Haplogroup O-K18

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Haplogroup O-K18
a.k.a O-F2320
Possible time of origin 28,500 [95% CI 26,200 <-> 30,900] years before present[1]
Possible place of origin Southeast Asia or East Asia or Japan[1]
Coalescence age 22,200 [95% CI 20,000 <-> 24,400] years before present[1]
Ancestor O-M268 (O1b)
Descendants Primary: O-M1470 (O1b1a). Secondary: O-CTS10007 (O1b1a1a), O-M1283 (O1b1a1a1b), O-F4212 (O1b1a1a1a1b2), O-CTS10484 (O1b1a1a1a1b1b), O-CTS7399 (O1b1a1a1a1b1a), O-M111 (O1b1a1a1a1a), O-PK4 (O1b1a1).[2]
Defining mutations K18; F2320; F3008/M1441; F3286/M146; M95; F1931/M1362; F1358/M1318; CTS11761/M1487


Haplogroup O-K18 also known as O-F2320 and (as of 2017) Haplogroup O1b1,[3] is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup O-K18 is a descendant branch of Haplogroup O-P31. It is best known for the high frequency of its O-M95 subclade among populations of Southeast Asia and among speakers of Austroasiatic languages in South Asia.

Origin[edit]

It has long been debated among numerous researchers on whether this Haplogroup originated in Japan, Southeast Asia, or China. The likelihood of it originating from Japan seems to fit a well rounded narrative in association with history and anthropology to say the least.

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup O-K18 is distributed widely in Asia, from southern India to the Altai Mountains and Central Asia in the west, and from Indonesia to northern China and Japan in the east. It is found only at marginally low frequencies of approximately 1% at the periphery of its distribution in southern India, Central Asia, northern China, and Japan, but many populations within the vast intervening territory in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and southern China display a greatly elevated frequency of Haplogroup O-K18 Y-chromosomes. Haplogroup O-M122, which attains its peak frequency among the Sino-Tibetan and Hmong–Mien peoples of China and Southeast Asia, and Haplogroup O-M119, which predominates among Taiwanese aborigines and many populations of the Philippines, also generally occur among speakers of Austroasiatic languages in South China and the Indochinese Peninsula, but usually at much lower frequencies than Haplogroup O-M95.

According to the National Geographic project regarding O-M95: The Austro-Asiatic language family developed in groups containing men from this lineage. As these groups spread across Southeast Asia in successive waves, they spread their language. Today, the distribution of men from this lineage matches the pattern of these waves of migration. It is 42 percent of male lineages in Java, 40 percent of male lineages in Vietnam, and 38 percent of male lineages in Borneo. It accounts for 28 percent of the male population in Malaysia. It is present in Sumatra in about 14 percent of the male population. In mainland China, it is, on average, about 3 percent of the male population. In South Asia, it is 9 percent of the Pardhan, between 1 and 2 percent of the Andh, and 10 percent of the Naikpod. It is around 59 percent of Balinese male lineages.

