Haplogroup O-M176

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Haplogroup O-M176
O1b2-M176
Possible time of origin28,400 [95% CI 26,000 <-> 30,800] years before present[1]
Coalescence age12,100 [95% CI 9,800 <-> 14,700] years before present (YFull[1][2])
Possible place of originKorean Peninsula, Manchuria or a nearby part of northern East Asia[3][4]
AncestorO-P31
Defining mutationsM176/SRY465, P49, 022454[citation needed]
Highest frequencies'Koreans, Japanese, Ryukyuans, Manchus

In human population genetics, Y-Chromosome haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa. Haplogroup O-M176 (aka O-SRY465) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is best known for its part in the settlement of Korea and Japan. It is a descendant of Haplogroup O-P31, and it has been estimated to share a most recent common ancestor with its nearest outgroup, Haplogroup O-K18, approximately 28,400 [95% CI 26,000 <-> 30,800] years before present.[1]

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup O-M176 is found mainly in the northernmost parts of East Asia, from the Uriankhai and Zakhchin peoples of western Mongolia (Katoh 2004) to the Japanese of Japan, though it also has been detected sporadically in the Buryats (Jin 2003). It's been detected with moderate frequencies in Udegeys (Jin 2010) of southern Siberia, rarely among populations of Southeast Asia including Indonesia (Hammer 2006 and Jin 2003), the Philippines (Jin 2003), Thailand (Jin 2003), and Vietnam (Hammer 2006 and Jin 2003), and Micronesians (Hammer 2006). This haplogroup is found with its highest frequency and diversity values among modern populations of Japan and Korea and is rare in most populations in China. Among Han Chinese, it has been detected in some samples of Han Chinese from Beijing (1/51, Jin 2003 and Kim 2011),[5] Xi'an (1/34, Kim 2011),[5] one Han Chinese in Henan[6], Han Chinese in Taiwan (2/352 = 0.57%, including one of 34 Hakka people and one of 258 miscellaneous Han volunteers),[7] Han Chinese from East China sampled from the infertility clinic at the Affiliated Hospitals of Nanjing Medical University at Jiangsu (6/1147 = 0.52%, Lu 2009), Wuhan (1/160),[8] and South China outside of Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, and Shanghai (1/65).[9] Among ethnic minorities in China, haplogroup O-M176 has been detected with high frequency in samples of Koreans in China (Xue 2006 and Katoh 2004) and with generally much lower frequency among Manchus (Xue 2006, Katoh 2004, and Karafet 2001), Hezhe people,[10] Daurs,[10] Evenks,[11] Sibes (Xue 2006), Kham Tibetans,[12] and Hui.[13]

Subclade distribution[edit]

Paragroup O-M176*[edit]

Y-DNA that belongs to O-M176(xK10, F3356) has been found in an individual from Hiroshima,[2] an individual from Fukushima,[2] an individual from Beijing,[2] and 1% (7/706) of a sample of males collected in Seoul and Daejeon.[14]

O-M176(x47z) has been found in approximately 3.5%[15] to 9.9%[16] of Japanese males. However, most of those individuals probably belong to subclades of O-K10(x47z).

O-K10[edit]

The majority of extant members of O-M176 belong to the subclade O-K10 (or O-F3356). O-K10 subsumes the prolific subclades O-47z, which occurs with especially high frequency in Japan, and O-L682, which occurs with especially high frequency in Korea, in addition to a relatively rare subclade, O-K3, which has been found among Han Chinese in Hunan[2] and Manchus.[citation needed] O-L682 and O-K3 are linked by 18 SNPs that define the O-K4 clade, and thus their members are more closely related to one another by paternal lineage than any of them is related to any member of O-47z.

An example of Y-DNA that belongs to O-K10 but neither O-47z nor O-K4 has been found in an individual in Tokyo, Japan. This individual's Y-DNA is estimated to share a most recent common ancestor with O-47z and O-K4 roughly around the same time as the most recent common ancestor of those latter two clades, about 8,200 [95% CI 6,300 <-> 10,200] ybp.[1]

O-F3356(x47z, L682) has been found in 2% (14/706) of a sample of Koreans collected in Seoul and Daejeon, South Korea.[14] However, the status of these individuals' Y-DNA in regard to K4, K3, and phylogenetically equivalent SNPs has not been published.

