Haplogroup P (Y-DNA)

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Haplogroup P (K2b2)
Possible time of origin 27,000-45,000 years BP[1]
Possible place of origin Southeast Asia Indonesia South Asia Central Asia
Ancestor K2b [2]
Descendants P1 (P-M45). (P1 is the immediate ancestor of haplogroups Q and R.)
Defining mutations P295/PF5866/S8, 92R7_1, 92R7_2, F91/PF5862/V231

Haplogroup P also known as P295/PF5866/S8 and K2b2 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup in human genetics.

P is a branch of K2b (previously Haplogroup MPS; P331) which is a branch of Haplogroup K2 (K-M526).

At present, the only immediate descendant of basal P* is P1 (M45/PF5962), formerly known as P (xQ,xR). P1 is, in turn, the newly defined parent node of Q (M242) and R (M207).

Basal haplogroup P*, P1, Q and R include more than one-third of the males among many modern populations in Asia, most Native Americans and most males in Europe.

Structure[edit]

The subclades of Haplogroup P with their defining mutation, according to the 2008 ISOGG tree:

  • P (P295/PF5866/S8, 92R7_1, 92R7_2, F91/PF5862/V231)
    • P1 (M45/PF5962)
      • Q (M242)
      • R (M207, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, L248.2, V45)

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup P* and its subclades, including the major haplogroups Q and R, are well-represented among males of Western European, Central Asian, and Native American ancestry.

Distribution[edit]

P* (P-P295)[edit]

Basal P* (also known as P-P295; K2b2; PxM45), is found among 28% of males among the Aeta, as well as in Timor at 10.8%, and one case may have been found in Papua New Guinea (Kaysar et al. 2006) – although this has not been verified.[3]

Population P* %
Papua New Guinea 0.69 (assumed from Kayser et al. 2006 1 P* found)
New Zealand 0
Fiji 0
Solomon Islands 0
French Polynesia 0
Vanuatu 0
New Caledonia  ?
Guam 0
Samoa 0
Kiribati  ?
Tonga 0
Micronesia FDR 0
Marshall Islands 0
American Samoa  ?
Northern Mariana Islands  ?
Palau  ?
Cook Islands 0
Wallis and Futuna 0
Tuvalu 0
Nauru  ?
Norfolk Island  ?
Niue 0 (small sample size)
Tokelau 0 (small sample size)
Hawaii 0 (small sample size from FTDNA)
Australia 0
Timor 10.8
Aeta 28
Filipino Austronesian 0
Malay 0
Flores 0
Sulawesi 0.6
East Indonesia 0
Java Indonesia 0
Bali Indonesia 0
Sumatra Indonesia 0
Borneo Indonesia 0
West Papua Province 0
Papua Province 0
Sumba Indonesia 03.2
P1 (P-M45)[edit]

Many ethnic groups with high frequencies of P1, also known as P-M45 and K2b2a, are located in Central Asia and Siberia: 35.4% among Tuvans, 28.3% among Altaian Kizhi,[4] and 35% among Nivkh males.

Modern South Asian populations also feature P1 at low to moderate frequencies.[5] In South Asia it is most frequent among the Muslims of Manipur (33%), but this may be due to a very small sample size (nine individuals). It is is possible that many cases of P-M45* in South Asia and Central Asia are unresolved members of subclades such as Haplogroups R2 and Q.

Population group (with ethnolinguistic affiliation) Paper N Percentage SNPs Tested
Tuvinian (Turkic) Darenko 2005 113 35.40 P-M45
Nivkh (isolate) Lell 2001 17 35 P-M45
Altai-Kizhi (Altaians) (Turkic) Darenko 2005 92 28.3 P-M45
Todjin (Turkic) Darenko 2005 36 22.2 P-M45
Chukchi (Chukotkan) Lell 2001 24 20.8 P-M45
Koryak (Chukotkan) Lell 2001 27 18.5 P-M45
Yupik (Eskimo-Aleut) Lell 2001 33 18.2 P-M45
Uighur (Turkic) Xue 2006 70 17.1 P-M45
Kalmyk (Mongolic) Darenko 2005 68 11.8 P-M45
Turkmen (Turkic) Wells 2001 30 10 P-M45
Soyot (Turkic) Darenko 2005 34 8.8 P-M45
Uriankhai (Mongolic) Katoh 2004 60 8.3 P-M45
Khakas (Turkic) Darenko 2005 53 7.6 P-M45
Kazakh (Turkic) Wells 2001 54 5.6 P-M45
Uzbek (Turkic) Wells 2001 366 5.5 P-M45
Khasi-Khmuic (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 353 5.40 P-M45(xM173) §
Mundari (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 64 10.90 P-M45(xM173) §
Nicobarese (Mon-Khmer) Reddy 2009 11 0.00 P-M45(xM173) §
Southeast Asia (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 257 1.60 P-M45(xM173) §
Garo (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 71 1.40 P-M45(xM173) §
India (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 226 3.10 P-M45(xM173) §
East Asia (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 214 0.00 P-M45(xM173) §
Eastern India (Indo-European) Reddy 2009 54 18.50 P-M45(xM173) §
Iran (Southern Talysh) Nasidze 2009 50 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Azerbaijan (Northern Talysh) Nasidze 2009 40 5.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Mazandarani (Iranian) Nasidze 2009 50 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Gilaki (Iranian) Nasidze 2009 50 0.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Tehran (Iranian) Nasidze 2004 80 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Isfahan (Iranian) Nasidze 2004 50 6.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Bakhtiari (Iranian) Nasidze 2008 53 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Iranian Arabs (Arabic) Nasidze 2008 47 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
North Iran (Iranian) Regueiro 2006 33 9.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Iran (Iranian) Regueiro 2006 117 3.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Caucacus (Georgian) Nasidze and Stoneking 2001 77 3.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Caucacus (Armenian) Nasidze and Stoneking 2001 100 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Hvar (Croatian) Barać et al. 2003 14
Korčula (Croatian) Barać et al. 2003 6

§ These may include members of haplogroup R2.

