Haplogroup O-M122

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Haplogroup O-M122
Human Y-chromosome Haplogroup O-M122 spatial distribution.png
Isofrequency map portraying spatial distribution of Haplogroup O-M122 in Asia and Oceania as per (Kumar 2007). The dots indicate the populations and the regions from where it was sampled.
Possible time of origin 34,042 [95% CI 25,228 <-> 41,942] ybp[1]

35,000 (with slower average mutation rate) or 30,000 (with faster average mutation rate) years ago[2]

31,500 [95% CI 29,600 <-> 33,400] years before present[3]
Coalescence age 29,000 [95% CI 26,600 <-> 31,500] years before present[3]
Possible place of origin China (GenographicProject 2005) or Southeast Asia (Shi 2009)
Ancestor O-M175
Defining mutations M122 (Krahn and FTDNA 2013)
Highest frequencies Widely in East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast India, and Nepal. Especially high in Han Chinese, Tujia people, Bai people, Tamang people, Tani people, Garo people, Naga people, Wa people, Lisu people, Nu people, Miao people, Yao people, She people, Koreans, and Vietnamese.

In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa. Haplogroup O-M122 (also known as Haplogroup O2 (formerly Haplogroup O3))is an Eastern Eurasian Y-chromosome haplogroup. The lineage ranges across Southeast Asia and East Asia, where it dominates the paternal lineages with extremely high frequencies.

This lineage is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup O-M175.

Origins[edit]

Researchers believe that O-M122 first appeared in Southeast Asia approximately 25,000-30,000 years ago (Shi 2009) or roughly between 30,000 and 35,000 years ago according to more recent studies (Karmin et al. 2015, Poznik et al. 2016, YFull January 4 2018). In a systematic sampling and genetic screening of an East Asian–specific Y-chromosome haplogroup (O-M122) in 2,332 individuals from diverse East Asian populations, results indicate that the O-M122 lineage is dominant in East Asian populations, with an average frequency of 44.3%. Microsatellite data show that the O-M122 haplotypes are more diverse in Southeast Asia than those in northern East Asia (Shi 2009). This suggests a southern origin of the O-M122 mutation to be likely.

It was also part of the settlement of East Asia. However, the prehistoric peopling of East Asia by modern humans remains controversial with respect to early population migrations and the place of the O-M122 lineage in these migrations is ambivalent.[citation needed]

Distribution[edit]

Although Haplogroup O-M122 appears to be primarily associated with Chinese people, it also forms a significant component of the Y-chromosome diversity of most modern populations of the East Asian region.

Population Frequency n Source SNPs
Derung 1 Shi 2009  
Naga
(Sagaing, Myanmar)
1.000 15 Peng 2013 Page23=15
Nishi 0.94 Cordaux 2004  
Adi 0.89 Cordaux 2004  
Tamang 0.867 45 Gayden 2007 M134
Nu 0.86 Wen 2004  
Yao (Liannan) 0.829 35 Xue 2006 M7=18
M117=5
M122(xM159, M7, M134)=4
M134(xM117)=2
Achang 0.825 Shi 2009  
Apatani 0.82 Cordaux 2004  
Bai 0.82 Shi 2009  
CHS
(Han in Hunan & Fujian)
0.788 52 Poznik 2016 M122=41
Naga (NE India) 0.765 34 Cordaux 2004 M134=26
Ava (Yunnan) 0.759 29 Cai 2011 M122
Han Chinese 0.74 Wen 2004  
She 0.735 34 Xue 2006 M7=10
M122(xM159, M7, M134)=7
M117=6
M134(xM117)=2
Nu 0.7 Shi 2009  
Miao 0.7 Karafet 2001  
Shui 0.7 Shi 2009  
Han (Harbin) 0.657 35 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=10
M134(xM117)=8
M117=5
Lisu 0.65 Wen 2004  
Zaomin (Guangdong) 0.649 37 Cai 2011 M122
She 0.63 Karafet 2001  
Filipinos 0.62 Jin 2009  
Taiwan Han 0.619 21 Tajima 2004 M122
Philippines 0.607 28 Hurles 2005 M122
Han (East China) 0.593 167 Yan 2011 M122
Garo 0.59 Reddy 2007  
Chin
(Chin State, Myanmar)
0.579 19 Peng 2013 Page23=10
M122(xM324)=1
Han (North China) 0.566 129 Yan 2011 M122
Toba (Sumatra) 0.553 38 Karafet 2010 P201(xM7, M134)
Northern Han 0.551 49 Tajima 2004 M122
Garo 0.55 Kumar 2007  
Tujia 0.54 Shi 2009  
Tujia 0.53 Karafet 2001  
Han (Chengdu) 0.529 34 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=8
M134(xM117)=5
M117=5
Han (NE China) 0.524 42 Katoh 2005 M122=22
Han (Meixian) 0.514 35 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=10
M117=4
M7=2
M159=1
M134(xM117)=1
CHB
(Han Chinese in Beijing)
0.500 46 Poznik 2016 F444=8
M117=7
JST002611=5
KL2(xJST002611)=2
M188(xM7)=1
Han (South China) 0.492 65 Yan 2011 M122
Va 0.48 Shi 2009  
Bai 0.48 Shi 2009
Wen 2004
 
