Haplogroup O-M268

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Haplogroup O-M268
Possible time of origin34,100 or 29,200 ybp[1]

33,103 [95% CI 24,460 <-> 40,854] ybp[2]

30,100 [95% CI 27,800 <-> 32,400] ybp[3]
Coalescence age28,500 [95% CI 26,200 <-> 30,900] ybp[3]
Possible place of originSoutheast Asia or East Asia[3]
AncestorO1b (O-F265)
DescendantsO1b1 (F2320)[4]; O1b2 (P49/M176)
Defining mutationsP31, M268, L690/F167, F256/M1341, Y9038/FGC19644, L463/F330, M1461, F138, Y9317, FGC55566, F292/M1363, CTS4164, CTS6713/M1396, CTS5785/M1377, F435/M1417, F516, M1455
Highest frequenciesAustroasiatic-speaking peoples, Tai peoples, Hlai, Balinese, Javanese, Japanese, Ryukyuans, Koreans, Manchus, Malagasy

In human genetics, Haplogroup O-M268, also known as O1b, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup O-M268 is a primary subclade of haplogroup O-F265, itself a primary descendant branch of Haplogroup O-M175.


In a paper published in 2011 by a group of Chinese researchers affiliated with Fudan University, it has been suggested that China is the origin of the expansion of haplogroup O-P31 (therein called Haplogroup O2-M268).[5]


Haplogroup O-P31 is notable for the peculiarities of its geographical distribution. Like all clades of Haplogroup O-M175, Haplogroup O-P31 is found only among the males of modern Eastern Eurasian populations. However, Haplogroup O-P31 is generally found with high frequency only among certain populations, such as the Austroasiatic peoples of India, Bangladesh and Southeast Asia, the Nicobarese of the Nicobar Islands in the Indian Ocean, Koreans, and Japanese.

Besides its widespread and patchy distribution, Haplogroup O-P31 is also notable for the fact that it can be divided into two major subclades that show almost completely disjunct distribution. One of these subclades, Haplogroup O-M95, is found among some (mostly tribal) populations of South and Southeast Asia, as well as among the Japanese of Japan and the Balinese of Indonesia. The other major subclade, Haplogroup O-M176, is found almost exclusively among the Japanese, Koreans, and some Manchurians.[citation needed]


Phylogenetic History[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
O-M175 26 VII 1U 28 Eu16 H9 I O* O O O O O O O O O O
O-M119 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1* O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a
O-M101 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1a O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1 O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a
O-M50 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H10 H O1b O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2
O-P31 26 VII 1U 33 Eu16 H5 I O2* O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2
O-M95 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H11 G O2a* O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a1 O2a1
O-M88 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H12 G O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1a O2a1a
O-SRY465 20 VII 1U 35 Eu16 H5 I O2b* O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b
O-47z 5 VII 1U 26 Eu16 H5 I O2b1 O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1a O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1
O-M122 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3* O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3
O-M121 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3a O3a O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1a O3a1a
O-M164 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3b O3b O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a1b O3a1b
O-M159 13 VII 1U 31 Eu16 H6 L O3c O3c O3a3a O3a3a O3a3 O3a3 O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a
O-M7 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d* O3c O3a3b O3a3b O3a4 O3a4 O3a3b O3a3b O3a3b O3a2b O3a2b
O-M113 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d1 O3c1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 - O3a4a O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a2b1 O3a2b1
O-M134 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e* O3d O3a3c O3a3c O3a5 O3a5 O3a3c O3a3c O3a3c O3a2c1 O3a2c1
O-M117 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1* O3d1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a5a O3a5a O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a2c1a O3a2c1a
O-M162 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1a O3d1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a5a1 O3a5a1 O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a2c1a1 O3a2c1a1

Original Research Publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Phylogenetic Trees[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup O subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree (Karafet 2008) and subsequent published research.