Population group N P (xQ,xR) Q R Paper
Count  % Count  % Count  %
Gope 16 1 6.4 Sahoo 2006
Oriya Brahmin 24 1 4.2 Sahoo 2006
Mahishya 17 3 17.6 Sahoo 2006
Bhumij 15 2 13.3 Sahoo 2006
Saora 13 3 23.1 Sahoo 2006
Nepali 7 2 28.6 Sahoo 2006
Muslims of Manipur 9 3 33.3 Sahoo 2006
Himachal Pradesh Rajput 15 1 6.7 Sahoo 2006
Lambadi 18 4 22.2 Sahoo 2006
Gujarati Patel 9 2 22.2 Sahoo 2006
Katkari 19 1 5.3 Sahoo 2006
Madia Gond 14 1 7.1 Sahoo 2006
Kamma Chowdary 15 0 0 1 6.7 12 80 Sahoo 2006
Q[edit]

Near universal in the Kets (95%) of Siberia. Very common in pre-modern Native American populations, except for the Na-Dene peoples, where it reaches 50-90%. Also common, at 25-50% in Siberian populations such as the Nivks, Selkups, Tuvans, Chukchi, Siberian Eskimos, nNorthern Altaians, and in 30% of Turkmens.

R[edit]

The only discovered case of basal R* (i.e. one that does not belong to R1 or R2) is the Mal'ta Boy.