O-47z[edit]

Haplogroup O-47z
O1b2a1-47z
Possible time of origin7,870 [95% CI 5,720–12,630] years ago (Hammer 2006)

8,200 [95% CI 6,300 <-> 10,200] ybp[1]
Possible place of originJapanese Archipelago(Hammer 2006) or Korean Peninsula(see Jin 2003)
AncestorO-M176
Defining mutations47z
Highest frequencies'Japanese, Ryukyuans, Koreans, Manchus

O-47z or O-CTS11986 is a subclade of O-K10. It is found with high frequency among the Japanese and Ryukyuan populations of Japan, and with lower frequency among Koreans.

Haplogroup O-47z has been detected in approximately 24% of males who speak a Japonic language, while it has not been found at all among Ainu males whose Y-DNA has been tested in two genetic studies (Tajima 2004, n=16; Hammer 2006, n=4). Based on the STR haplotype diversity within Haplogroup O-47z, it has been estimated in a study published in 2006 that this haplogroup has expanded from a single founder who has lived approximately 3,810 (95% CI 1,640 <–> 7,960) years before present in a model according to which continuous, pure exponential population growth is assumed.[11] In a paper published in 2016, the time to most recent common ancestor of a set of fifteen members of the O-47z clade, all from the JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) sample of the 1000 Genomes Project, was estimated to be 4,500 years using a relatively slow mutation rate (μ = 0.76 x 10−9 per bp per year as according to Qiaomei Fu et al. 2014) or 3,900 years using a relatively fast mutation rate (μ = 0.888 x 10−9 per bp per year as according to A. Helgason et al. 2015).[15] Haplogroup O-47z also has been found among samples of modern Koreans, though with low frequency in comparison to both the frequency of O-47z in samples of Japanese and the frequency of O-M176(x47z) in samples of Koreans.

O-K4[edit]

O-K4 is a subclade of O-K10. It includes at least two subclades, O-L682 and O-K3, which have been estimated to share a most recent common ancestor approximately 6,300 [95% CI 4,700 <-> 8,000] years before present.[2]

O-K3[edit]
Haplogroup O-F940
O1b2a2b-F940
Possible time of origin3,500 [2,000-13,000]
Possible place of originManchuria or Korean Peninsula
AncestorO-F2868
Defining mutationsCTS12145, F1912, F2206, F2703, F940, K3
Highest frequencies'Manchurian, Manchu Mongolian, Manchu Han

The O-K3 (or O-F940) lineage is a subclade of O-K4 that has been observed to date in two Han Chinese individuals from Hunan.[2]

O-L682[edit]
Haplogroup O-L682
O1b2a2a-L682
Possible time of origin6,300 [95% CI 4,700 <-> 8,000] ybp[1]
Possible place of originKorean Peninsula or Manchuria
AncestorO-M176, O-F3356
Defining mutationsL682
Highest frequencies'Koreans, Hezhen, Udege, Japanese, Ryukyuans, Manchus
O1b2a3-CTS10687

The O-L682 subclade of O-K4 is believed to be related to Native Korean population. One study has found O-L682 Y-DNA in 19% (134/706) of Koreans sampled in Seoul and Daejeon.[14] O-L682 also has been found in Japanese in Tokyo, Okayama, Kōchi, and the USA, Chinese in Shanxi, Shandong, and Beijing,[2] and Nanai people in China. Its descendants appear to have begun rapidly increasing in number at approximately the same time as those of its distant cousin O-47z, perhaps 4,000 years ago.[2]

Phylogenetics[edit]

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
O-M175 26 VII 1U 28 Eu16 H9 I O* O O O O O O O O O O
O-M119 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1* O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a
O-M101 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1a O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1 O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a
O-M50 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H10 H O1b O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2
O-P31 26 VII 1U 33 Eu16 H5 I O2* O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2
O-M95 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H11 G O2a* O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a1 O2a1
O-M88 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H12 G O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1a O2a1a
O-SRY465 20 VII 1U 35 Eu16 H5 I O2b* O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b
O-47z 5 VII 1U 26 Eu16 H5 I O2b1 O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1a O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1
O-M122 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3* O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3
O-M121 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3a O3a O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1a O3a1a
O-M164 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3b O3b O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a1b O3a1b
O-M159 13 VII 1U 31 Eu16 H6 L O3c O3c O3a3a O3a3a O3a3 O3a3 O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a
O-M7 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d* O3c O3a3b O3a3b O3a4 O3a4 O3a3b O3a3b O3a3b O3a2b O3a2b
O-M113 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d1 O3c1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 - O3a4a O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a2b1 O3a2b1
O-M134 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e* O3d O3a3c O3a3c O3a5 O3a5 O3a3c O3a3c O3a3c O3a2c1 O3a2c1
O-M117 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1* O3d1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a5a O3a5a O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a2c1a O3a2c1a
O-M162 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1a O3d1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a5a1 O3a5a1 O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a2c1a1 O3a2c1a1

Original research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup O subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree (Karafet 2008) and subsequent published research.

