Haplogroup P (Y-DNA)

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Haplogroup P (K2b2)
Yhaplotree.JPG
Possible time of origin 27,000-45,000 years BP[1]
Possible place of origin Southeast Asia Indonesia South Asia Central Asia
Ancestor K2b [2]
Descendants P1, Q and R
Defining mutations 92R7, M45, M74/N12, P27, S25

Haplogroup P also known as P295/PF5866/S8 and K2b2 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup in human genetics.

P includes – in its descendant haplogroups Q and R – the patrilineal ancestors of most Native Americans and most people in Europe. Haplogroup P also includes approximately one third to two thirds of the males amongst various populations of Central Asia, South Asia and continental North Asia

The basal Haplogroup P* and/or its subclade P1 is predominant among some ethnic minorities in North Asia and island South East Asia.

Origins[edit]

Haplogroup P is a branch of K2b (previously Haplogroup MPS; P331) which is a branch of Haplogroup K2 (K-M526).

At present, the only direct descendant of basal P* is P1 (M45/PF5962), formerly known as P (xQ,xR). P1 is, in turn, the parent of Q (M242) and R (M207).

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup P is distributed commonly in Europe, Central Asia, North-East Asia.

Its highest frequency occurs among Turkic peoples of Central Asia and South Siberia (35.4% among Tuvans, 28.3% among Altaians-Kizhi),[3] and among Nivkh males of Northeast Siberia (35%).

Besides the haplogroup R and haplogroup Q branches, other patrilines derived from Haplogroup P-M45 are labeled for sake of convenience as Haplogroup P-M45*. They are present at low to moderate frequency among modern South Asian populations.[4] P-M45* is most frequent among the Muslims of Manipur (33%), but this may be due to a very small sample size, 9. P* (or pre-p) is found at a frequency of 28% in the Aeta of the Philippines.[5] Most of the P in South Asia and Central Asia are probably simply unresolved cases or R2 or Q.

Population group N P (xQ,xR) Q R Paper
Count  % Count  % Count  %
Gope 16 1 6.4 Sahoo 2006
Oriya Brahmin 24 1 4.2 Sahoo 2006
Mahishya 17 3 17.6 Sahoo 2006
Bhumij 15 2 13.3 Sahoo 2006
Saora 13 3 23.1 Sahoo 2006
Nepali 7 2 28.6 Sahoo 2006
Muslims of Manipur 9 3 33.3 Sahoo 2006
Himachal Pradesh Rajput 15 1 6.7 Sahoo 2006
Lambadi 18 4 22.2 Sahoo 2006
Gujarati Patel 9 2 22.2 Sahoo 2006
Katkari 19 1 5.3 Sahoo 2006
Madia Gond 14 1 7.1 Sahoo 2006
Kamma Chowdary 15 0 0 1 6.7 12 80 Sahoo 2006

Population frequencies from studies[edit]

Population group (with ethnolinguistic affiliation) Paper N Percentage SNPs Tested
Tuvinian (Turkic) Darenko 2005 113 35.40 P-M45
Nivkh (isolate) Lell 2001 17 35 P-M45
Kizhi (Turkic) Darenko 2005 92 28.3 P-M45
Todjin (Turkic) Darenko 2005 36 22.2 P-M45
Chukchi (Chukotkan) Lell 2001 24 20.8 P-M45
Koryak (Chukotkan) Lell 2001 27 18.5 P-M45
Yupik (Eskimo-Aleut) Lell 2001 33 18.2 P-M45
Uighur (Turkic) Xue 2006 70 17.1 P-M45
Kalmyk (Mongolic) Darenko 2005 68 11.8 P-M45
Turkmen (Turkic) Wells 2001 30 10 P-M45
Soyot (Turkic) Darenko 2005 34 8.8 P-M45
Uriankhai (Mongolic) Katoh 2004 60 8.3 P-M45
Khakas (Turkic) Darenko 2005 53 7.6 P-M45
Kazakh (Turkic) Wells 2001 54 5.6 P-M45
Uzbek (Turkic) Wells 2001 366 5.5 P-M45
Khasi-Khmuic (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 353 5.40 P-M45(xM173) §
Mundari (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 64 10.90 P-M45(xM173) §
Nicobarese (Mon-Khmer) Reddy 2009 11 0.00 P-M45(xM173) §
Southeast Asia (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 257 1.60 P-M45(xM173) §
Garo (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 71 1.40 P-M45(xM173) §
India (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 226 3.10 P-M45(xM173) §
East Asia (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 214 0.00 P-M45(xM173) §
Eastern India (Indo-European) Reddy 2009 54 18.50 P-M45(xM173) §
Iran (Southern Talysh) Nasidze 2009 50 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Azerbaijan (Northern Talysh) Nasidze 2009 40 5.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Mazandarani (Iranian) Nasidze 2009 50 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Gilaki (Iranian) Nasidze 2009 50 0.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Tehran (Iranian) Nasidze 2004 80 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Isfahan (Iranian) Nasidze 2004 50 6.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Bakhtiari (Iranian) Nasidze 2008 53 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Iranian Arabs (Arabic) Nasidze 2008 47 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
North Iran (Iranian) Regueiro 2006 33 9.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Iran (Iranian) Regueiro 2006 117 3.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Caucacus (Georgian) Nasidze and Stoneking 2001 77 3.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Caucacus (Armenian) Nasidze and Stoneking 2001 100 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Hvar (Croatian) Barać et al. 2003 14
Korčula (Croatian) Barać et al. 2003 6

§ These may include members of haplogroup R2.

Subgroups[edit]

The subclades of Haplogroup P with their defining mutation, according to the 2008 ISOGG tree:

  • P (92R7_1, 92R7_2, L138, L268, M45, M74/N12, P27.1_1/P207, P27.1_2, P69, P226, P228, P230, P235,P237, P239, P240, P243, P244, P281, P282, P283, P284, P295/S8, PG83)
    • Q (M242)
    • R (M207, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, L248.2, V45)

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups [n 1] [n 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [n 3]
A0 A1[n 4]
A1* A1a A1b
A1b* A1b1 BT
B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJK
G HIJK
H IJK
IJ K
I J LT (K1)  K2
L T NO (K2a) K2b[n 5]   K2c K2d K2e [n 6]
N O MS P
M S Q R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) was previously known as Haplogroup MPS.
  6. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as ex-K2a and/or "Haplogroup X".