|Possible time of origin||10,000-15,000 years ago|
|Possible place of origin||Beringia: Either East Asia or North America|
|Descendants||Q-M19, Q-M194, Q-M199, Q-PAGES104, Q-PAGES131, Q-L663, Q-SA01, Q-L766, Q-L883, and Q-L888|
|Defining mutations||M3 (rs3894)|
Haplogroup Q-M3 (Y-DNA) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup Q-M3 is a subclade of Haplogroup Q-L54. Haplogroup Q-M3 was previously known as Haplogroup Q3; currently Q-M3 is Q1b1a1a below Q1b-M346.
In 1996 the research group at Stanford University headed by Dr. Peter Underhill first discovered the SNP that was to become known as M3. At the time, it was called DYS191. Later studies completed the genetic bridge by determining that Q-M3 was related to Q-M242-bearing populations who traveled through Central Asia to East Asia.
Origin and distribution
Haplogroup Q-M3 is one of the Y-Chromosome haplogroups linked to the indigenous peoples of the Americas (over 90% of indigenous people in Meso & South America). Today, such lineages also include other Q-M242 branches (Q-M346, Q-L54, Q-P89.1, Q-NWT01, and Q-Z780), haplogroup C-M130 branches (C-M217 and C-P39), and R-M207, which are almost exclusively found in the North America. Haplogroup Q-M3 is defined by the presence of the (M3) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Q-M3 occurred on the Q-L54 lineage roughly 10-15 thousand years ago as the migration into the Americas was underway. There is some debate as to on which side of the Bering Strait this mutation occurred, but it definitely happened in the ancestors of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Populations carrying Q-M3 are widespread throughout the Americas. Since the discovery of Q-M3, several subclades of Q-M3 bearing populations have been discovered in the Americas as well. An example is in South America where some populations have a high prevalence of SNP M19 which defines subclade Q-M19. M19 has been detected in 59% of Amazonian Ticuna men and in 10% of Wayuu men. Subclades Q-M19 and Q-M199 appear to be unique to South American populations and suggests that population isolation and perhaps even the establishment of tribes began soon after migration into the Americas. The Kennewick Man has a Y chromosome that belongs to the most common sub-clade Q1a-M3 while the Anzick’s Y chromosome belongs to the minor Q1b-M971 lineage.
The Q-M3 lineage has not been detected in the European population.
Q-M194 It has only been found in South American populations.
Q-M199 This lineage has only been found in South American populations.
Q-PAGES131 This lineage was discovered by the research group at the Whitehead Institute headed by Dr. David C. Page. Only limited demographic information is known.
Q-L663 This lineage was discovered by citizen scientists. It may be linked to indigenous populations in the Southwestern United States and Mexico.
Q-L766 This lineage was discovered by citizen scientists. It may be linked to indigenous populations in the Southwestern United States and Mexico.
Q-L883 This lineage was discovered by citizen scientists.
Q-L888 This lineage was discovered by citizen scientists.
Q-M3 is defined by the SNPs M3 and L341.2.
Q-M3 Phylogeny and Subgroups
Current status of the polygentic tree for Q-M3 is published by pinotti et. al in the article Y Chromosome Sequences Reveal a Short Beringian Standstill, Rapid Expansion, and early Population structure of Native American Founders (2018). Calibrated phylogeny of Y haplogroup for Q-M3 and its relation to the branches within Q-L54.
- Q-MPB001 (18.9 kya)
- Q-M930 (15.0-17.0 kya) Ancient Beringians
- Q-L804 (Scandinavian)
- Q-M3 (Native American, 15.0 kya)
- Q-M848 (14.9 kya)
In 2013 Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's made the following phylogentic Proposed Tree for haplogroup Q-M3.
- M3, L341.2
- M199, P106, P292
- PAGES104, PAGES126
- L766, L767
- L883, L884, L885, L886, L887
- L888, L889, L890, L891
- M3, L341.2
Y-DNA Q-M242 subclades
Y-DNA backbone tree
|Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2 [χ 6]|
|L||T||K2a [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|K-M2313 [χ 10]||K2b1 [χ 11]||P [χ 12]|
|NO||S [χ 13]||M [χ 14]||P1||P2|
- [https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1SZQm_n4kakQXMIshSrjNcyV1wh2v3P4hx8b7rghvuGU/edit#gid=0 Y-DNA Haplogroup Q and its Subclades - 2018], ISOGG
- Wells, Spencer (2004). The Journey of Man : A Genetic Odyssey. New York, NY: Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7146-0.
- Ruiz-Linares, A.; Ortiz-Barrientos, D.; Figueroa, M.; Mesa, N.; Munera, J. G.; Bedoya, G.; Velez, I. D.; Garcia, L. F.; Perez-Lezaun, A. (1999). "Microsatellites provide evidence for Y chromosome diversity among the founders of the New World". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 96 (11): 6312. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.11.6312. PMC 26878.
- Bortolini, M; Salzano, F; Thomas, M; Stuart, S; Nasanen, S; Bau, C; Hutz, M; Layrisse, Z; Petzlerler, M (2003). "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 73 (3): 524–39. doi:10.1086/377588. PMC 1180678. PMID 12900798.
- Kivisild, Toomas (2017-03-04). "The study of human Y chromosome variation through ancient DNA". Human Genetics. Springer Nature. 136 (5): 529–546. doi:10.1007/s00439-017-1773-z. ISSN 0340-6717.
- Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Maksimov, Arkady; Wozniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilya (2011). "Ancient links between Siberians and Native Americans revealed by subtyping the Y chromosome haplogroup Q1a". Journal of Human Genetics. 56 (8): 583–8. doi:10.1038/jhg.2011.64. PMID 21677663.
- (2003) "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas," (pdf) Maria-Catira Bortolini, Francisco M. Salzano
- "Theodore G. Schurr".
- Pinotti, Thomaz; Bergström, Anders; Geppert, Maria; Bawn, Matt; Ohasi, Dominique; Shi, Wentao; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Solli, Arne; Norstedt, Jakob; Reed, Kate; Dawtry, Kim; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Paz-y-Miño, Cesar; Revollo, Susana; Cuellar, Cinthia; Jota, Marilza S.; Santos, José E.; Ayub, Qasim; Kivisild, Toomas; Sandoval, José R.; Fujita, Ricardo; Xue, Yali; Roewer, Lutz; Santos, Fabrício R.; Tyler-Smith, Chris (2018). "Y Chromosome Sequences Reveal a Short Beringian Standstill, Rapid Expansion, and early Population structure of Native American Founders". Current Biology. Elsevier BV. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2018.11.029. ISSN 0960-9822.
- Stated on Finding Your Roots, PBS, February 5, 2015