KHV
(Kinh in Ho Chi Minh City)
0.478 46 Poznik 2016 M7=6
M133=4
F444=4
JST002611=4
KL2(xJST002611)=2
N6>F4124=1
CTS1754=1
Koreans 0.472 216 Kim 2007  
Lisu 0.47 Shi 2009  
Hani 0.47 Wen 2004  
Han (Yili) 0.469 32 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=10
M7=2
M117=2
M134(xM117)=1
Bai (Dali, Yunnan) 0.46 50 Wen 2004 M122
Hezhe (China) 0.444 45 Xue 2005 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=11
M134(xM117)=2
M117=7
Koreans 0.443 506 Kim 2011 P201=146
M324(xP201)=76
M122(xM324)=2
Tibetans
(Zhongdian, Yunnan)
0.440 50 Wen 2004 M122
Miao 0.44 Shi 2009  
Yi 0.44 Wen 2004  
Lahu 0.43 Shi 2009  
Bit (Laos) 0.429 28 Cai 2011 M122
Manchu (NE China) 0.426 101 Katoh 2005 M122=43
Koreans (Seoul) 0.422 573 Park 2012 M122
Koreans (Daejeon) 0.414 133 Park 2012 M122
Hmong Daw (Laos) 0.412 51 Cai 2011 M122
Vietnamese 0.41 Karafet 2001  
Dai 0.4 Yang 2005  
Dungan (Kyrgyzstan) 0.40 40 Wells 2001 M122
Tibetans 0.400 35 Xue 2006 M117=13
M134(xM117)=1
Koreans (China) 0.400 25 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=6
M117=4
Shan
(Northern Thailand)
0.400 20 Brunelli 2017 M117=7
M7=1
Koreans (South Korea) 0.395 43 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=7
M134(xM117)=5
M117=5
Vietnamese 0.39 Jin 2009  
Khon Mueang
(Northern Thailand)
0.390 205 Brunelli 2017 O-M117=46
O-M7=17
O-M324(xM7, M134)=16
O-M122(xM324)=1
Mon
(Northern Thailand)
0.389 18 Brunelli 2017 M117=4
M324(xM7, M134)=3
Blang (Yunnan) 0.385 52 Cai 2011 M122
Manchu 0.38 Karafet 2001  
Philippine
(Tagalog language group)
0.380 50 Tajima 2004 M122
Hanoi, Vietnam 0.375 24 Trejaut 2014 M7=3
M134(xM133)=3
M133=1
JST002611=1
M159=1
Manchu 0.371 35 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=6
M117=5
M134(xM117)=2
Han (Lanzhou) 0.367 30 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=6
M117=3
M134(xM117)=2
Lahu 0.36 Wen 2004  
Qiang 0.364 33 Xue 2006 M134(xM117)=4
M117=3
M122(xM159, M7, M134)=3
M7=2
Bamar (Myanmar) 0.361 72 Peng 2013 Page23=26
Borneo, Indonesia 0.360 86 Karafet 2010 M122
Korean 0.356 45 Wells 2001 M122
Pahng (Guangxi) 0.355 31 Cai 2011 M122
Philippines 0.354 48 Karafet 2010 M122
Western Yugur 0.35 Zhou 2008  
Thai
(Chiang Mai & Khon Kaen)
0.353 34 Shi 2009
Tajima 2004
M122
Tai Yong
(Northern Thailand)
0.346 26 Brunelli 2017 M324(xM7, M134)=4
M117=3
M7=2
Tharu 0.345 171 Fornarino 2009 M134
Kinh (Hanoi, Vietnam) 0.342 76 He 2012 M122
Koreans (Seoul) 0.341 85 Katoh 2005 M122=29
Tibet 0.340 156 Gayden 2007 M122
Yao (Bama) 0.343 35 Xue 2006 M7=12
Kazakhs (SE Altai) 0.337 89 Dulik 2011 M134(xM117, P101)
Tai Yuan
(Thailand)
0.329 85 Brunelli 2017 M117=15
M7=5
M122(xM324)=5
M134(xM117)=3
Dai
(Xishuangbanna, Yunnan)
0.327 52 Poznik 2016 O-M133=13
O-M7=2
O-F444=1
O-JST002611=1
Polynesians 0.325 Su 2000  
Tibetans 0.32 Wen 2004  
Khasi 0.32 Reddy 2007  
Lao
(Luang Prabang, Laos)
0.32 25 He 2012 M122
Eastern Yugur 0.31 Zhou 2008  
Malays 0.31 Karafet 2001  
Buyei 0.314 35 Xue 2006 M7=6
M134(xM117)=3
M117=1
M122(xM159, M7, M134)=1
Mongolian (Khalkh) 0.311 Kim 2011  
Filipinos 0.308 146 Trejaut 2014 P164(xM134)=26
JST002611=7
M7=3
M133=3
M134(xM133)=2
P201(xM159, M7, P164)=2
M159=1
M324(xKL1, P201)=1
Han (Pinghua speakers) 0.3 Gan 2008  
Salar 0.302 43 WeiWang 2003 M122
Thailand 0.293 75 Trejaut 2014 M133(xM162)=10
M7=5
M134(xM133)=3
JST002611=2
P164(xM134)=1
M122(xM324)=1
Koreans (NE China) 0.291 79 Katoh 2005 M122=23
Khasi 0.29 Kumar 2007  
Zhuang 0.29 Su 2000  
Inner Mongolian 0.289 45 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=5
M117=5
M134(xM117)=3
Tai Lue
(Northern Thailand)
0.286 91 Brunelli 2017 O-M117=16
O-M7=6
O-M324(xM7, M134)=3
O-M122(xM324)=1
Bonan 0.273 44 WeiWang 2003 M122
Sibe 0.268 41 Xue 2006 M134(xM117)=5
M122(xM159, M7, M134)=4
M117=2
Micronesia 0.27 Su 2000  
Daur 0.256 39 Xue 2005 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=7
M117=3
Polynesians 0.25 Hammer 2005
Kayser 2006
 
