Haplogroup Q-M346

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Haplogroup Q-M346
Possible place of origin Eurasia
Coalescence age {{{TMRCA}}}
Ancestor Q-MEH2[1]
Descendants Q-L54, Q-M323[1]
Defining mutations L56, L57, M346 [1]

Haplogroup Q-M346 is a subclade of Y-DNA Haplogroup Q. Haplogroup Q-M346 is defined by the presence of the M346 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP).

Origin and distribution[edit]

Q-M346 was discovered in Central Asia and announced in Sengupta 2006.[2] A latter paper suggested that its ancestral state was isolated to India,[3] but this has since been refuted by its presence in West Asia,[4] Europe[citation needed] and the Americas.[5]


Q-M346 has a wide distribution across much of Asia.[6][7][8][9]

Population Paper N Percentage SNP Tested
Altaians Malyarchuk 2011 [6] 23/89 ~25.8% M346
Khakassians Malyarchuk 2011 [6] 4/64 ~6.3% M346
Todjins Malyarchuk 2011 [6] 10/26 ~38.5% M346
Tuvinians Malyarchuk 2011 [6] 41/108 ~38.0% M346
Sojots Malyarchuk 2011 [6] 2/28 ~7.1% M346
Kalmyks Malyarchuk 2011 [6] 1/60 ~1.7% M346
Halba Sengupta 2006 [2] 1/21 ~4.76% M346
Makrani Sengupta 2006 [2] 1/20 ~5.00% M346
Pathan Sengupta 2006 [2] 2/21 ~5.00% M346
Brahmin (Uttar Pradesh) Sengupta 2006 [2] 1/14 ~7.14% M346
Vellalar Sengupta 2006 [2] 1/31 ~3.23% M346
Pakistan Abu-Amero 2009 [7] 3/176 ~1.70% M346
Kazakhs (Southwest Altai) Dulik 2011 [8] 1/30 ~3.33% M346
Chelkan Dulik 2012 [9] 15/25 ~60.00% M346
Tubalar Dulik 2012 [9] 10/27 ~37.00% M346

The Americas[edit]

In the Americas, the founding paternal lineages include those who are Q-M346 but do not belong to the Q-M3 lineage.[5][10]

Population Paper N Percentage SNP Tested
Enxet Bailliet 2009 [5] 7/24 ~29.20% M346
Ayoreo Bailliet 2009 [5] 2/9 ~22.20% M346
Wichi Bailliet 2009 [5] 1/120 ~0.80% M346
Mocovi Bailliet 2009 [5] 2/40 ~5.00% M346
Mapuche Bailliet 2009 [5] 1/26 ~3.80% M346
Salta Bailliet 2009 [5] 3/72 ~4.80% M346
Cordoba Bailliet 2009 [5] 1/156 ~0.60% M346
Huilliche Bailliet 2009 [5] 1/26 ~3.80% M346
La Paz Bailliet 2009 [5] 1/29 ~3.40% M346
Tarija Bailliet 2009 [5] 4/72 ~5.50% M346

Associated SNPs[edit]

Q-M346 is marked by the presence of the M346 SNP. Since the discovery of M346 several additional SNPs have been found to also be associated with Q-M346. These SNP's include: L56 and L57. These SNPs appear to be "parallel" to M346.[1]


This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's Draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup Q-M346. The first three levels of subclades are shown. Additional detail is provided on the linked branch article pages.[1]

  • Q-MEH2 MEH2, L472, L528
    • Q-M346 M346, L56, L57, L474, L892, L942
      • Q-M323 M323
      • Q-L717 L717, L718
      • Q-L940 L940
        • Q-L527 L527, L529, L639
        • Q-L933 L933, L938, L941
      • Q-L53 L53, L55, L213, L331, L475, L476

See also[edit]

Y-DNA Q-M242 subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO    S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
NO1    Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. doi:10.1038/ng.3559. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)


  1. ^ a b c d e Krahn, Thomas. "FTDNA Draft Y-DNA Tree (AKA YTree)". Family Tree DNA. Retrieved 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; King, Roy; Mehdi, S.Q.; Edmonds, Christopher A.; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T.; Lin, Alice A.; Mitra, Mitashree; Sil, Samir K. (2006). "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230Freely accessible. PMID 16400607. 
  3. ^ Sharma, Swarkar; Rai, Ekta; Bhat, Audesh K; Bhanwer, Amarjit S; Bamezai, Rameshwar NK (2007). "A novel subgroup Q5 of human Y-chromosomal haplogroup Q in India". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 232. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-232. PMC 2258157Freely accessible. PMID 18021436. 
  4. ^ Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Underhill, Peter A (2009). "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions". BMC Genetics. 10: 59. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59. PMC 2759955Freely accessible. PMID 19772609. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Bailliet, Graciela; Ramallo, Virginia; Muzzio, Marina; García, Angelina; Santos, María R.; Alfaro, Emma L.; Dipierri, José E.; Salceda, Susana; Carnese, Francisco R. (2009). "Brief communication: Restricted geographic distribution for Y-Q* paragroup in South America". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 140 (3): 578–82. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21133. PMID 19591214. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Maksimov, Arkady; Wozniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilya (2011). "Ancient links between Siberians and Native Americans revealed by subtyping the Y chromosome haplogroup Q1a". Journal of Human Genetics. 56 (8): 583–8. doi:10.1038/jhg.2011.64. PMID 21677663. 
  7. ^ a b K. Abu-Amero, Khaled; et al. (2009). "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions". BMC Genetics. 10: 59. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59. PMC 2759955Freely accessible. PMID 19772609. 
  8. ^ a b Dulik, Matthew C.; Osipova, Ludmila P.; Schurr, Theodore G. (2011). Kayser, Manfred, ed. "Y-Chromosome Variation in Altaian Kazakhs Reveals a Common Paternal Gene Pool for Kazakhs and the Influence of Mongolian Expansions". PLoS ONE. 6 (3): e17548. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017548. PMC 3055870Freely accessible. PMID 21412412. 
  9. ^ a b c Dulik, Matthew C.; Zhadanov, Sergey I.; Osipova, Ludmila P.; Askapuli, Ayken; Gau, Lydia; Gokcumen, Omer; Rubinstein, Samara; Schurr, Theodore G. (2012). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosome Variation Provides Evidence for a Recent Common Ancestry between Native Americans and Indigenous Altaians". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 90 (2): 229–46. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.014. PMC 3276666Freely accessible. PMID 22281367. 
  10. ^ Bisso-Machado, Rafael; Jota, Marilza S.; Ramallo, Virginia; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa R.; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Santos, Fabrício R.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira (2011). "Distribution of Y-chromosome q lineages in native americans". American Journal of Human Biology. 23 (4): 563–6. doi:10.1002/ajhb.21173. PMID 21544893. 

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