R1

R1a

Continental Country Population Sample R1a1 = SRY1532.2 positive, M17/M198 not tested (%) R1a1* = SRY1532.2 positive, M17/M198 negative (%) R1a1a = SRY1532.2 positive, M17/M198 positive (%) Source
Caucasus Ossetians North 134 NA 0.00 0.75 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Estonia 100 NA 0.00 35.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Romania 335 NA 0.00 17.01 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Croatia Krk (island) 74 NA 0.00 36.49 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Croatia Brac (island) 49 NA 0.00 24.49 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Croatia Hvar (island) 91 NA 0.00 6.59 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Croatia Korcula (island) 134 NA 0.00 15.67 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Croatia mainland 108 NA 0.00 26.85 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Bosnia-Herzegovina Herzegovina 141 NA 0.00 12.06 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Kosovo Albanians 114 NA 0.00 3.51 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Serbia 113 NA 0.00 18.58 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Republic of Macedonia Macedonia 79 NA 0.00 13.92 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Czech Republic 53 NA 0.00 37.74 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Belarus Brest 97 NA 0.00 58.8 Underhill et al. (2014)
Europe Belarus 267 NA 0.00 54.7 Underhill et al. (2014)
Europe Belarus 50 NA 0.00 42.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Russia Russians 39 NA 0.00 38.46 Underhill et al. (2009)
Central Asia Tajiks, Turkmens 38 NA 0.00 7.89 Underhill et al. (2009)
North Asia Russia Tuvas 104 NA 0.00 7.69 Underhill et al. (2009)
North Asia Russia Altaians 58 NA 0.00 41.38 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Jammu Jharkhand 61 NA 0.00 37.70 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Andhra-Pradesh Jharkhand 19 NA 0.00 26.32 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Madhya-Pradesh Madhya-Pradesh 54 NA 0.00 35.19 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Khatri-Punjab/Haryana 15 NA 0.00 67.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Ahir-Punjab/Haryana 24 NA 0.00 63.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Uttar-Pradesh Jharkhand 171 NA 0.00 49.71 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Uttranchal Jharkhand 21 NA 0.00 47.62 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India West-Bengal Chattishgarh 49 NA 0.00 48.98 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Asur Maharashtra 88 NA 0.00 5.68 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Ho Madhya-Pradesh 45 NA 0.00 0.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Mawasi Orissa 27 NA 0.00 3.70 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Mawasi Chattishgarh 12 NA 0.00 8.33 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Mahali Orissa 32 NA 0.00 9.38 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Santhal Meghalaya 20 NA 0.00 10.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Birhor Meghalaya 27 NA 0.00 3.70 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Birhor 35 NA 0.00 2.86 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Baiga 23 NA 0.00 8.70 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Baiga 42 NA 0.00 2.38 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Kharia 37 NA 0.00 5.41 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Savara 21 NA 0.00 9.52 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Meghwal Rajasthan 50 NA 0.00 30.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Garo 25 NA 0.00 4.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Lohana Gujarat 20 NA 0.00 60.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Khasi 21 NA 0.00 4.76 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia Iran 87 NA 0.00 10.34 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia Pakistan Sindhi 134 NA 0.00 49.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia Pakistan <<link:1>> 70 NA 0.00 71.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Turkey 89 NA 0.00 3.37 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Armenia 25 NA 0.00 4.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Megrels 67 NA 0.00 8.96 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Abkhazes 162 NA 0.00 9.26 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Avars 42 NA 0.00 2.38 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Chamalals 27 NA 0.00 7.41 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Bagvalals 28 NA 0.00 3.57 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Andis 49 NA 0.00 2.04 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Lezgis 31 NA 0.00 0.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Darginians 68 NA 0.00 0.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Tabasarans 43 NA 0.00 2.33 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Adyghes 160 NA 0.00 11.25 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Karachays 69 NA 0.00 27.54 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Kumyks 76 NA 0.00 13.16 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Balkars 136 NA 0.00 25.74 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Cherkessians 126 NA 0.00 12.70 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Kabardians 141 NA 0.71 13.48 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Abazas 89 NA 0.00 19.10 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Nogays 87 NA 0.00 12.64 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Karanogays 77 NA 0.00 9.09 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Tats 10 NA 0.00 0.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Crete 193 NA 0.00 8.81 Underhill et al. (2009)
Middle East Oman 121 NA 0.00 9.09 Underhill et al. (2009)
Middle East Iran 150 NA 0.67 12.67 Underhill et al. (2009)
Middle East United Arab Emirates 164 NA 0.00 7.32 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Turkey 523 NA 0.00 6.88 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Lithuania Aukštaičiai 106 45.3 NA NA Kasperaviciūte et al. (2005)
Europe Lithuania Žemaičiai 90 44.4 NA NA Kasperaviciūte et al. (2005)
Europe Norway North 377 27.1 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Norway Middle 317 31.5 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Norway West 301 24.3 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Norway East 493 26.8 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Norway Bergen 93 28 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Norway Oslo 109 19.3 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Norway South 76 13.2 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Spain/Portugal large survey 1140 NA 0.00 1.2 Adams et al. (2008)
Europe Greece Greeks 92 NA 0.00 16.3 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Greece Macedonian Greeks 57 NA 1.80 10.5 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Albania 55 NA 0.00 9.1 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Bosnia Serbs 81 NA 0.00 13.6 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Bosnia Bosniacs 84 NA 0.00 15.5 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Bosnia Croats 90 NA 0.00 12.2 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Croatia 89 NA 0.00 27.0 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Hungary 53 NA 0.00 56.6 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Czech Republic 75 NA 0.00 41.3 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Poland 99 NA 0.00 56.6 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Ukraine 92 NA 0.00 50.0 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Georgia 66 NA 0.00 10.6 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Russia Balkarians 38 NA 0.00 13.2 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Republic of Macedonia Albanian language 64 NA 0.00 1.6 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Croatia Osijek 29 NA 0.00 37.9 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Slovenia Slovenians 75 NA 0.00 38.70 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Italy North East 67 NA 0.00 10.4 Battaglia et al. (2008)