Bunu (Guangxi) 0.25 36 Cai 2011 M122
Malay
(near Kuala Lumpur)
0.25 12 Tajima 2004 M122
Zhuang (Guangxi) 0.247 166 Chen 2006 M122(xM121, M134)=23
M117=9
M134(xM117)=7
M121=2
Japanese (Kyūshū) 0.240 104 Tajima 2004 M122
Dongxiang 0.24 WeiWang 2003  
Manchurian Evenks 0.24 Karafet 2001  
Thai (Northern Thailand) 0.235 17 He 2012 M122
Japanese 0.234 47 Xue 2006 M117=8
M134(xM117)=2
M122(xM159, M7, M134)=1
Mosuo (Ninglang, Yunnan) 0.234 47 Wen 2004 M122
Evenks (China) 0.231 26 Xue 2005 M117=4
M134(xM117)=1
M122(xM159, M7, M134)=1
Mongolia
(mainly Khalkhs[4])
0.228 149 Hammer 2006 M134=24
M122(xM134)=10
Lawa
(Northern Thailand)
0.220 50 Brunelli 2017 M324(xM7, M134)=6
M117=5
Mal (Laos) 0.220 50 Cai 2011 M122
Cambodian (Siem Reap) 0.216 125 Black 2006 M122
Japanese (Tokushima) 0.214 70 Hammer 2005 M122
Newar 0.212 66 Gayden 2007 M117
Blang 0.21 Shi 2009  
Okinawans 0.21 Nonaka 2007  
Tai Khün
(Northern Thailand)
0.208 24 Brunelli 2017 M117=4
M134(xM117)=1
Kathmandu, Nepal 0.208 77 Gayden 2007 M324
Sui 0.2 Xie 2004  
Yi (Shuangbai, Yunnan) 0.20 50 Wen 2004 M122(xM7)
Japanese (Shizuoka) 0.197 61 Hammer 2005 M122
Khmu (Laos) 0.196 51 Cai 2011 M122
Dongxiang 0.196 46 Wang 2003 M122
Oroqen 0.194 31 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=2
M7=2
M134(xM117)=1
M117=1
Khalkh (Mongolia) 0.188 85 Katoh 2005 M122=16
Hani 0.176 34 Xue 2006 M134(xM117)=3
M117=2
M122(xM159, M7, M134)=1
Micronesia 0.18 Hammer 2005  
Japanese (Tokyo) 0.179 56 Poznik 2016 M122
Hui 0.171 35 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=4
M134(xM117)=1
M117=1
Kalmyk (Khoshuud) 0.171 82 Malyarchuk 2013 M122=14
Japanese 0.167 263 Nonaka 2007 M122
Mandar (Sulawesi) 0.167 54 Karafet 2010 M122
Japanese (Kantō) 0.162 117 Katoh 2005 M122=19
Thai 0.16 Jin 2009  
Zhuang 0.16 Karafet 2001  
Aheu (Laos) 0.158 38 Cai 2011 M122
Bugan (Yunnan) 0.156 32 Cai 2011 M122
Okinawans 0.156 45 Hammer 2005 M122(xM134)=6
M134=1
Uygur (Yili) 0.154 39 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=2
M134(xM117)=2
M117=2
Japanese (Aomori) 0.154 26 Hammer 2005 M122
Cambodia 0.14 Shi 2009  
Cham
(Binh Thuan, Vietnam)
0.136 59 He 2012 M122
Java
(mainly sampled in Dieng)
0.131 61 Karafet 2010 M122
Aboriginal Taiwanese 0.126 223 Tajima 2004 M122
Uighur (Kazakhstan) 0.122 41 Wells 2001 M122
Uzbek (Bukhara) 0.121 58 Wells 2001 M122
Karakalpak (Uzbekistan) 0.114 44 Wells 2001 M122
Outer Mongolian 0.108 65 Xue 2006 M122(xM159, M7, M134)=3
M117=3
M134(xM117)=1
Bo (Laos) 0.107 28 Cai 2011 M122
Tibetans 0.1 Zhou 2008  
Maluku Islands 0.1 30 Karafet 2010 M122
Kazakh (Kazakhstan) 0.093 54 Wells 2001 M122
Pumi (Ninglang, Yunnan) 0.085 47 Wen 2004 M122(xM7)
Zakhchin (Mongolia) 0.083 60 Katoh 2005 M122=5
Mongols 0.083 24 Wells 2001 M122
Balinese (Bali) 0.073 641 Karafet 2010 M122
Japanese 0.068 59 Ochiai 2016 P198
Uriankhai (Mongolia) 0.067 60 Katoh 2005 M122=4
Sinte (Uzbekistan) 0.067 15 Wells 2001 M122
Uygur (Urumqi) 0.065 31 Xue 2006 M134(xM117)=1
M117=1
Iranian (Esfahan) 0.063 16 Wells 2001 M122
Kalmyk (Dörwöd) 0.061 165 Malyarchuk 2013 M122=10
Flores 0.046 394 Karafet 2010 M122
Buryat 0.040 298 Kharkov 2014 M324(xM134)=5
M134(xM117)=4
M117=3
Buyei 0.04 Yang 2005  
Kalmyk (Torguud) 0.033 150 Malyarchuk 2013 M122=5
Kazakhs (SW Altai) 0.033 30 Dulik 2011 M134(xM117, P101)
Munda
(Jharkhand)
0.032 94 Borkar 2011 M134=3
Burusho 0.031 97 Firasat 2007 M122
Li 0.029 34 Xue 2006 M134(xM117)=1
Sumba 0.029 350 Karafet 2010 M122
Khoton (Mongolia) 0.025 40 Katoh 2005 M122=1
Naxi (Lijiang, Yunnan) 0.025 40 Wen 2004 M134
Rajbanshi
(West Bengal)
0.022 45 Borkar 2011 M134=1
Pathan 0.010 96 Firasat 2007 M122
Pakistan 0.005 638 Firasat 2007 M122

Haplogroup O1a-M119, one near outgroup of haplogroup O2-M122, displays a geographical distribution similar to that of O2-M122, being found among nearly all populations of East and Southeast Asia, but generally at a frequency much lower than that of Haplogroup O2-M122. Another near outgroup, Haplogroup O1b1-K18, has an impressive extent of dispersal, as it has been found among the males of populations as widely separated as Malagasy in Madagascar, Pashtuns in Pakistan, Daurs in Northeast China, and Japanese in Japan; it includes large percentages of the population in Mainland Southeast Asia, the Greater Sunda Islands, areas of India inhabited by Austroasiatic-speaking minority ethnic groups, and areas of China inhabited by Tai-Kadai-, Austroasiatic-, and a few Tibeto-Burman-speaking minority ethnic groups. A third near outgroup, Haplogroup O1b2-M176, is found mainly in Japan and Korea, with a few members known from China, Vietnam, Mongolia, and southeastern Siberia.

East Asia[edit]