  • O1b2 (IMS-JST022454, L272.2, M176/Page63/SRY465, M302, P49, F1942/Page92)
    • O1b2a (F1942/Page92)
      • O1b2a1 (CTS9259)
        • O1b2a1a (F3356)
          • O1b2a1a1 (47z, CTS713, CTS11986)
          • O1b2a1a2 (F2868, F3110, K4)
            • O1b2a1a2a (L682)
            • O1b2a1a2b (F940, F1912, F3390)
          • O1b2a1a3 (CTS10687, F1800)
        • O1b2a1b (CTS562)
      • O1b2a2 (Page90)

Table of frequencies of O-M176[edit]

Population Frequency Sample Size SNPs Source
Korean (Gangweon) 0.397 63 M176(x47z)=20
47z=5
Kim 2011
Korean
(National Biobank of Korea)
0.377 300 M176(x47z)=88
47z=25
Park 2013
South Korea 0.373 75 M176/P49(x47z)=25
47z=3
Hammer 2006
Japanese (Shizuoka) 0.344 61 47z=13
M176/P49(x47z)=8
Hammer 2006
Korean (Daejeon) 0.338 133 M176(x47z)=30
47z=15
Park 2012
Japanese 0.335 263 47z=66
M176/JST022454(x47z)=22
Nonaka 2007
Korean (Jeju) 0.322 87 M176(x47z)=20
47z=8
Kim 2011
Japanese (Kyushu) 0.321 53 47z=15
M176/P49(x47z)=2
Hammer 2006
Korean (Seoul) 0.316 573 M176(x47z)=125
47z=56
Park 2012
Korean (Jeolla) 0.311 90 M176(x47z)=21
47z=7
Kim 2011
Japanese (Aomori) 0.308 26 47z=7
M176/P49(x47z)=1
Hammer 2006
Korean (Chungcheong) 0.306 72 M176(x47z)=15
47z=7
Kim 2011
Japanese (Tokushima) 0.300 70 47z=17
M176/P49(x47z)=4
Hammer 2006
Korean (Gyeongsang) 0.298 84 M176(x47z)=15
47z=10
Kim 2011
Japanese 0.293 157 47z=38
M176(x47z)=8
Kim 2011
Korean (Seoul/Gyeonggi) 0.282 110 M176(x47z)=23
47z=8
Kim 2011
Korean (PRC) 0.280 25 M176(x47z)=5
47z=2
Xue 2006
Korean (Korea) 0.279 43 M176(x47z)=6
47z=6
Xue 2006
Japanese 0.277 47 47z=11
M176(x47z)=2
Xue 2006
Manchurians 0.271 48 47z=9
M176(x47z)=4
Jin 2009
Korean (Seoul & Daejeon) 0.269 216 M176(x47z)=37
47z=21
Kim 2007
Japanese 0.262 107 47z=21
M176(x47z)=7
Jin 2009
Okinawa 0.222 45 47z=5
M176/P49(x47z)=5
Hammer 2006
Korean 0.201 154 M176(x47z)=22
47z=9
Jin 2009
Indonesians 0.194 36 M176(x47z)=6
47z=1
Jin 2009
Vietnamese 0.171 41 M176(x47z)=5
47z=2
Jin 2009
Indonesia (West) 0.160 25 M176/P49(x47z)=2
47z=2
Hammer 2006
Han (Yunnan) 0.098 41 M176(x47z)=4 Jin 2009
Vietnamese 0.083 48 M176(x47z)=2
47z=2
Kim 2011
Indonesian 0.081 37 M176(x47z)=3 Kim 2011
Han (Beijing) 0.062 65 M176(x47z)=4 Jin 2009
Micronesia 0.059 17 M176/P49(x47z)=1 Hammer 2006
Manchu 0.057 35 M176(x47z)=2 Xue 2006
Uriankhai (Mongolia) 0.050 60 M176=3 Katoh 2005
Mongol (NE Mongolia) 0.050 20 M176=1 DiCristofaro 2013
Hezhe (PRC) 0.044 45 M176(x47z)=2 Xue 2006
Vietnam 0.043 70 47z=2
M176/P49(x47z)=1
Hammer 2006
Thai 0.040 50 47z=2 Jin 2009
Manchu 0.038 52 M176/P49(x47z)=2 Hammer 2006
Zakhchin (Mongolia) 0.033 60 M176=2 Katoh 2005
Manchurian 0.033 30 M176(x47z)=1 Kim 2011
Hakka (Taiwan) 0.029 34 M176=1 Trejaut 2014
Han (Xi'an) 0.029 34 M176(x47z)=1 Kim 2011
Buryat 0.028 36 M176(x47z)=1 Kim 2011
Daur 0.026 39 M176(x47z)=1 Xue 2006
Thai 0.025 40 47z=1 Kim 2011
Evenk (PRC) 0.024 41 M176/P49(x47z)=1 Hammer 2006
Xibe 0.024 41 M176(x47z)=1 Xue 2006
Buryat 0.020 50 M176(x47z)=1 Jin 2009
Han (Beijing) 0.020 51 M176(x47z)=1 Kim 2011
Philippines 0.014 69 M176(x47z)=1 Jin 2009
Mongols (Mongolia) 0.006 160 M176=1 DiCristofaro 2013
Han (Taiwan) 0.004 258 M176=1 Trejaut 2014
Zhuang 0.000 20 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Oroqen 0.000 22 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Hanoi, Vietnam 0.000 24 M176=0 Trejaut 2014
Kalimantan 0.000 25 M176=0 Trejaut 2014
Evenk (PRC) 0.000 26 M176=0 Xue 2006
Sumatra 0.000 26 M176=0 Trejaut 2014