- - Ashkenazi Cohen 76 NA 0.00 1.3 Behar et al. (2003)
- - Sephardi Cohen 69 NA 0.00 5.8 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe - Ashkenazi Levite 60 NA 0.00 51.7 Behar et al. (2003)
- - Sephardi Levite 31 NA 0.00 3.2 Behar et al. (2003)
Middle East Israel Ashkenazi 100 NA 0.00 4.0 Behar et al. (2003)
Middle East Israel Sephardi 63 NA 0.00 1.6 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe Germany 88 NA 0.00 12.5 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe Norway 83 NA 0.00 21.7 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe Germany Sorbs 112 NA 0.00 63.4 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe Belarus 306 NA 0.33 51.0 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe Spain Spanish Basques 42 NA NA 0.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe British Crown Channel Islands 128 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Chippenham 52 NA NA 6.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Cornwall 52 NA NA 6.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Dorchester 73 NA NA 4.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Faversham 55 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Midhurst 80 NA NA 1.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Morpeth 95 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Norfolk 121 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Penrith 90 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Southwell 70 NA NA 4.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Uttoxeter 84 NA NA 0.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England York 46 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Denmark/Germany Denmark/Schleswig-Holstein 190 NA NA 8.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Ireland Castlerea 43 NA NA 0.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe British Crown Isle of Man 62 NA NA 8.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Norway 201 NA NA 12.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Orkney 121 NA NA 7.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Ireland Rush, Dublin 76 NA NA 1.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Durness 51 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Oban 42 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Pitlochry 41 NA NA 0.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Stonehaven 44 NA NA 5.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Western Isles 88 NA NA 3.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Shetland 63 NA NA 6.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Wales Haverfordwest 59 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Wales Llangefni 80 NA NA 1.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Wales Llanidloes 57 NA NA 4.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Turkey 523 NA NA 6.9 Cinnioğlu et al. (2004)
Europe Italy Sicily 236 NA NA 5.5 Di Gaetano et al. (2008)
Europe Greece 77 NA NA 15.6 Firasat et al. (2007)
South Asia Pakistan Burusho 97 NA NA 25.8 Firasat et al. (2007)
South Asia Pakistan Kalash 44 NA NA 18.2 Firasat et al. (2007)
South Asia Pakistan Pathan (Pashtun) 96 NA NA 44.8 Firasat et al. (2007)
South Asia Pakistan 638 NA NA 37.1 Firasat et al. (2007)
South Asia Nepal Tharu Chitwan C. Terai 1 57 NA 0.00 10.5 Fornarino et al. (2009)
South Asia Nepal Tharu Chitwan C. Terai 2 77 NA 0.00 3.9 Fornarino et al. (2009)
South Asia Nepal Tharu Chitwan E. Terai 37 NA 0.00 16.2 Fornarino et al. (2009)
South Asia Nepal/India Hindus (proxy for Indian ancestry) Chitwan, Nepal 26 NA 0.00 69.2 Fornarino et al. (2009)
South Asia India Hindus New Delhi 49 NA 0.00 34.7 Fornarino et al. (2009)
South Asia India Andhara Pradesh tribal 29 NA 0.00 27.6 Fornarino et al. (2009)
Europe Poland 913 NA NA 57.0 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany 1215 NA NA 17.9 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Berlin 103 NA NA 22.3 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Leipzig 144 NA NA 27.1 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Magdeburg 100 NA NA 21 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Rostock 96 NA NA 31.3 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Greifswald 104 NA NA 19.2 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Hamburg 161 NA NA 16.8 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Münster 102 NA NA 7.8 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Freiburg 102 NA NA 10.8 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Cologne 96 NA NA 15.6 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Mainz 95 NA NA 8.4 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Munich 95 NA NA 14.3 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Greece Nea Nikomedeia 57 NA 0.00 21.1 King et al. (2008)
Europe Greece Sesklo/Dimini 57 NA 0.00 10.5 King et al. (2008)
Europe Greece Lerna/Franchthi 57 NA 0.00 1.8 King et al. (2008)
Europe Greece Crete 193 NA 0.50 8.3 King et al. (2008)
Europe Greece Crete, Heraklion Prefecture 104 NA 0.00 8.7 Martinez et al. (2007)
Europe Greece Crete, Lasithi Plateau 41 NA 0.00 29.3 Martinez et al. (2007)
Europe Greece Crete, Lasithi Prefecture 23 NA 0.00 17.4 Martinez et al. (2007)
Europe Ukraine 94 NA NA 43.6 Kharkov et al. (2004)
Europe Belarus 68 NA NA 45.6 Kharkov et al. (2005)
North Asia Russia (Altai Republic) Northern Altaians (Gorno-Altaisk) 20 NA NA 50.0 Kharkov et al. (2007)
North Asia Russia (Altai Republic) Northern Altaians (Kurmach-Baigol) 11 NA NA 18.2 Kharkov et al. (2007)
North Asia Russia (Altai Republic) Northern Altaians (Turochak) 19 NA NA 36.8 Kharkov et al. (2007)
North Asia Russia (Altai Republic) Southern Altaians (Beshpel'tir) 43 NA NA 58.1 Kharkov et al. (2007)
North Asia Russia (Altai Republic) Southern Altaians (Kulada) 46 NA NA 52.2 Kharkov et al. (2007)
North Asia Russia (Altai Republic) Southern Altaians (Kosh-Agach) 7 NA NA 28.6 Kharkov et al. (2007)
Europe England West Lancashire (2 gens) 49 NA NA 2.0 Bowden et al. (2008)
Europe England Wirral (2 gens) 100 NA NA 4.0 Bowden et al. (2008)
Europe England West Lancashire (medieval?) 42 NA NA 16.7 Bowden et al. (2008)
Europe England Wirral (medieval?) 37 NA NA 13.5 Bowden et al. (2008)
South Asia India South India, Chenchu 41 NA NA 26.8 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia India South India, Koya 41 NA NA 2.4 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia India West Bengal 31 NA NA 38.7 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia India Konkanastha Brahmins, Bombay 43 NA NA 41.9 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia India Gujarat 29 NA NA 24.1 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia India Lambadi 35 NA NA 8.6 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia India Punjab 66 NA NA 47.0 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia Sri Lanka Sinhalese 39 NA NA 12.8 Kivisild et al. (2003)
North Asia Russia Tuvan 40 NA NA 7.5 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Tofalar 19 NA NA 5.3 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Buryat 13 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Yenisey Evenk 31 NA NA 9.7 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Okhotsk Evenk 16 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Ulchi/Nanai 53 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Upriver Negidal 10 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Downriver Negidal 7 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Ugedey 20 NA NA 5.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Nivkh 17 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Kamchatka, Koryak 27 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Kamchatka, Itel\'man 18 NA NA 22.2 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Chukotka, Chukchi 24 NA NA 4.2 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Chukotka, Asiatic Eskimo 33 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