Haplogroup O-M122 is found in over 50% of all modern Han Chinese males (with frequency ranging from 30/101=29.7% among Pinghua-speaking Hans in Guangxi (Gan et al. 2008) to 110/148=74.3% among Hans in Changting, Fujian (Wen et al. 2004c)), about 40% of Manchu, Korean, and Vietnamese males, about 33.3% (Hammer et al. 2005) to 62% (Jin et al. 2009 and (Hurles et al. 2005)) of Filipino males, about 10.5% (Su et al. 2000) to 55.6% (Su et al. 2000) of Malaysian males, about 10% (4/39 Guide County, Qinghai) (Zhou et al. 2008) to 45% (22/49 Zhongdian County, Yunnan) (Wen et al. 2004) of Tibetan males, about 20% (10/50 Shuangbai, northern Yunnan) (Wen et al. 2004) to 44% (8/18 Xishuangbanna, southern Yunnan) (Wen et al. 2004) and (Karafet et al. 2001) of Yi males, about 25% of Zhuang (Jing et al. 2006) and Indonesian (HuiLi et al. 2008) males, and about 16% (Katoh et al. 2005) and (Nonaka et al. 2007) to 20% (Hammer et al. 2005) of Japanese males. The distribution of Haplogroup O-M122 stretches far into Asia (approx. 40% of Dungans (Wells et al. 2001),31% of Khalkh Mongolians (Kim et al. 2011), 30% of Salars (WeiWang et al. 2003), 28% of Bonan (WeiWang 2003), 24% of Dongxiang (WeiWang et al. 2003), 18% to 22.8% of Mongolian citizens in Ulaanbaatar (Hammer et al. 2005), 11%-15.4% of Khalkha Mongolians (Yamamoto et al. 2013[5]), 12% of Uyghurs (Wells et al. 2001), 9% of Kazakhs (Wells et al. 2001), 6.8% of Kalmyks[6] (17.1% of Khoshuud, 6.1% of Dörwöd, 3.3% of Torguud, 0% of Buzawa), 6.2% of Altaians (Kharkov et al. 2007), 4.1% of Uzbeks (Wells et al. 2001), and 4.0% of Buryats.[7]

The East Asian O3-M122 Y chromosome Haplogroup is found in large quantities in other Muslims close to the Hui people like Dongxiang, Bo'an and Salar. The majority of Tibeto-Burmans, Han Chinese, and Ningxia and Liaoning Hui share paternal Y chromosomes of East Asian origin which are unrelated to Middle Easterners and Europeans. In contrast to distant Middle Eastern and Europeans whom the Muslims of China are not related to, East Asians, Han Chinese, and most of the Hui and Dongxiang of Linxia share more genes with each other. This indicates that native East Asian populations converted to Islam and were culturally assimilated to these ethnicities and that Chinese Muslim populations are mostly not descendants of foreigners as claimed by some accounts while only a small minority of them are.[8]

South Asia[edit]

Haplogroup O-M122 is restricted among tribal groups of Northeast India where it is found at very high frequencies. In Arunachal Pradesh, it is found at 89% among Adi, 82% among Apatani, and 94% among Nishi, while the Naga people show it at 76% (Cordaux 2004). In Meghalaya, 59.2% (42/71) of a sample of Garos and 31.7% (112/353) of a sample of Khasis have been found to belong to O-M122 (Reddy 2007). In Nepal, Tamang people present a very high frequency of O-M122 (39/45 = 86.7%), while much lower percentages of Newar (14/66 = 21.2%) and the general population of Kathmandu (16/77 = 20.8%) belong to this haplogroup (Gayden 2007). A study published in 2009 found O-M122 in 52.6% (30/57, including 28 members of O-M117 and two members of O-M134(xM117)) of a sample of Tharus from a village in Chitwan District of south-central Nepal, 28.6% (22/77, all O-M117) of a sample of Tharus from another village in Chitwan District, and 18.9% (7/37, all O-M117) of a sample of Tharus from a village in Morang District of southeastern Nepal.[9] In contrast, the same study found O-M122 in only one individual in a sample of non-Tharu Hindus collected in Chitwan District (1/26 = 3.8% O-M134(xM117)), one tribal individual from Andhra Pradesh, India (1/29 = 3.4% O-M117), and one individual in a sample of Hindus from New Delhi, India (1/49 = 2.0% O-M122(xM134)).[9]

Southeast Asia[edit]

Among all the populations of East and Southeast Asia, Haplogroup O-M122 is most closely associated with those that speak a Sinitic, Tibeto-Burman, or Hmong–Mien language. Haplogroup O-M122 comprises about 50% or more of the total Y-chromosome variation among the populations of each of these language families. The Sinitic and Tibeto-Burman language families are generally believed to be derived from a common Sino-Tibetan protolanguage, and most linguists place the homeland of the Sino-Tibetan language family somewhere in northern China. The Hmong–Mien languages and cultures, for various archaeological and ethnohistorical reasons, are also generally believed to have derived from a source somewhere north of their current distribution, perhaps in northern or central China. The Tibetans, however, despite the fact that they speak a language of the Tibeto-Burman language family, have high percentages of the otherwise rare haplogroups D-M15 and D3, which are also found at much lower frequencies among the members of some other ethnic groups in East Asia and Central Asia.

Haplogroup O-M122 has been implicated as a diagnostic genetic marker of the Austronesian expansion when it is found in populations of insular Southeast Asia and Oceania. It appears at moderately high frequencies in the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Its distribution in Oceania is mostly limited to the traditionally Austronesian culture zones, chiefly Polynesia (approx. 25% (Hammer 2005) to 32.5% (Su 2000)). O-M122 is found at generally lower frequencies in coastal and island Melanesia, Micronesia, and Taiwanese aboriginal tribes (18% (Hammer 2005) to 27.4% (Su 2000) of Micronesians, and 5% of Melanesians (Karafet 2005), albeit with reduced frequencies of most subclades.

It should be noted that Haplogroup O-M122* Y-chromosomes, which are not defined by any identified downstream markers, are actually more common among certain non-Han Chinese populations than among Han Chinese ones, and the presence of these O-M122* Y-chromosomes among various populations of Central Asia, East Asia, and Oceania is more likely to reflect a very ancient shared ancestry of these populations rather than the result of any historical events. It remains to be seen whether Haplogroup O-M122* Y-chromosomes can be parsed into distinct subclades that display significant geographical or ethnic correlations.

Subclade Distribution[edit]

Paragroup O-M122*[edit]

Paragroup O2*-M122(xO2a-P197) Y-DNA is quite rare, having been detected only in 2/165 = 1.2% of a sample of Han Chinese in a pool of samples from mainland China, Taiwan, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Malaysia (n=581), 8/641 = 1.2% of a sample of Balinese in a pool of samples from western Indonesia (n=960), and 7/350 = 2.0% of a sample of males from Sumba in a pool of samples from eastern Indonesia (n=957). In the same study, O2*-M122(xO2a-P197) Y-DNA was not observed in a pool of samples from Oceania (n=182) (Karafet 2010).

