)
                        • O2a2b1a1a1a1 (F155)
                          • O2a2b1a1a1a1a (F813/M6539)
                            • O2a2b1a1a1a1a1 (Y20928)
                        • O2a2b1a1a1a2 (F1754)
                          • O2a2b1a1a1a2a (F2137)
                            • O2a2b1a1a1a2a1 (F1442)
                              • O2a2b1a1a1a2a1a (F1123)
                                • O2a2b1a1a1a2a1a1 (F1369)
                            • O2a2b1a1a1a2a2 (A16636)
                        • O2a2b1a1a1a3 (Z25907)
                    • O2a2b1a1a2 (FGC23469/Z25852)
                      • O2a2b1a1a2a (F310)
                        • O2a2b1a1a2a1 (F402)
                          • O2a2b1a1a2a1a (F1531)
                    • O2a2b1a1a3 (CTS7634)
                      • O2a2b1a1a3a (F317)
                        • O2a2b1a1a3a1 (F3039)
                        • O2a2b1a1a3a2 (Y29861)
                      • O2a2b1a1a3b (CTS5488)
                    • O2a2b1a1a4 (Z25853)
                      • O2a2b1a1a4a (CTS5492)
                        • O2a2b1a1a4a1 (CTS6987)
                          • O2a2b1a1a4a1a (Z42620)
                        • O2a2b1a1a4a2 ( F20963)
                    • O2a2b1a1a5 (CTS10738/M1707)
                      • O2a2b1a1a5a (CTS9678)
                        • O2a2b1a1a5a1 (Z39663)
                        • O2a2b1a1a5a2 (M1513)
                      • O2a2b1a1a5b (A9457)
                        • O2a2b1a1a5b1 (F17158)
                    • O2a2b1a1a6 (CTS4658)
                      • O2a2b1a1a6a (CTS5308)
                      • O2a2b1a1a6b (Z25928)
                        • O2a2b1a1a6b1 (SK1730/Z25982)
                          • O2a2b1a1a6b1a (Z26030)
                          • O2a2b1a1a6b1b (Z26010)
                        • O2a2b1a1a6b2 (A9462)
                        • O2a2b1a1a6b3 (B456)
                    • O2a2b1a1a7 (YP4864)
                      • O2a2b1a1a7a (Z44068)
                        • O2a2b1a1a7a1 (F5525/SK1748)
                      • O2a2b1a1a7b (Z44071)
                    • O2a2b1a1a8 (Z44091)
                      • O2a2b1a1a8a (Z44092)
                  • O2a2b1a1b (CTS4960)
                • O2a2b1a2 (F114)
                  • O2a2b1a2a (F79)
                    • O2a2b1a2a1 (F46/Y15)
                      • O2a2b1a2a1a (FGC16847/Z26091)
                        • O2a2b1a2a1a1 (F48)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1a1a (F152)
                            • O2a2b1a2a1a1a1 (F2505)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1a1b (CTS3149)
                        • O2a2b1a2a1a2 (F242)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1a2a (CTS4266)
                            • O2a2b1a2a1a2a1 (Z26108)
                              • O2a2b1a2a1a2a1a (F2173)
                        • O2a2b1a2a1a3 (F2887)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1a3a (F3607)
                            • O2a2b1a2a1a3a1 (F3525)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1a3b (CTS3763)
                            • O2a2b1a2a1a3b1 (A9472)
                            • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2 (FGC16863/Y7110)
                              • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2a (L1360)
                                • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2a1 (FGC16889)
                              • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2b (SK1768/Y7112/Z26257)
                                • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2b1 (F4249)
                                  • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2b1a (FGC23868)
                                • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2b2 (CTS335)
                      • O2a2b1a2a1b (CTS53)
                        • O2a2b1a2a1b1 (CTS6373)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1b1a (A9473)
                      • O2a2b1a2a1c (F3386)
                      • O2a2b1a2a1d (Y29828)
                        • O2a2b1a2a1d1 (F735)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1d1a (FGC34973)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1d1b (F1739)
                  • O2a2b1a2b (F743)
                    • O2a2b1a2b1 (CTS8481)
                      • O2a2b1a2b1a (CTS4325)
                        • O2a2b1a2b1a1 (A16629)
                        • O2a2b1a2b1a2 (CTS682)
                    • O2a2b1a2b2 (F748)
                      • O2a2b1a2b2a (F728)
                  • O2a2b1a2c (Page101)
            • O2a2b2 (AM01822/F3223)
              • O2a2b2a (AM01856/F871)
                • O2a2b2a1 (N7)
                  • O2a2b2a1a (F4110)
                    • O2a2b2a1a1 (F4068)
                    • O2a2b2a1a2 (SK1780)
                  • O2a2b2a1b (F4124)
                    • O2a2b2a1b1 (IMS-JST008425p6)
                    • O2a2b2a1b2 (BY15188)
                      • O2a2b2a1b2a (F16411)
                • O2a2b2a2 (AM01845/F706)
                  • O2a2b2a2a (F717)
                    • O2a2b2a2a1 (F3612)
                    • O2a2b2a2a2 (SK1783)
                  • O2a2b2a2b (AM01847/B451)
                    • O2a2b2a2b1 (A17418)
                    • O2a2b2a2b2 (AM01756)
                      • O2a2b2a2b2a (B450)
                      • O2a2b2a2b2b (AM00472/B452)
                        • O2a2b2a2b2b1 (F18942)
                      • O2a2b2a2b2c (A16427)
              • O2a2b2b (A16433)
                • O2a2b2b1 (A16438)
                  • O2a2b2b1a (SK1775)
                    • O2a2b2b1a1 (SK1774)
                  • O2a2b2b1b (A16440)
        • O2a3 (M300)
        • O2a4 (M333)
      • O2b (F742)
        • O2b1 (F1150)
          • O2b1a (F837)
            • O2b1a1 (F1025)
        • O2b2 (F1055)
          • O2b2a (F3021)

See also[edit]


Y-DNA O subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]


  1. ^ O-M175(xM119,M95,M122) is sometimes incorrectly called "O*".
  2. ^ The outlier Kadai branch is called "Kra" by Thai linguist Weera Ostapirat and "Geyang" by Chinese linguists.


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  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kq kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz la lb lc ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lq lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz ma mb mc md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mq mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz na nb nc nd ne nf ng nh ni nj nk nl nm nn no np nq nr ns nt nu nv nw nx ny nz oa ob oc od oe of og oh oi oj ok ol om on oo op oq or os ot ou ov ow ox oy oz pa pb pc pd pe pf pg ph pi pj pk pl pm pn po pp pq pr ps pt pu pv pw px py pz qa qb qc qd qe YFull Haplogroup YTree v5.04 at 16 May 2017
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw Phylogenetic tree of Haplogroup O at 23mofang
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Further reading[edit]

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