Population Frequency n Source SNPs
Shompen 1.00 12 Trivedi 2006 M95
Nicobarese 1.00 11 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Juang 0.980 49 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Bonda 0.952 42 Chaubey 2011 M95
Juang 0.889 54 Chaubey 2011 M95
Gadaba 0.889 27 Chaubey 2011 M95
Birhor 0.887 62 Chaubey 2011 M95
Lamet 0.857 35 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Ho 0.844 45 Chaubey 2011 M95
Han Chinese (Pinghua-Wuxhuan) 0.838 31 Gan 2008 M95(xM88)
Korku 0.814 59 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Baiga (Odisha) 0.810 42 Chaubey 2011 M95
Inh 0.794 34 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Mawasi (eastern Korku) 0.718 39 Chaubey 2011 M95
Katu 0.689 45 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Mal 0.660 50 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Ho 0.658 79 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Bo 0.643 28 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Talieng 0.629 35 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Brau 0.625 32 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Khmu 0.608 51 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Asur 0.602 88 Chaubey 2011 M95
Oy 0.600 50 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Korwa 0.595 42 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Li (Hlai) 0.588 34 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Balinese 0.573 641 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Alak 0.567 30 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Suy 0.564 39 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Bit 0.536 28 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Aheu 0.526 38 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Savara 0.524 21 Chaubey 2011 M95
Baiga (Madhya Pradesh) 0.522 23 Chaubey 2011 M95
Bugan 0.500 32 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Java (mostly sampled in Dieng) 0.492 61 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Kharia 0.486 37 Chaubey 2011 M95
Ngeq 0.486 35 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Jeh 0.469 32 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Santhal 0.468 109 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Munda 0.453 53 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Laven 0.420 50 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
So 0.420 50 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Muong 0.417 12 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Khasi 0.413 92 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Kharia 0.389 36 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Buyi 0.371 35 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Lao (Luang Prabang, Laos) 0.360 25 He 2012 M95(xM88)
Santhal 0.350 20 Chaubey 2011 M95
Kinh 0.333 15 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Oraon 0.319 91 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Banjarmasin, Indonesia 0.318 22 Hurles 2005 M95(xM88)
Malaysia 0.313 32 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Mountain Kimmun 0.313 32 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Blang 0.308 52 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Miao (Yunnan) 0.306 49 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Cham (Binh Thuan, Vietnam) 0.305 59 He 2012 M95(xM88)
Khasi 0.303 353 Reddy 2007 M95
Lowland Kimmun 0.244 41 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Zhuang 0.235 166 Chen 2006 M95(xM111)
Palyu 0.233 30 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia 0.215 65 Hurles 2005 M95(xM88)
Northern Mien 0.212 33 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Flower-head Mien 0.211 19 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Borneo (Indonesia) 0.209 86 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Southern Mien 0.194 31 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Mahali (Santhal) 0.188 32 Chaubey 2011 M95
Garo 0.182 33 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Blue Kimmun 0.179 28 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Thai (Northern Thailand) 0.176 17 He 2012 M95(xM88)
Xinhmul 0.172 29 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Malagasy 0.171 35 Hurles 2005 M95(xM88)
Miao (Guizhou) 0.163 49 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Lowland Yao 0.161 31 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Batak Toba (Sumatra) 0.158 38 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Daur 0.154 39 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Western Mien 0.149 47 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Mandar (Sulawesi) 0.130 54 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Pahng 0.129 31 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Kinh (Hanoi, Vietnam) 0.118 76 He 2012 M95(xM88)
Garo 0.113 71 Reddy 2007 M95
Kataang 0.108 37 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Han (South China) 0.092 65 Yan 2011 PK4(xM88)
Qiang 0.091 33 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Top Board Mien 0.091 11 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Thin Board Mien 0.091 11 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Miao (Hunan) 0.090 100 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
She 0.088 34 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Native Mien 0.073 41 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Vietnamese 0.071 70 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Han Chinese (China) 0.061 165 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Hmong Daw (Laos) 0.059 51 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Hani 0.059 34 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Yao (Liannan, Guangdong) 0.057 35 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Bunu 0.056 36 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Kapingamarangi 0.048 21 Hurles 2005 M95(xM88)
Flores 0.046 394 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Japanese 0.043 47 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Western Samoa 0.040 25 Hurles 2005 M95(xM88)
Ewenki (China) 0.038 26 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Northern She (Zhejiang) 0.036 56 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Miao (China) 0.034 58 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Han (Lanzhou, Gansu) 0.033 30 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Han (Yili, Xinjiang) 0.031 32 Xue 2006 M95(x88)
Han (North China) 0.031 129 Yan 2011 PK4(xM88)
Han (Chengdu, Sichuan) 0.029 34 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Tharu (Uttar Pradesh) 0.024 164 Chaubey 2014 M95
Han (East China) 0.024 167 Yan 2011 PK4(xM88)
Japanese 0.024 210 Hammer 2006 M95(xM111)
Tharu (Uttarakhand) 0.022 45 Chaubey 2014 M95
Philippines 0.021 48 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Tharu (Nepal) 0.020 202 Fornarino 2009
Chaubey 2014
M95
Uzbek 0.019 54 Karafet 2001 M95
Japanese 0.018 56 Poznik 2016 M95(xM88)
Yao (China) 0.017 60 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Japanese 0.013 2390 Sato 2014 M95
Japanese 0.008 263 Nonaka 2007 M95(xM88)
Sumba 0.003 350 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)