Caucasus Russia Abazinians 14 NA NA 14.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Chechenians 19 NA NA 5.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Darginians 26 NA NA 0.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Ingushians 22 NA NA 0.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Kabardinians 59 NA NA 2.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Lezgi (Dagestan) 25 NA NA 0.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Ossetians (Ardon) 28 NA NA 4.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Ossetians (Digora) 31 NA NA 0.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Rutulians 24 NA NA 0.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Georgia Abkhazians 12 NA NA 33.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Armenia Armenians 100 NA NA 6.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Azerbaijan Azerbaijanians 72 NA NA 7.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Georgia Georgians 77 NA NA 10.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Europe Turkey 39 NA NA 13.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Middle East Iran Isfahan 50 NA NA 18.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Middle East Iran Tehran 80 NA NA 20.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
South Asia Pakistan Balti 13 NA NA 15.0 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Brahui 110 NA NA 8.2 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Burusho 94 NA NA 27.7 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Pakistan Hazara 23 NA NA 60.9 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Kalash 44 NA NA 9.1 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Pakistan Kashmiri 12 NA NA 25.0 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Makrani Baluch 25 NA NA 24.0 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Makrani Negroid 33 NA NA 18.2 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Pakistan Parsi 90 NA NA 26.7 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Pathan (Pashtun) 93 NA NA 10.8 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Pakistan Sindhi 122 NA NA 12.3 Qamar et al. (2002)
Europe Albania Albanian 51 NA NA 9.8 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe France French Basque 22 NA NA 0.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Spain Spanish Basque 45 NA NA 0.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Italy Calabrian 37 NA NA 0.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Spain Catalan 24 NA NA 0.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Italy Central/Northern 50 NA NA 4.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Croatia Croatian 58 NA NA 29.3 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Czech Republic/Slovakia Czech/Slovak 45 NA NA 26.7 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Netherlands Dutch 27 NA NA 3.7 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Georgia Georgian 63 NA NA 7.9 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Germany German 16 NA NA 6.2 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Greece Greek 76 NA NA 11.8 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Hungary Hungarian 45 NA NA 60.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Middle East Lebanon Lebanese 31 NA NA 9.7 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Republic of Macedonia Macedonian 20 NA NA 35.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Poland Polish 55 NA NA 56.4 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Saami 24 NA NA 8.3 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Italy Sardinian 77 NA NA 0.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Syria Syrian 20 NA NA 10.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Turkey Turkish 30 NA NA 6.6 Semino et al. (2000)
Asia Russia Udmurt 43 NA NA 37.2 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Ukraine Ukrainian 50 NA NA 54.0 Semino et al. (2000)
South Asia Pakistan 85 NA NA 16.5 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Rajput(Rajasthan) 29 NA NA 31.3 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia Pakistan Southern 91 NA NA 31.9 Sengupta et al. (2005)
Southeast Asia Cambodia 6 NA NA 0.0 Sengupta et al. (2005)
East Asia China 128 NA NA 0.0 Sengupta et al. (2005)
East Asia Japan 23 NA NA 0.0 Sengupta et al. (2005)
North Asia Siberia 18 NA NA 0.0 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Tribe (Austro-Asiatic) 64 NA NA 0.0 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Tribe (Dravidian) 18 NA NA 2.8 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Tribe (Tibeto-Burman) 87 NA NA 4.6 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Tribe (Indo-European) 21 NA NA 19.1 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Dravidian Upper Caste 59 NA NA 28.8 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Dravidian Middle Caste 85 NA NA 11.8 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Dravidian Lower Caste 29 NA NA 24.1 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Indo-European Upper Caste 86 NA NA 45.4 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Indo-European Middle Caste 48 NA NA 50.4 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Indo-European Lower Caste 50 NA NA 26.0 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Kashmiri (Gujars) 49 NA 0.00 40.86 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Kashmiri (Pandits) 51 NA 3.92 19.61 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Gujarat (Brahmins) 64 NA 0.00 32.81 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Bihar (Paswan) 27 NA 0.00 40.74 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Bihar (Brahmins) 38 NA 0.00 60.53 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Himachal Pradesh (Brahmin) 30 NA 0.00 47.37 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Indian Punjab (Brahmins) 49 NA 0.00 35.71 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India West Bengal (Brahmins) 30 NA 0.00 72.22 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Uttar Pradesh (Brahmins) 31 NA 0.00 67.74 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Uttar Pradesh (Kols) 38 NA 0.00 14.81 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Madhya Pradesh (Saharia) 57 NA 22.8 28.07 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Madhya Pradesh (Brahmins) 42 NA 0.00 38.1 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Maharashtra (Brahmins) 32 NA 0.00 43.33 Sharma et al. (2009)
Europe Moldova Moldavians, Karahasan 72 NA NA 34.7 Varzari (2006)
Europe Moldava Moldavians Sofia, Moldava 54 NA NA 20.4 Varzari (2006)
Europe Romania Dniester-Carpathian - NA NA 20.4 Varzari (2006)
Europe Ukraine Ukrainians, Rashkovo 53 NA NA 41.5 Varzari (2006)
Europe Moldava Gagauzes, Kongaz 48 NA NA 12.5 Varzari (2006)
Europe Ukraine Gagauzes, Etulia 41 NA NA 26.8 Varzari (2006)
East Asia China Dongxiang (Mongolian descent) 49 NA 0? 28.0 Wang et al. (2003)
East Asia China Salar (Central Asian Turkish descent?) 52 NA 0? 17.0 Wang et al. (2003)
East Asia China Bo\'an (Bonan) Mongolian descent 47 NA 0? 26.0 Wang et al. (2003)
Caucasus Armenia Ararat 44 NA 0.00 0.0 Weale et al. (2001)
Caucasus Armenia/Georgia \"Northern Armenians\" 189 NA 0.53 4.2 Weale et al. (2001)
Caucasus Armenia Syunik (South Armenia) 140 NA 0.00 9.3 Weale et al. (2001)
Caucasus Azerbaijan/Armenia Karabakh 215 NA 0.00 5.6 Weale et al. (2001)
Middle East Iran Isfahan, New Julfa, (Armenian descent) 56 NA 0.00 1.8 Weale et al. (2001)
Europe Turkey near Armenia 90 NA 1.11 3.3 Weale et al. (2001)