A paper published by a group of mainly Chinese geneticists in the American Journal of Human Genetics in 2005 reported the detection of O2*-M122(xO2a-M324) Y-DNA in 1.6% (8/488) of a pool of seven samples of Han Chinese (3/64 = 4.7% Sichuan, 2/98 = 2.0% Zibo, Shandong, 1/60 = 1.7% Inner Mongolia, 1/81 = 1.2% Yunnan, 1/86 = 1.2% Laizhou, Shandong, 0/39 Guangxi, 0/60 Gansu). O2*-M122(xO2a-M324) Y-DNA also was detected in the following samples of ethnic minorities in China: 5.9% (1/17) Jingpo from Yunnan, 4.3% (2/47) Zhuang from Yunnan, 4.1% (2/49) Lisu from Yunnan, 3.2% (1/31) Wa from Yunnan, 2.6% (1/39) Zhuang from Guangxi, 2.5% (2/80) Bai from Yunnan, 2.4% (1/41) Hani from Yunnan, 2.3% (2/88) Lahu from Yunnan, 2.1% (1/47) Yi from Yunnan, 2.1% (1/48) Miao from Yunnan, 1.5% (2/132) Dai from Yunnan, 1.0% (1/105) Miao from Hunan, and 0.9% (2/225) Yao from Guangxi.[10]

O2*-M122(xO2a-M324) Y-DNA has been found as a singleton (1/156 = 0.6%) in a sample from Tibet.(Gayden 2007) It also has been found as a singleton in a sample of nineteen members of the Chin people in Chin State, Myanmar.[11]

In a paper published in 2011, Korean researchers have reported finding O2*-M122(xO2a-M324) Y-DNA in the following samples: 5.9% (3/51) Beijing Han, 3.1% (2/64) Filipino, 2.1% (1/48) Vietnamese, 1.7% (1/60) Yunnan Han, 0.4% (2/506) Korean.[12]

In 2011, Chinese researchers published a paper reporting their finding of O2*-M122(xO2a-M324) Y-DNA in 3.0% (5/167) of a sample of Han Chinese with origins in East China (defined as consisting of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Anhui) and in 1.5% (1/65) of a sample of Han Chinese with origins in Southern China. O2* Y-DNA was not detected in their sample of Han Chinese with origins in Northern China (n=129).

In a paper published in 2012, O2*-M122(xO2a-P200) Y-DNA was found in 12% (3/25) of a sample of Lao males from Luang Prabang, Laos. O2* Y-DNA was not detected in this study's samples of Cham from Binh Thuan, Vietnam (n=59), Kinh from Hanoi, Vietnam (n=76), or Thai from northern Thailand (n=17).(He 2012)

Trejaut et al. (2014) found O2-M122(xO2a-M324) in 6/40 (15.0%) Siraya in Kaohsiung, 1/17 (5.9%) Sulawesi, 1/25 (4.0%) Paiwan, 2/55 (3.6%) Fujian Han, 1/30 (3.3%) Ketagalan, 2/60 (3.3%) Taiwan Minnan, 1/34 (2.9%) Taiwan Hakka, 1/38 (2.6%) Siraya in Hwalien, 5/258 (1.9%) miscellaneous Han volunteers in Taiwan, and 1/75 (1.3%) in a sample of the general population of Thailand.[13]

Brunelli et al. (2017) found O2-M122(xO2a-M324) in 5/66 (7.6%) Tai Yuan, 1/91 (1.1%) Tai Lue, and 1/205 (0.5%) Khon Mueang in samples of the people of Northern Thailand.[14]

O-M324[edit]

O-M121[edit]

O2a1a1a1a1-M121 is a subclade of O2a1-L127.1, parallel to O2a1b-M164 and O2a1c-JST002611.

In an early survey of Y-DNA variation in present-day human populations of the world, O-M121 was detected only in 5.6% (1/18) of a sample from Cambodia and Laos and in 5.0% (1/20) of a sample from China.[15]

In a large study of 2,332 unrelated male samples collected from 40 populations in East Asia (and especially Southwest China), O-M121/DYS257 Y-DNA was detected only in 7.1% (1/14) of a sample of Cambodians and in 1.0% (1/98) of a sample of Han Chinese from Zibo, Shandong.[10]

In a study published in 2011, O-M121 Y-DNA was found in 1.2% (2/167) of a sample of Han Chinese with origins in East China, defined as consisting of Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, and Shanghai, and in 0.8% (1/129) of a sample of Han Chinese with origins in Northern China. O-M121 was not detected in this study's sample of Han Chinese with origins in Southern China (n=65).(Yan 2011)

O-L599 (considered to be phylogenetically equivalent to O-M121[16]) also has been found in one individual in the 1000 Genomes Project sample of Han Chinese from Hunan, China (n=37).[3]

O-M164[edit]

O2a1b-M164 is a subclade of O2a1-L127.1, parallel to O2a1a1a1a1-M121 and O2a1c-JST002611.

In an early survey of Y-DNA variation in present-day human populations of the world, O-M164 was detected only in 5.6% (1/18) of a sample from Cambodia and Laos.[15]

In a large study of 2,332 unrelated male samples collected from 40 populations in East Asia (and especially Southwest China), O2a1b-M164 Y-DNA was detected only in 7.1% (1/14) of a sample of Cambodians.[10]

O-JST002611[edit]

Haplogroup O2a1c-JST002611 is derived from O2-M122 via O2a-M324/P93/P197/P199/P200 and O2a1-L127.1/L465/L467. O2a1c-JST002611 is the most commonly observed type of O2a1 Y-DNA, and, more generally, represents the majority of extant O2-M122 Y-DNA that does not belong to the expansive subclade O2a2-P201.

Haplogroup O2a1c-JST002611 was first identified in 3.8% (10/263) of a sample of Japanese (Nonaka et al. 2007). It also has been found in 3.5% (2/57) of the JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) sample of the 1000 Genomes Project, including one member of the rare and deeply divergent paragroup O2a1c1-F18*(xO2a1c1a1-F117, O2a1c1a2-F449).[3][2] Subsequently, this haplogroup has been found with higher frequency in some samples taken in and around China, including 12/58 = 20.7% Miao (China), 10/70 = 14.3% Vietnam, 18/165 = 10.9% Han (China & Taiwan), 4/49 = 8.2% Tujia (China) (Karafet 2010). O-002611 also has been found in a singleton from the Philippines (1/48 = 2.1%), but it has not been detected in samples from Malaysia (0/32), Taiwanese Aboriginals (0/48), She from China (0/51), Yao from China (0/60), Oceania (0/182), eastern Indonesia (0/957), or western Indonesia (0/960) (Karafet 2010). Haplogroup O2a1c‐JST002611 is prevalent in different ethnic groups in China and Southeast Asia, including Vietnam (14.29%), Sichuan of southwestern China (Han, 14.60%; Tibetan in Xinlong County, 15.22%),[17] Jilin of northeastern China (Korean, 9.36%), Inner Mongolia (Mongolian, 6.58%), and Gansu of northwestern China (Baima, 7.35%; Han, 11.30%).[18] Y-DNA belonging to haplogroup O-JST002611 has been observed in 10.6% (61/573) of a sample collected in Seoul and 8.3% (11/133) of a sample collected in Daejeon, South Korea.[19][20]