  • O-P31 (P31, M268)
    • O-K18
      • O-CTS10887 Found in China (Han, Dai), Vietnam, the Philippines, West Kalimantan, Qatar, Hazara, Japan, Korea
      • O-PK4
        • O-F838 Found in Han Chinese[5][6] and in a specimen from medieval South Kazakhstan ascribed to the Turks;[7] probably also present in Hanoi,[6] Ambon,[6] Ayeyarwady Region,[8] and Xinlong County[9]
        • O-M95 (M95)
          • O-CTS350
            • O-CTS350* Found in Japan
            • O-CTS10007 Found in Han Chinese in Hunan
          • O-M1310
            • O-F1252
              • O-SK1630/F5504 China (Shaanxi),[3] Russia (Ryazan Oblast)[3]
                • O-SK1636
              • O-F2924
                • O-CTS5854 Found in China (Han, Dai), Japan, and the Philippines
                • O-M88 (M88, M111) Found in Vietnamese, Dai, Miao, Tujia, and southern Han Chinese
            • O-F789/M1283 Found in China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Singapore (Malay),[2] Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar, Bhutan,[10] Bangladesh, and India
    • O-P49 (SRY465, P49, 022454)
      • O-P49*(xPage92) Japan
      • O-Page92
        • O-Page90 Japan (Hiroshima)
        • O-CTS9259
          • O-CTS562 Beijing (Han),[3] Japan (Fukushima),[3] South Korea[11]
          • O-K10
            • O-CTS10687 Japan (Tokyo)
            • O-K27
              • O-CTS713 (47z) Found in approximately 24% of Japanese males and with lower frequency in Korea
              • O-K4
                • O-K3 Hunan (Han)
                • O-L682 Found in approximately 19% of South Korean males[12] and with lower frequency in Japan and China

See also[edit]


Y-DNA O Subclades[edit]

Y-DNA Backbone Tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2


  1. ^ G. David Poznik, Yali Xue, Fernando L. Mendez, et al., "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences." Nat Genet. 2016 June ; 48(6): 593–599. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.
  2. ^ a b Monika Karmin, Lauri Saag, Mário Vicente, et al., "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture." Genome Research 25:1–8; ISSN 1088-9051/15; www.genome.org
  3. ^ a b c d e f g YFull Haplogroup YTree v5.04 at 16 May 2017
  4. ^ O-F2320 has replaced O-K18 as O1b1.
  5. ^ a b Shi Yan, Chuan-Chao Wang, Hui Li, Shi-Lin Li, Li Jin, and The Genographic Consortium, "An updated tree of Y-chromosome Haplogroup O and revised phylogenetic positions of mutations P164 and PK4." European Journal of Human Genetics (2011) 19, 1013–1015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.64
  6. ^ a b c Jean A Trejaut, Estella S Poloni, Ju-Chen Yen, et al. (2014), "Taiwan Y-chromosomal DNA variation and its relationship with Island Southeast Asia." BMC Genetics 2014, 15:77. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/15/77
  7. ^ Peter de Barros Damgaard, Nina Marchi, Simon Rasmussen, et al. (2018), "137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes." Nature volume 557, pages 369–374 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0094-2
  8. ^ Min-Sheng Peng, Jun-Dong He, Long Fan, et al. (2013), "Retrieving Y chromosomal haplogroup trees using GWAS data." European Journal of Human Genetics (2013), 1–5. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.272
  9. ^ Wang C-C, Wang L-X, Shrestha R, Zhang M, Huang X-Y, et al. (2014), "Genetic Structure of Qiangic Populations Residing in the Western Sichuan Corridor." PLoS ONE 9(8): e103772. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103772
  10. ^ Pille Hallast, Chiara Batini, Daniel Zadik, et al. (2015), "The Y-Chromosome Tree Bursts into Leaf: 13,000 High-Confidence SNPs Covering the Majority of Known Clades." Molecular Biology and Evolution 2015 Mar;32(3):661-73. doi:10.1093/molbev/msu327
  11. ^ O Y-Haplogroup Project at Family Tree DNA
  12. ^ So Yeun Kwon, Hwan Young Lee, Eun Young Lee, Woo Ick Yang, and Kyoung-Jin Shin, "Confirmation of Y haplogroup tree topologies with newly suggested Y-SNPs for the C2, O2b and O3a subhaplogroups." Forensic Science International: Genetics 19 (2015) 42–46. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.06.003


Works Cited[edit]



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