Subclade Distribution[edit]

O-K18[edit]

O-CTS10887[edit]

Found in Han Chinese, Vietnamese, Dai, and Japanese

O-PK4[edit]

O-F838[edit]

This lineage has been relocated upstream of M95 following a paper published on the subject in 2011.(Shi Yan et al. 2011) Found in three samples of Han Chinese: 3/65 = 4.6% South China, 1/129 = 0.8% North China, 1/167 = 0.6% East China.

O-M95[edit]

This subclade is downstream from O-PK4. It reaches a high frequencies among the populations of the islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Borneo in western and central Indonesia (Underhill 2001). It has been found to be by far the most common Y-chromosome haplogroup among the Balinese, occurring in approximately 58.6% (323/551) of a sample of Balinese men. Japanese, Taiwanese, and Chinese exhibit substantial frequencies with the rest of Southeast Asia being sporadically distributed.

O-M88[edit]

This subclade is downstream from O-M95. It is frequently found among Hani-Akha, She people, Vietnamese, and Tai peoples, with a moderate distribution among Cambodians, Qiang, Hlai, Miao, Yao, Taiwanese aborigines, populations of Borneo (Hurles 2005), Han Chinese of Sichuan,[4] Hunan, Guangxi,[5] Guangdong,[6] Yunnan,[7] and Taiwan,[8][6] and Pashtuns.(Khaliq 2006)

O-M297[edit]

More research is needed on this lineage. It is claimed to be downstream from M95 and parallel to M88.

Phylogenetics[edit]

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
O-M175 26 VII 1U 28 Eu16 H9 I O* O O O O O O O O O O
O-M119 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1* O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a
O-M101 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1a O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1 O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a
O-M50 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H10 H O1b O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2
O-P31 26 VII 1U 33 Eu16 H5 I O2* O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2
O-M95 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H11 G O2a* O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a1 O2a1
O-M88 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H12 G O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1a O2a1a
O-SRY465 20 VII 1U 35 Eu16 H5 I O2b* O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b
O-47z 5 VII 1U 26 Eu16 H5 I O2b1 O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1a O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1
O-M122 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3* O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3
O-M121 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3a O3a O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1a O3a1a
O-M164 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3b O3b O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a1b O3a1b
O-M159 13 VII 1U 31 Eu16 H6 L O3c O3c O3a3a O3a3a O3a3 O3a3 O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a
O-M7 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d* O3c O3a3b O3a3b O3a4 O3a4 O3a3b O3a3b O3a3b O3a2b O3a2b
O-M113 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d1 O3c1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 - O3a4a O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a2b1 O3a2b1
O-M134 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e* O3d O3a3c O3a3c O3a5 O3a5 O3a3c O3a3c O3a3c O3a2c1 O3a2c1
O-M117 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1* O3d1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a5a O3a5a O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a2c1a O3a2c1a
O-M162 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1a O3d1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a5a1 O3a5a1 O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a2c1a1 O3a2c1a1

Research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup O subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree (Karafet 2008) and subsequent published research.