Europe Turkey Istanbul University 173 NA 0.00 10.4 Weale et al. (2001)
Caucasus Azerbaijan Baku 29 NA 0.00 10.3 Weale et al. (2001)
Middle East Syria Damascus University 44 NA 0.00 2.3 Weale et al. (2001)
Caucasus Georgia Tbilisi 68 NA 0.00 4.4 Weale et al. (2001)
Europe Greece Athens 132 NA 0.00 6.1 Weale et al. (2001)
Europe Mongolia soldiers mainly from Khalkh 402 NA 0.00 2.5 Weale et al. (2001)
Europe Hungary 215 NA 1.40 24.2 Völgyi et al. (2008)
Europe Wales North Wales 98 NA NA 1.0 Weale et al. (2002)
Europe England English Midlands 136 NA NA 4.4 Weale et al. (2002)
Europe England East Anglia 173 NA NA 4.6 Weale et al. (2002)
Europe Netherlands Friesland 94 NA NA 7.4 Weale et al. (2002)
Europe Norway 83 NA NA 21.7 Weale et al. (2002)
Europe England/Scotland/Wales? British 25 NA NA 0.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Europe Scotland Orkney 26 NA NA 27.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Europe Russia Pomor 28 NA NA 36.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Europe Russia Russian, North 49 NA NA 43.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Asia Russia Russian, Tashkent 89 NA NA 47.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Europe Russia Kazan Tatar 38 NA NA 24.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Europe Russia Saami 23 NA NA 22.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Asia Russia Nenets 54 NA NA 11.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Middle East Lebanon 50 NA NA 0.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Middle East Iran Tehran 24 NA NA 4.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Middle East Iran Shiraz 12 NA NA 0.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Middle East Iran Esfahan 16 NA NA 0.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Caucasus Georgia Svans (Svanetians) 25 NA NA 8.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Caucasus Georgia Kazbegi 25 NA NA 4.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Caucasus Georgia South Ossetians 17 NA NA 6.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Caucasus Azerbaijan Lezgi in Azerbaijan 12 NA NA 8.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Caucasus Azerbaijan Azerbaijanians 21 NA NA 10.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Caucasus Armenia Armenians 47 NA NA 9.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Afghanistan Pashtuns 49 NA NA 51.02 Haber et al. (2012)
Central Asia Afghanistan Tajiks 56 NA NA 30.36 Haber et al. (2012)
Central Asia Afghanistan Hazara 60 NA NA 6.66 Haber et al. (2012)
Central Asia Afghanistan Uzbeks 17 NA NA 17.64 Haber et al. (2012)
Central Asia Afghanistan Balochs 13 NA NA 0.0 Haber et al. (2012)
Central Asia Afghanistan Nuristanis 5 NA NA 60.0 Haber et al. (2012)
Central Asia Turkmenistan Turkmen 30 NA NA 7.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Turkmenistan Turkmenistan Kurd 17 NA NA 12.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Sinte Romani 15 NA NA 0.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Iranian (Samarkand) 53 NA NA 11.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Tajik (Samarkand) 40 NA NA 25.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Arab Bukhara 42 NA NA 19.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Crimean Tartar 22 NA NA 32.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Karakalpak 44 NA NA 18.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek/ Kashkadarya 19 NA NA 16.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek/ Bukhara 58 NA NA 28.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek/ Surkhandarya 68 NA NA 29.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek/ Khorezm 70 NA NA 30.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek/ Tashkent 43 NA NA 28.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek/ Fergana Valley 63 NA NA 22.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Samarkand 45 NA NA 13.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Tajikistan <<link:2>> (near Afghanistan) 25 NA NA 68.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Tajikistan Bartangi 30 NA NA 40.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Tajikistan Shugnan 44 NA NA 23.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Tajikistan Yagnobi 31 NA NA 16.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Tajikistan Tajiks/Panjikent 22 NA NA 64.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Tajikistan Tajiks/Dushanbe 16 NA NA 19.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz 52 NA NA 63.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Kyrgyzstan Dungan (Sino-Tibetan) 40 NA NA 10.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Kazakhstan Kazakhs 54 NA NA 4.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Kazakhstan Uighur 41 NA NA 22.0 Wells et al. (2001)
South Asia India South India Sourashtran 46 NA NA 39.0 Wells et al. (2001)
South Asia India South India Kallar Dravidian 84 NA NA 4.0 Wells et al. (2001)
South Asia India South India Yadhava 129 NA NA 13.0 Wells et al. (2001)
North Asia Russia Tuvinian 42 NA NA 14.0 Wells et al. (2001)
North Asia Mongolia 24 NA NA 4.0 Wells et al. (2001)
East Asia Korea 45 NA NA 0.0 Wells et al. (2001)
East Asia China Liqian from Yongchang 87 NA NA 1.1 Zhou et al. (2007)
East Asia China Yugur from Su\'nan 52 NA NA 1.9 Zhou et al. (2007)
East Asia China Tibetan from Guide, Qinghai 39 NA NA 2.6 Zhou et al. (2007)
East Asia China Uygurs from Urumqi 49 NA NA NA Zhou et al. (2007)
Europe Italy Sardinia 10 0.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe England Cornwall 51 0.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Spain Basque 26 0.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Portugal Northern 328 0.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
North Africa Algeria 27 0.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
North Africa 129 0.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
North Africa Tunisia Jerbian Arabs 46 NA 4.3 4.3 Ennafaa et al. (2011)
Europe Finland 57 10.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Bulgaria 24 12.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Netherlands 84 13.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Germany Bavarian 80 15.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Sweden Gotlander 64 16.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Yugoslavian 100 16.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Russia Chuvash 17 18.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Sweden Northern 48 19.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Romania 45 20.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Iceland 28 21.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Saami 48 21.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Hungary 36 22.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Estonia 207 27.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Russia Mari 48 29.0 (Tambets disagrees) NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Ukraine Ukraine 27 30.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Germany 30 30.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Norway 52 31.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Lithuania 38 34.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Slovenia 70 37.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Czech Republic 53 38.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Belarus 41 39.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Latvia 34 41.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Asia Russia 122 47.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Slovakia 70 47.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Poland 112 54.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Ireland 57 1.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Ossetia 47 2.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Cyprus 45 2.