|Possible time of origin||12,000 years BP|
|Possible place of origin||Central Asia or South Asia|
|Descendants||R-M124*, R-L295, R-L263, R-L1069|
|Defining mutations||M124, P249, P267, L266 |
Haplogroup R2a, or haplogroup R-M124, is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic markers M124, P249, P267, L266, and is mainly found in South Asia as well as in Central Asia, Caucasus and Southwest Asia.
- 1 Term history
- 2 Origins
- 3 Subclades
- 4 Distribution
- 5 Position on the ISOGG tree and related SNPs
- 6 Prediction with haplotypes
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Before the publication of the 2005 Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree, Haplogroup R-M124 was known as Haplogroup P1 and formerly thought to be a sister clade of Haplogroup R rather than derived from it.
According to Sengupta et al. (2006),
uncertainty neutralizes previous conclusions that the intrusion of HGs R1a1 and R2 [Now R-M124] from the northwest in Dravidian-speaking southern tribes is attributable to a single recent event. Rather, these HGs contain considerable demographic complexity, as implied by their high haplotype diversity. Specifically, they could have actually arrived in southern India from a southwestern Asian source region multiple times, with some episodes considerably earlier than others.
Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers. They are typically represented by an asterisk (*) placed after the main haplogroup.
Y-chromosomes which are positive to the M124, P249, P267, and L266 SNPs and negative to the L295, L263, and L1069 SNPs, are categorized as belonging to Paragroup R-M124*.
Haplogroup R-M124, along with haplogroups H, L, R1a1, and J2, forms the majority of the South Asian male population. The frequency is around 10-15% in India and Sri Lanka and 7-8% in Pakistan. Its spread within South Asia is very extensive, ranging from Baluchistan in the west to Bengal in the east; Hunza in the north to Sri Lanka in the south.
North Indian Muslims have a frequency of 11% (Sunni) and 9% (Shia), while Dawoodi Bohra Muslim in the western state of Gujarat have a frequency of 16% and Mappla Muslims of South India have a frequency of 5%. The R-M124 haplogroup is also found in 14% of the Burusho people who speak the language isolate called Burushaski.
In Central Asia, Tajikistan shows Haplogroup R-M124 at 6%, while the other '-stan' states vary around 2%. Bartangis of Tajikistan have a high frequency of R-M124 at about 17%, Ishkashimi at 8%, Khojant at 9% and Dushanbe at 6%.
Specifically, Haplogroup R-M124 has been found in approximately 7.5% (4/53) of recent Iranian emigrants living in Samarkand, 7.1% (7/99) of Pamiris, 6.8% (3/44) of Karakalpaks, 5.1% (4/78) of Tajiks, 5% (2/40) of Dungans in Kyrgyzstan, 3.3% (1/30) of Turkmens, 2.2% (8/366) of Uzbeks, and 1.9% (1/54) of Kazakhs.
The haplogroup R-M124 frequency of 6.1% (6/114) was found among overall Kurds while in one study which was done with 25 samples of Kurmanji Kurds from Georgia, R-M124 has been observed at 44% (11/25)
In Caucasus high frequency was observed in Armenians from Sason at 18% (18/104) while it was observed at %1 in Armenians from Van. R2 has been found in Chechens at 16%. R-M124 has been found in approximately 8% (2/24) of a sample of Ossetians from Alagir..
In the Caucasus, around 16% of Mountain Jews, 8% of Balkarians, 6% of Kalmyks, 3% of Azerbaijanis, 2.6% of Kumyks, 2.4% of Avars, 2% of Armenians, and 1% to 6% of Georgians belong to the R-M124 haplogroup. Approximately 1% of Turks and 1% to 3% of Iranians also belong to this haplogroup.
In Iran R-M124 follows a similar distribution as R1a1 with higher percentages in the southeastern Iran. It has been found at Frequencies of 9.1% at Isfahan, 6.9% at Hormozgan and 4.2% in Mazandaran. 
|Count||Sample Size||R-M124 Frequency %|
In the R2-M124-WTY and R-Arabia Y-DNA Projects, Haplogroup R-M124 has appeared in the following Arab countries: Kuwait (3 clusters), United Arab Emirates (1 cluster), Syrian Arab Republic (1 cluster), and Tunisia (1 cluster).
Thus, Haplogroup R-M124 has been observed among Arabs at low frequencies in 11 countries/territories (Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine, Qatar, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen) of the 22 Arab countries/territories so far.
Haplogroup R-M124 is a subgroup of Haplogroup R-M479 (M479):
- R-M479 (M479)
- R-M124 (M124, P249, P267, L266)
- R-L295 (L295)
- R-L263 (L263)
- R-L1069 (L1069)
- R-M124 (M124, P249, P267, L266)
Prediction with haplotypes
Y-DNA R-M207 subclades
Y-DNA backbone tree
|Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2|
|L||T [χ 6]||K2a [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|K2a1||K2b1 [χ 10]||P [χ 11]|
|NO||S [χ 12]||M [χ 13]||P1||P2|
- ISOGG (2010), "Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades - 2010."
- FTDNA's Draft phylogeny tree, "FTDNA's Draft phylogeny tree."
- Myres et al. (2010), "A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe - 2010."
- Manoukian, Jean-Grégoire (2006), "A Synthesis of Haplogroup R2 - 2006."
- R2-M124-WTY (Walk Through the Y) Project, "R2-M124-WTY (Walk Through the Y) Project."
- Muthukrishnan Eaaswarkhanth; Ikramul Haque; Zeinab Ravesh; Irene Gallego Romero; Poorlin Ramakodi Meganathan; Bhawna Dubey; Faizan Ahmed Khan; Gyaneshwer Chaubey; Toomas Kivisild; Chris Tyler-Smith; Lalji Singh; Kumarasamy Thangaraj. "Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations".
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- Alshamali et al. (2009), "Local Population Structure in Arabian Peninsula Revealed by Y-STR Diversity."
- Cadenas et al. (2007), "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman."
- Mohammad et al. (2009), "Genetic structure of nomadic Bedouin from Kuwait."
- Flores et al. (2005), "Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan."
- Zalloua et al. (2008), "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events."
- Myres et al. (2010), "A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe."
- Luis et al. (2004), "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations."
- R-Arabia Y-DNA Project, "R-Arabia Y-DNA Project."
- Manoukian, Jean-Grégoire (2006). "A Synthesis of Haplogroup R2" (PDF) (published 2006-12-01)..
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