  • O-M95 (M95)
    • O-M88 (M88, M111)

Table of frequencies of O-M88/M111[edit]

Population Frequency Count Source SNPs
Xinhmul 0.690 29 Cai 2011 M88
Hani 0.441 34 Xue 2006 M88
She 0.353 51 Karafet 2010 M111
Suy 0.308 39 Cai 2011 M88
Kinh (Hanoi, Vietnam) 0.303 76 He 2012 M88
Lowland Yao 0.290 31 Cai 2011 M88
Kataang 0.270 37 Cai 2011 M88
Zaomin 0.216 37 Cai 2011 M88
Vietnamese 0.200 70 Karafet 2010 M111
Buyi 0.171 35 Xue 2006 M88
Aheu 0.158 38 Cai 2011 M88
Lao (Luang Prabang, Laos) 0.120 25 He 2012 M88
Han (Chengdu, Sichuan) 0.118 34 Xue 2006 M88
Cham (Binh Thuan, Vietnam) 0.085 59 He 2012 M88
Zhuang 0.072 166 Chen 2006 M111
Miao (China) 0.069 58 Karafet 2010 M111
Thai (Northern Thailand) 0.059 17 He 2012 M88
Han (China) 0.055 165 Karafet 2010 M111
Taiwanese aborigines 0.051 39 Hurles 2005 M88
Banjarmasin, Indonesia 0.045 22 Hurles 2005 M88
Pathans (Dir, Pakistan) 0.042 96 Firasat 2007 M88, M111
Malaysia 0.031 32 Karafet 2010 M111
Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia 0.031 65 Hurles 2005 M88
Qiang 0.030 33 Xue 2006 M88
Li (Hlai) 0.029 34 Xue 2006 M88
Yao (Liannan, Guangdong) 0.029 35 Xue 2006 M88
Philippines 0.021 48 Karafet 2010 M111
Taiwanese aborigines 0.021 48 Karafet 2010 M111
Yao (China) 0.017 60 Karafet 2010 M111

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA O subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
N O Q     R

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c YFull Haplogroup YTree v5.01 at 04 January 2017
  2. ^ ISOGG 2017; YFull 2017
  3. ^ ISOGG 2017
  4. ^ Yali Xue, Tatiana Zerjal, Weidong Bao, Suling Zhu, Qunfang Shu, Jiujin Xu, Ruofu Du, Songbin Fu, Pu Li, Matthew E. Hurles, Huanming Yang, and Chris Tyler-Smith, "Male Demography in East Asia: A North–South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times." Genetics 172: 2431–2439 (April 2006). DOI: 10.1534/genetics.105.054270
  5. ^ Yan LU, Shang-Ling PAN, Shu-Ming QIN, Zheng-Dong QIN, Chuan-Chao WANG, Rui-Jing GAN, Hui LI, and the Genographic Consortium, "Genetic evidence for the multiple origins of Pinghua Chinese." Journal of Systematics and Evolution Volume 51, Issue 3 (May 2013), Pages 271–279. DOI: 10.1111/jse.12003
  6. ^ a b Michael F. Hammer, Tatiana M. Karafet, Hwayong Park, Keiichi Omoto, Shinji Harihara, Mark Stoneking, and Satoshi Horai, "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes." Journal of Human Genetics (2006) 51:47–58. DOI 10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0
  7. ^ Zhili Yang, Yongli Dong, Lu Gao, Baowen Cheng, Jie Yang, Weimin Zeng, Jing Lu, Yanhua Su, & Chunjie Xiao, "The distribution of Y chromosome haplogroups in the nationalities from Yunnan Province of China." Annals of Human Biology, January–February 2005; 32(1): 80–87.
  8. ^ Jean A Trejaut, Estella S Poloni, Ju-Chen Yen, Ying-Hui Lai, Jun-Hun Loo, Chien-Liang Lee, Chun-Lin He, and Marie Lin, "Taiwan Y-chromosomal DNA variation and its relationship with Island Southeast Asia." BMC Genetics 2014, 15:77. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/15/77

Works cited[edit]

Books

  • Underhill, Peter (2005). "Chapter 17: A synopsis of extant Y chromosome diversity in East Asia and Oceania". In Sagart, Laurent; Blench, Roger; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia. The Peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. Psychology Press. pp. 297–314. ISBN 9780415322423. 

Conference Posters

Journals

Further reading[edit]