Akha (Thailand) 0.000 27 M176=0 Trejaut 2014
Alor 0.000 28 M176=0 Karafet 2010
Han (Lanzhou) 0.000 30 M176=0 Xue 2006
Even 0.000 31 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Oroqen 0.000 31 M176=0 Xue 2006
Uyghur (Urumqi) 0.000 31 M176=0 Xue 2006
Han (Yili) 0.000 32 M176=0 Xue 2006
Malay 0.000 32 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Australian aborigines 0.000 33 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Qiang 0.000 33 M176=0 Xue 2006
Han (Chengdu) 0.000 34 M176=0 Xue 2006
Hani (PRC) 0.000 34 M176=0 Xue 2006
Li 0.000 34 M176=0 Xue 2006
She 0.000 34 M176=0 Xue 2006
Buyi 0.000 35 M176=0 Xue 2006
Han (Harbin) 0.000 35 M176=0 Xue 2006
Han (Meixian) 0.000 35 M176=0 Xue 2006
Hui (PRC) 0.000 35 M176=0 Xue 2006
Tibetan 0.000 35 M176=0 Xue 2006
Yao (Bama) 0.000 35 M176=0 Xue 2006
Yao (Liannan) 0.000 35 M176=0 Xue 2006
Batak Toba (Sumatra) 0.000 38 M176=0 Karafet 2010
Uyghur (Yili) 0.000 39 M176=0 Xue 2006
East Indonesia 0.000 40 M176=0 Trejaut 2014
Han (Guangdong) 0.000 40 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Yi (Butuo, Sichuan) 0.000 43 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Northern Han 0.000 44 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Khalkh 0.000 45 M176=0 Kim 2011
Mongol (Inner Mongolia) 0.000 45 M176=0 Xue 2006
Papua New Guinea 0.000 46 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Khalkh 0.000 48 M176=0 Jin 2009
Philippines 0.000 48 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Taiwanese aborigines 0.000 48 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Tujia 0.000 49 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
She 0.000 51 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Melanesia 0.000 53 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Mandar (Sulawesi) 0.000 54 M176=0 Karafet 2010
Han (Fujian) 0.000 55 M176=0 Trejaut 2014
Indonesia (East) 0.000 55 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Miao 0.000 58 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Han (Yunnan) 0.000 60 M176=0 Kim 2011
Minnan (Taiwan) 0.000 60 M176=0 Trejaut 2014
Nias 0.000 60 M176=0 Karafet 2010
Polynesia 0.000 60 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Yao 0.000 60 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Java 0.000 61 M176=0 Karafet 2010
Filipino 0.000 64 M176=0 Kim 2011
Mongol (Outer Mongolia) 0.000 65 M176=0 Xue 2006
Uyghur 0.000 67 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Mentawai 0.000 74 M176=0 Karafet 2010
Thailand 0.000 75 M176=0 Trejaut 2014
Buryat 0.000 81 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Han (Taiwan) 0.000 84 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Borneo 0.000 86 M176=0 Karafet 2010
Sri Lanka 0.000 91 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Lembata 0.000 92 M176=0 Karafet 2010
Evenk (Russia) 0.000 95 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Altai 0.000 98 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Tibet 0.000 105 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Java 0.000 141 M176=0 Trejaut 2014
Philippines 0.000 146 M176=0 Trejaut 2014
Mongolia 0.000 149 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Sumba 0.000 350 M176=0 Karafet 2010
Taiwan mountain tribes 0.000 355 M176=0 Trejaut 2014
Taiwan plains tribes 0.000 370 M176=0 Trejaut 2014
Flores 0.000 394 M176=0 Karafet 2010
India 0.000 405 M176/P49=0 Hammer 2006
Bali 0.000 641 M176=0 Karafet 2010