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Italy 99 2.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Spain 126 2.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Portugal Southern 57 2.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Belgium 92 4.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Turkey 167 5.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe France 40 5.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Georgia 64 6.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Armenia 89 6.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Denmark 56 7.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Scotland Western 120 7.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Scotland 43 7.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Greece 36 8.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe England East Anglia 172 9.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Iceland 181 23.8 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Norway 112 17.9 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Sweden 110 17.3 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Denmark 12 16.7 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Ireland 222 0.5 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Scotland 61 6.6 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Britain 32 9.4 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Germany 32 9.4 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Greece 42 4.8 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Italy 332 2.7 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Asia Russia 30 43.3 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Estonia 74 36.5 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Europe Russia Komi-Permiak 42 23.8 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Europe Russia Russian (Perm) 37 43.2 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Europe Russia - Mordovia Mordovian Erzya 46 39.1 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Europe Russia - Mordovia Mordovian Moksi 46 21.7 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Europe Estonia Estonia Russian 26 26.9 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Europe Ukraine Ukrainian 6 50.0 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Europe Bulgaria Bulgarian 808 17.5 NA NA Template:Karachanak et al.
Europe Turkey Northeast Turkish 11 18.2 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Europe Turkey Central Anatolian 18 11.1 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Europe Turkey Southwest Turkish 29 10.3 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Europe Turkey Southeast Turkish 13 15.4 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Europe Cyprus Turkish Cypriots 22 13.6 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Middle East Talysh 20 10.0 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Caucasus Azerbaijan Azeri 24 12.5 NA NA Malaspina et al. (2003)
Europe Croatia Mainland 108 34.3 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Bosnia-Herzogivina Bosnians 69 24.6 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Bosnia-Herzogivina Herzogivinians 141 12.1 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Serbia Serbians 113 15.9 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Kosova Albanians 114 4.4 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Republic of Macedonia Macedonians 79 15.2 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Republic of Macedonia Romani 57 1.8 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Croatia Mainland 109 33.9 NA NA Barać et al. (2003)
Europe Croatia Krk 74 28.0 NA NA Barać et al. (2003)
Europe Croatia Brač 49 13.0 NA NA Barać et al. (2003)
Europe Croatia Hvar 91 8.0 NA NA Barać et al. (2003)
Europe Croatia Korčula 134 27.0 NA NA Barać et al. (2003)
Europe Russia North 380 34.20 NA NA Balanovsky et al. (2008)
Europe Russia Central 364 46.50 NA NA Balanovsky et al. (2008)
Europe Russia South 484 55.40 NA NA Balanovsky et al. (2008)
Europe Portugal 553 1.27 NA NA Gonçalves et al. (2005)
Europe Sweden Swedes 141 18.4 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Estonia Estonians 209 33.5 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Latvia Latvians 86 38.4 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Mari 111 47.7 (Rosser disagrees) NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Mordvin 83 26.5 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Komi 94 33 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Udmurt 87 10.3 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Chuvash 79 31.6 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Volga Tatars 126 34.1 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe France French 61 0 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Hungary Hungarians 113 20.4 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Russians 61 42.6 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Khant 47 4.3 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Nganasan 38 0 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Nenets 148 0 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Selkup 131 19.1 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Ket 48 0 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Dolgan 67 16.4 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Yakut 155 1.9 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Buryat 81 1.2 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Evenk 96 1 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Evens 31 6.5 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Altaians 98 46.9 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Norway Norwegians 72 23.6 NA NA Passarino et al. (2002)
Europe Denmark Danes 194 16.5 NA NA Sanchez et al. (2003)
Europe Turkey Kurds Zazaki speakers 27 NA NA 25.9 Nasidze et al. (2005)
Europe Turkey Kurds Kurmanji speakers 87 NA NA 12.7 Nasidze et al. (2005)
Middle East Iraq Kurds 95 NA NA 11.6 Brinkmann et al. (1999)
Caucasus Georgia Kurds 25 NA NA 0.0 Nasidze et al. (2005)
Middle East Jordan Amman 101 NA NA 2.0 Flores et al. (2005)
Middle East Jordan Dead Sea 45 NA NA 0.0 Flores et al. (2005)
Middle East Iraq Baghdad, different ethnic groups 139 NA NA 6.5 Al Zahery et al. (2003)
Europe Russia Arkhangelsk 28 NA 0.00 17.9 Mirabal et al. (2009)
North Asia Russia Khanty 27 NA 0.00 14.8 Mirabal et al. (2009)
Europe Russia Izhenski Komi 54 NA 0.00 29.6 Mirabal et al. (2009)
Europe Russia Priluzki Komi 49 NA 0.00 32.7 Mirabal et al. (2009)
Europe Russia Kursk region Russian 40 NA 0.00 52.5 Mirabal et al. (2009)
Europe Russia Tver region Russian 38 NA 0.00 57.9 Mirabal et al. (2009)
R1b
Continent Population #No. Total% R-P25* R-V88 R-M269 R-M73
Africa Northern Africa 691 5.9% 0.0% 5.2% 0.7% 0.0%
Africa Central Sahel Region 461 23.0% 0.0% 23.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Africa Western Africa 123 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Africa Eastern Africa 442 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Africa Southern Africa 105 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Europe Western Europeans 465 57.8% 0.0% 0.0% 57.8% 0.0%
Europe North western Europeans 43 55.8% 0.0% 0.0% 55.8% 0.0%
Europe Central Europeans 77 42.9% 0.0% 0.0% 42.9% 0.0%
Europe North Eastern Europeans 74 1.4% 0.0% 0.0% 1.4% 0.0%
Europe Russians 60 6.7% 0.0% 0.0% 6.7% 0.0%
Europe Eastern Europeans 149 20.8% 0.0% 0.0% 20.8% 0.0%
Europe South eastern Europeans 510 13.1% 0.0% 0.2% 12.9% 0.0%
Asia Western Asians 328 5.8% 0.0% 0.3% 5.5% 0.0%
Asia Southern Asians 288 4.8% 0.0% 0.0% 1.7% 3.1%
Asia South eastern Asians 10 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Asia North eastern Asians 30 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Asia Eastern Asians 156 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 0.0%
TOTAL 5326
R2