O-P201[edit]

O2a2-JST021354/P201 is a subclade of O2a that includes the most common types of O2-M122 Y-DNA. This clade includes the major subclades O2a2b1-M134 (subclade of O-P164) and O2a2a1a2-M7, which exhibit expansive distributions centered on China, as well as an assortment of Y-chromosomes that have not yet been assigned to any subclade.

O2a2-P201(xO2a2a1a2-M7, O2a2b1-M134) Y-DNA has been detected with high frequency in many samples of Austronesian-speaking populations, in particular some samples of Batak Toba from Sumatra (21/38 = 55.3%), Tongans (5/12 = 41.7%), and Filipinos (12/48 = 25.0%). (Karafet 2010) Outside of Austronesia, O2a2-P201(xO2a2a1a2-M7, O2a2b1-M134) Y-DNA has been observed in samples of Tujia (7/49 = 14.3%), Han Chinese (14/165 = 8.5%), Japanese (11/263 = 4.2%), Miao (1/58 = 1.7%), and Vietnam (1/70 = 1.4%) (Karafet 2010 and Nonaka 2007).

O-M159[edit]

O2a2a1a1a-M159 is a subclade of O2a2-P201. In an early survey of Y-DNA variation in present-day human populations of the world, O-M159 was detected only in 5.0% (1/20) of a sample from China.[15]

Unlike its phylogenetic siblings, O-M7 and O-M134, O-M159 is very rare, having been found only in 2.9% (1/35) of a sample of Han males from Meixian, Guangdong in a study of 988 males from East Asia.(Xue 2006)

In a study published in 2011, O-M159 was detected in 1.5% (1/65) of a sample of Han Chinese with origins in Southern China. O-M159 was not detected in the same study's samples of Han Chinese with origins in East China (n=167) or Northern China (n=129).(Yan 2011)

Trejaut et al. (2014) found O-M159 in 5.0% (3/60) Minnan in Taiwan, 4.2% (1/24) Hanoi, Vietnam, 3.88% (10/258) miscellaneous Han volunteers in Taiwan, 3.6% (2/55) Han in Fujian, 3.24% (12/370) Plains Aborigines in Taiwan (mostly assimilated to Han Chinese), 1.04% (2/192) Western Indonesia (1/25 Kalimantan, 1/26 Sumatra), and 0.68% (1/146) Philippines (1/55 South Luzon).[13]

O-M7[edit]

Projected spatial frequency distribution for haplogroup O3-M7.[21]

Haplogroup O2a2a1a2-M7 Y-DNA has been detected with high frequency in some samples of populations who speak Hmong-Mien languages, Katuic languages, or Bahnaric languages, scattered through some mostly mountainous areas of southern China, Laos, and Vietnam (Cai 2010).

O-M7 has been noted for having a widespread but uneven distribution among populations that speak Hmong-Mien languages, such as She (29/51 = 56.9% She, 10/34 = 29.4% She, 14/56 = 25.0% Northern She from Zhejiang), Miao (21/58 = 36.2% Miao from China, 17/51 = 33.3% Hmong Daw from northern Laos, 6/49 = 12.2% Yunnan Miao, 2/49 = 4.1% Guizhou Miao, 4/100 = 4.0% Hunan Miao), and Yao (18/35 = 51.4% Yao from Liannan, Guangdong, 29/60 = 48.3% Yao from Guangxi, 12/35 = 34.3% Yao from Bama, Guangxi, 12/37 = 32.4% Zaomin from Guangdong, 5/36 = 13.9% Bunu from Guangxi, 1/11 = 9.1% Top-Board Mien, 3/41 = 7.3% Native Mien, 2/31 = 6.5% Southern Mien from Guangxi, 1/19 = 5.3% Flowery-Headed Mien from Guangxi, 1/20 = 5.0% Mountain Straggler Mien from Hunan, 1/28 = 3.6% Blue Kimmun from Guangxi, 1/31 = 3.2% Pahng from Guangxi, 1/47 = 2.1% Western Mien from Yunnan, 0/11 Thin Board Mien, 0/31 Lowland Yao from Guangxi, 0/32 Mountain Kimmun from Yunnan, 0/33 Northern Mien, and 0/41 Lowland Kimmun from Guangxi). (Cai 2010)(Karafet 2010)(Xue 2006)

Cai et al. 2010 have reported finding high frequencies of O-M7 in their samples of Katuic (17/35 = 48.6% Ngeq, 10/45 = 22.2% Katu, 6/37 = 16.2% Kataang, 3/34 = 8.8% Inh (Ir), 4/50 = 8.0% So, 1/39 = 2.6% Suy) and Bahnaric (15/32 = 46.9% Jeh, 17/50 = 34.0% Oy, 8/32 = 25.0% Brau, 8/35 = 22.9% Talieng, 4/30 = 13.3% Alak, 6/50 = 12.0% Laven) peoples from southern Laos. Among the sampled Katuic peoples, the speakers of West Katuic (Kuy-Bru), such as the So and the Suy, have lower frequencies of O-M7 than the Katu proper and the speakers of the Ta'Oi dialect chain (Ngeq, Kataang, Ir). However, O-M7 has been found only with low frequency in samples of linguistically related Khmuic populations from northern Laos (1/50 = 2.0% Mal, 1/51 = 2.0% Khmu, 0/28 Bit, 0/29 Xinhmul), Vietic peoples from Vietnam and central Laos (8/76 = 10.5% Kinh from Hanoi, Vietnam, 2/28 = 7.1% Bo, 4/70 = 5.7% Vietnamese, 0/12 Muong, 0/15 Kinh, 0/38 Aheu), Palaungic peoples from northwestern Laos and southwestern Yunnan (2/35 = 5.7% Lamet, 0/29 Ava, 0/52 Blang), and Pakanic peoples from southeastern Yunnan and northwestern Guangxi (0/30 Palyu, 0/32 Bugan).(Cai 2010)(Karafet 2010)(He 2012)