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA O subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ 256/800=32.0% O-M176 in a pool of all Japanese samples of (Xue 2006), (Katoh 2004), (Jin 2009), (Nonaka 2007), (Poznik 2016), and all non-Ainu and non-Okinawan Japanese samples of (Hammer 2006).
  2. ^ 202/677=29.8% O-M176 in a pool of all ethnic Korean samples of (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), (Katoh 2004), (Kim 2007), and (Park 2013).
  3. ^ 30/132=22.7% O-M176 in a pool of all Okinawan data from (Hammer 2006) and (Nonaka 2007)
  4. ^ 45/232=19.4% O-M176 in a pool of all Manchu samples of (Karafet 2001), (Jin 2003), (Katoh 2004), and (Xue 2006)
  5. ^ 150/628=23.9% O-47z in a pool of all non-Ainu and non-Okinawan Japanese samples of (Jin 2003), (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), and (Nonaka 2007)
  6. ^ 22/132=16.7% O-47z in a pool of all Okinawan samples of Hammer 2006 and Nonaka 2007
  7. ^ 41/519=7.9% O-47z in a pool of all ethnic Korean samples of (Jin 2003), (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), and (Kim 2007)
  8. ^ 9/135=6.7% O-47z in a pool of all "Manchu" or "Manchurian" samples of (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), and (Jin 2009)
  9. ^ 41/519=7.9% O-L682 in a pool of all ethnic Korean samples of (Yoo 2014), (Katoh 2004), and (Kim 2011)
  10. ^ 22/132=16.7% O-47z in a pool of all Okinawan samples of Hammer 2006 and Nonaka 2007
  11. ^ 150/628=23.9% O-47z in a pool of all non-Ainu and non-Okinawan Japanese samples of (Jin 2003), (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), and (Nonaka 2007)
  12. ^ 9/135=6.7% O-47z in a pool of all "Manchu" or "Manchurian" samples of (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), and (Jin 2009)

Works cited[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f YFull Haplogroup YTree v6.01 at 04 January 2018
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i YFull Haplogroup YTree v5.04 at 16 May 2017
  3. ^ Kim, Soon-Hee; Kim, Ki-Cheol; Shin, Dong-Jik; et al. "High frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroup O2b-SRY465 lineages in Korea: a genetic perspective on the peopling of Korea". Investigative Genetics. 2011 (2): 10.
  4. ^ Balaresque, Patricia; Poulet, Nicolas; Cussat-Blanc, Sylvain; et al. "Y-chromosome descent clusters and male differential reproductive success: young lineage expansions dominate Asian pastoral nomadic populations". European Journal of Human Genetics. 23: 1413–1422. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.285. PMC 4430317. PMID 25585703.
  5. ^ a b Soon-Hee Kim 2011, High frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroup O2b-SRY465 lineages in Korea: a genetic perspective on the peopling of Korea
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Trejaut, Jean A; Poloni, Estella S; Yen, Ju-Chen; et al. (2014). "Taiwan Y-chromosomal DNA variation and its relationship with Island Southeast Asia". BMC Genetics. 15: 77. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-15-77.
  8. ^ Huang Dai-Xin, Yang Qing-En, Yin Hui et al., "Genetic Polymorphism of 23 Y Chromosome Biallelic Markers in Wuhan Han Population," HEREDITAS (Beijing) 28 (7) 791~798, 2006
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Further reading[edit]