Haplogroup R2 is most common in South Asia and south Central Asia, as well as diaspora populations, such as the Romanis.

R2a

Frequency of R-M124 in Social and Linguistic Subgroups of Indian Populations
(Source: Sengupta et al. 2006)
Tibeto-Burman Austro-Asiatic Dravidian Indo-European
Tribe 5.75% 10.94% 5.00% -
Lower Caste - - 13.79% 10.00%
Middle Caste - - 3.53% 18.75%
Upper Caste - - 10.17% 16.28%
Frequency of Haplogroup R-M124 in the Arab World from DNA studies
Count Sample Size R-M124 Fequency %
UAE[6] 8 217 3.69%
Qatar[7] 1 72 1.39%
Kuwait[8] 1 153 0.65%
Yemen[7] 1 104 0.96%
Jordan[9] 2 146 1.37%
Lebanon[10] 2 935 0.21%
Palestine[11] 1 49 2.04%
Egypt[12] 1 147 0.68%
R2b
R2b% Population
10.3% Burusho,
6.8% Kalash,
1.0% Pashtuns
3.4% Gujarat
0.63% Pakistan

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree" (PDF). Genome Res. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274. 
  2. ^ http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2013/11/22/000802.1
  3. ^ http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/pdf/ejhg2014106a.pdf
  4. ^ Miroslava Derenko et al 2005, Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions
  5. ^ Sahoo, S. (2006). "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (4): 843. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507714103. PMC 1347984. PMID 16415161. 
  6. ^ Alshamali et al. (2009), "Local Population Structure in Arabian Peninsula Revealed by Y-STR Diversity."
  7. ^ a b Cadenas et al. (2007), "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman."
  8. ^ Mohammad et al. (2009), "Genetic structure of nomadic Bedouin from Kuwait."
  9. ^ Flores et al. (2005), "Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan."
  10. ^ Zalloua, P. A.; Xue, Y; Khalife, J; Makhoul, N; Debiane, L; Platt, D. E.; Royyuru, A. K.; Herrera, R. J.; Hernanz, D. F.; Blue-Smith, J; Wells, R. S.; Comas, D; Bertranpetit, J; Tyler-Smith, C; Genographic, Consortium (April 2008). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events". The American Journal of Human Genetics 82 (4): 873–82. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.01.020. PMC 2427286. PMID 18374297. 
  11. ^ Myres et al. (2010), "A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe."
  12. ^ Luis et al. (2004), "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations."

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1[χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1 F2 F3 GHIJK
G HIJK
H IJK
IJ K
I J LT [χ 5]  K2
L T NO [χ 6] K2b [χ 7]   K2c K2d K2e [χ 8]
N O K2b1 [χ 9]    P
M S [χ 10] Q R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similiar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  10. ^ Haplogroup S (S-M230) was previously known as Haplogroup K5.