Haplogroup O-M7 has been found with notable frequency in some samples of Austronesian populations from the central part of the Malay Archipelago (17/86 = 19.8% Indonesians from Borneo, 4/32 = 12.5% Malaysia, 7/61 = 11.5% Java (mostly sampled in Dieng)), but the frequency of this haplogroup appears to drop off very quickly toward the east (1/48 = 2.1% Philippines, 5/641 = 0.8% Balinese, 0/48 Taiwanese Aboriginals) and west (0/38 Batak Toba from Sumatra, 0/60 Nias, 0/74 Mentawai). (Karafet 2010) O-M7 has been found in 5.1% (3/59) of a sample of the Austronesian-speaking Cham people from Binh Thuan, Vietnam. (He 2012)

In the northern fringes of its distribution, O-M7 has been found in samples of Oroqen (2/31 = 6.5%), Tujia from Hunan (3/49 = 6.1%), Qiang (2/33 = 6.1%), and Han Chinese (3/165 = 1.8% Han Chinese, or 2/32 = 6.3% Han from Yili, Xinjiang, 4/66 = 6.1% Han from Huize, Yunnan, 2/35 = 5.7% Han from Meixian, Guangdong, 1/18 = 5.6% Han from Wuhan, Hubei, 6/148 = 4.1% Han from Changting, Fujian, 2/63 = 3.2% Han from Weicheng, Sichuan, 2/100 = 2.0% Han from Nanjing, Jiangsu, 1/55 = 1.8% Han from Shanghai).(Wen 2004)(Xue 2006)(Karafet 2010)

O-M134[edit]

O-M134*[edit]

Paragroup O-M134(xM117) has been found with very high frequency in some samples of Kim Mun people, a subgroup of the Yao people of southern China (16/32 = 50.0% Mountain Kimmun from southern Yunnan, 11/28 = 39.3% Blue Kimmun from western Guangxi). However, this paragroup has been detected in only 3/41 = 7.3% of a sample of Lowland Kimmun from eastern Guangxi (Cai et al. 2011). This paragroup also has been found with high frequency in some Kazakh samples, especially the Naiman tribe(Dulik et al. 2011 and Lu et al. 2011) Dulik hypothesizes that O-M134 in Kazakhs was due to a later expansion due to its much more recent TMRCA time.

The general outline of the distribution of O-M134(xM117) among modern populations is different as that of the related clade O-M117. In particular, O-M134(xM117) occurs with only low frequency or is nonexistent among most Tibeto-Burman-speaking populations of Southwest China, Northeast India, and Nepal, who exhibit extremely high frequencies of O-M117.[citation needed] This paragroup also occurs with very low frequency or is non-existent among most Mon-Khmer population of Laos, who exhibit much higher frequencies of O-M117 (Cai et al. 2011). In Han Chinese, the paragroup is found in approximately the same percentage as O-M117, but has a higher distribution in northern Han Chinese than Southern Han Chinese (Yan et al. 2012).

O-M117[edit]

Haplogroup O2a2b1a1-M117 (also defined by the phylogenetically equivalent mutation Page23) is a subclade of O2a2b1-M134 that occurs frequently in China and in neighboring countries, especially among Tibeto-Burman-speaking peoples.

O-M117 has been detected in samples of Tamang (38/45 = 84.4%), Han Chinese in Quanzhou of Fujian Province in China (44/109 = 40.3%), Tibetans (45/156 = 28.8% or 13/35 = 37.1%), Tharus (57/171 = 33.3%), Han Taiwanese (40/183 = 21.9%), Newars (14/66 = 21.2%), the general population of Kathmandu, Nepal (13/77 = 16.9%), Han Chinese (5/34 = 14.7% Chengdu, 5/35 = 14.3% Harbin, 4/35 = 11.4% Meixian, 3/30 = 10.0% Lanzhou, 2/32 = 6.3% Yili), Tungusic peoples from the PRC (7/45 = 15.6% Hezhe, 4/26 = 15.4% Ewenki, 5/35 = 14.3% Manchu, 2/41 = 4.9% Xibe, 1/31 = 3.2% Oroqen), Koreans (4/25 = 16.0% Koreans from the PRC, 5/43 = 11.6% Koreans from South Korea), Mongols (5/45 = 11.1% Inner Mongolian, 3/39 = 7.7% Daur, 3/65 = 4.6% Outer Mongolian), and Uyghurs (2/39 = 5.1% Yili, 1/31 = 3.2% Urumqi) (Xue et al. 2006, Gayden et al. 2007, and Fornarino et al. 2009).

Like O-M7, O-M117 has been found with greatly varying frequency in many samples of Hmong-Mien-speaking peoples, such as Mienic peoples (7/20 = 35.0% Mountain Straggler Mien, 9/28 = 32.1% Blue Kimmun, 6/19 = 31.6% Flower Head Mien, 3/11 = 27.3% Top Board Mien, 3/11 = 27.3% Thin Board Mien, 11/47 = 23.4% Western Mien, 6/33 = 18.2% Northern Mien, 5/31 = 16.1% Lowland Yao, 5/35 = 14.3% Yao from Liannan, Guangdong, 5/37 = 13.5% Zaomin, 5/41 = 12.2% Lowland Kimmun, 3/41 = 7.3% Native Mien, 2/31 = 6.5% Southern Mien, 2/32 = 6.3% Mountain Kimmun, but 0/35 Yao from Bama, Guangxi), She (6/34 = 17.6% She, 4/56 = 7.1% Northern She), and Hmongic peoples (9/100 = 9.0% Miao from Hunan, 4/51 = 7.8% Hmong Daw from northern Laos, 3/49 = 6.1% Miao from Yunnan, 1/49 = 2.0% Miao from Guizhou, but 0/36 Bunu from Guangxi) (Cai et al. 2011 and Xue et al. 2006).

In a study published by Chinese researchers in the year 2006, O-M117 was found with high frequency (8/47 = 17.0%) in a sample of Japanese of undescribed geographical origin (Xue et al. 2006). However, in a study published by Japanese researchers in the year 2007, the same haplogroup was found with much lower frequency (11/263 = 4.2%) in a larger sample of Japanese from various regions of Japan (Nonaka et al. 2007).

In Meghalaya, a predominantly tribal state of Northeast India, O-M133 has been found in 19.7% (14/71) of a sample of the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Garos, but in only 6.2% (22/353, ranging from 0/32 Bhoi to 6/44 = 13.6% Pnar) of a pool of eight samples of the neighboring Khasian-speaking tribes (Reddy et al. 2007).

O-M300[edit]

O-M333[edit]

Phylogenetics[edit]

Phylogenetic History[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
O-M175 26 VII 1U 28 Eu16 H9 I O* O O O O O O O O O O
O-M119 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1* O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a
O-M101 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1a O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1 O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a
O-M50 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H10 H O1b O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2
O-P31 26 VII 1U 33 Eu16 H5 I O2* O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2
O-M95 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H11 G O2a* O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a1 O2a1
O-M88 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H12 G O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1a O2a1a
O-SRY465 20 VII 1U 35 Eu16 H5 I O2b* O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b
O-47z 5 VII 1U 26 Eu16 H5 I O2b1 O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1a O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1
O-M122 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3* O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3
O-M121 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3a O3a O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1a O3a1a
O-M164 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3b O3b O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a1b O3a1b
O-M159 13 VII 1U 31 Eu16 H6 L O3c O3c O3a3a O3a3a O3a3 O3a3 O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a
O-M7 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d* O3c O3a3b O3a3b O3a4 O3a4 O3a3b O3a3b O3a3b O3a2b O3a2b
O-M113 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d1 O3c1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 - O3a4a O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a2b1 O3a2b1
O-M134 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e* O3d O3a3c O3a3c O3a5 O3a5 O3a3c O3a3c O3a3c O3a2c1 O3a2c1
O-M117 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1* O3d1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a5a O3a5a O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a2c1a O3a2c1a
O-M162 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1a O3d1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a5a1 O3a5a1 O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a2c1a1 O3a2c1a1

Original Research Publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Phylogenetic Trees[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup O subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree (Karafet 2008) and subsequent published research.

  • O-M122 (M122, P198)
    • O-P93 (M324, P93, P197, P198, P199, P200)
      • O-M121 (M121, P27.2)
      • O-M164 (M164)
      • O-P201 (P201/021354)
      • O-002611 (002611)
      • O-M300 (M300)
      • O-M333 (M333)

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA O Subclades[edit]

Y-DNA Backbone Tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R


References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Monika Karmin, Lauri Saag, Mário Vicente, et al., "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture." Genome Research (2015) 25: 459-466. doi: 10.1101/gr.186684.114
  2. ^ a b G. David Poznik, Yali Xue, Fernando L. Mendez, et al., "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences." Nature Genetics 2016 June ; 48(6): 593–599. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.
  3. ^ a b c d YFull Haplogroup YTree v6.01 at 4 January 2018
  4. ^ T. M. Karafet, S. L. Zegura, O. Posukh, L. Osipova, A. Bergen, J. Long, D. Goldman, W. Klitz, S. Harihara, P. de Knijff, V. Wiebe, R. C. Griffiths, A. R. Templeton, and M. F. Hammer, "Ancestral Asian Source(s) of New World Y-Chromosome Founder Haplotypes." American Journal of Human Genetics 64:817–831, 1999.
  5. ^ Yamamoto; et al. (2013). "Y-chromosome lineage in five regional Mongolian populations". Forensic Science International. Genetics Supplement Series 4: e260–e261 – via Elsevier Science Direct. 
  6. ^ Boris Malyarchuk, Miroslava Derenko, Galina Denisova, Sanj Khoyt, Marcin Woźniak, Tomasz Grzybowski, and Ilya Zakharov, "Y-chromosome diversity in the Kalmyks at the ethnical and tribal levels." Journal of Human Genetics (2013) 58, 804–811; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.108; published online 17 October 2013.
  7. ^ V. N. Kharkov, K. V. Khamina, O. F. Medvedeva, K. V. Simonova, E. R. Eremina, and V. A. Stepanov, "Gene Pool of Buryats: Clinal Variability and Territorial Subdivision Based on Data of Y-Chromosome Markers." ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2014, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 180–190. Original Russian Text © V.N. Kharkov, K.V. Khamina, O.F. Medvedeva, K.V. Simonova, E.R. Eremina, V.A. Stepanov, 2014, published in Genetika, 2014, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 203–213. DOI: 10.1134/S1022795413110082
  8. ^ https://www.nature.com/articles/srep38656 Yao, H.-B. et al. Genetic evidence for an East Asian origin of Chinese Muslim populations Dongxiang and Hui. Sci. Rep. 6, 38656; doi: 10.1038/srep38656 (2016).
  9. ^ a b Simona Fornarino, Maria Pala, Vincenza Battaglia, et al., "Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation." BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:154 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-154.
  10. ^ a b c Shi, Hong; Dong, Yong-li; Wen, Bo; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Underhill, Peter A.; Shen, Pei-dong; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Jin, Li; Su, Bing (Sep 2005). "Y-Chromosome Evidence of Southern Origin of the East Asian–Specific Haplogroup O2-M122". American Journal of Human Genetics. 77 (408–419): 2005. doi:10.1086/444436. PMC 1226206Freely accessible. PMID 16080116. 
  11. ^ Min-Sheng Peng, Jun-Dong He, Long Fan, et al. (2013), "Retrieving Y chromosomal haplogroup trees using GWAS data." European Journal of Human Genetics (2013), 1–5; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.272
  12. ^ Kim, Soon-Hee; Kim, Ki-Cheol; Shin, Dong-Jik; Jin, Han-Jun; Kwak, Kyoung-Don; Han, Myun-Soo; Song, Joon-Myong; Kim, Won; Kim, Wook (2011). "High frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroup O2b-SRY465 lineages in Korea: a genetic perspective on the peopling of Korea". Investigative Genetics. 2 (1): 10–121. doi:10.1186/2041-2223-2-10. PMC 3087676Freely accessible. PMID 21463511. 
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Sources[edit]

Journal articles
Websites

Further reading[edit]

  • Park, Myung Jin; Lee, Hwan Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin (2012). "Understanding the Y chromosome variation in Korea—relevance of combined haplogroup and haplotype analyses". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 126 (4): 589–99. doi:10.1007/s00414-012-0703-9. PMID 22569803. 

External links[edit]