Haplogroup R-M124

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Haplogroup R2a
Possible time of origin 12,000 years BP
Possible place of origin Central Asia or South Asia
Ancestor R-M479
Descendants R-M124*, R-L295, R-L263, R-L1069
Defining mutations M124, P249, P267, L266 [1][2]

Haplogroup R2a, or haplogroup R-M124, is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic markers M124, P249, P267, L266, and is mainly found in South Asia as well as in Central Asia, Caucasus and Southwest Asia.

Term history[edit]

Haplogoup R2a is also known as haplogroup R-M124.[1] The first reference to the newly defined haplogroup, "R-M124", was on the 25th of August 2010.[3]

Before the publication of the 2005 Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree, Haplogroup R-M124 was known as Haplogroup P1 and formerly thought to be a sister clade of Haplogroup R rather than derived from it.[4]

Haplogroup R2 most often observed in Asia, especially on the Indian sub-continent and Central Asia.[4] It is also reported at notable frequencies in Caucasus.


According to Sengupta et al. (2006),

uncertainty neutralizes previous conclusions that the intrusion of HGs R1a1 and R2 [Now R-M124] from the northwest in Dravidian-speaking southern tribes is attributable to a single recent event. Rather, these HGs contain considerable demographic complexity, as implied by their high haplotype diversity. Specifically, they could have actually arrived in southern India from a southwestern Asian source region multiple times, with some episodes considerably earlier than others.


Haplogroup R-M124 

 Paragroup R-M124*

 Haplogroup R-L295

 Haplogroup R-L263

 Haplogroup R-L1069

Paragroup R-M124*[edit]

Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers. They are typically represented by an asterisk (*) placed after the main haplogroup.

Y-chromosomes which are positive to the M124, P249, P267, and L266 SNPs and negative to the L295, L263, and L1069 SNPs, are categorized as belonging to Paragroup R-M124*.

Haplogroup R-L295[edit]

Haplogroup R-L295 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic marker L295. It is found in South Asia, Anatolia, Arabian Peninsula, Europe, & Central Asia so far.

Haplogroup R-L263[edit]

Haplogroup R-L263 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic marker L263. It is found in Greek Asia Minor & Armenia so far.[5]

Haplogroup R-L1069[edit]

Haplogroup R-L1069 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic marker L1069. It is found in Kuwait so far.[5]


R-M124 is most often observed in Asia, especially on the Indian sub-continent and in Central Asia[4] It is also reported at notable frequencies in Caucasus.

South Asia[edit]

Frequency of R-M124 in Social and Linguistic Subgroups of Indian Populations
(Source: Sengupta et al. 2006)
Tibeto-Burman Austro-Asiatic Dravidian Indo-European
Tribe 5.75% 10.94% 5.00% -
Lower Caste - - 13.79% 10.00%
Middle Caste - - 3.53% 18.75%
Upper Caste - - 10.17% 16.28%

Haplogroup R-M124, along with haplogroups H, L, R1a1, and J2, forms the majority of the South Asian male population. The frequency is around 10-15% in India and Sri Lanka and 7-8% in Pakistan. Its spread within South Asia is very extensive, ranging from Baluchistan in the west to Bengal in the east; Hunza in the north to Sri Lanka in the south.

North Indian Muslims have a frequency of 11% (Sunni) and 9% (Shia), while Dawoodi Bohra Muslim in the western state of Gujarat have a frequency of 16% and Mappla Muslims of South India have a frequency of 5%.[6] The R-M124 haplogroup is also found in 14% of the Burusho people who speak the language isolate called Burushaski.[7]

Central Asia[edit]

In Central Asia, Tajikistan shows Haplogroup R-M124 at 6%, while the other '-stan' states vary around 2%. Bartangis of Tajikistan have a high frequency of R-M124 at about 17%, Ishkashimi at 8%, Khojant at 9% and Dushanbe at 6%.

Specifically, Haplogroup R-M124 has been found in approximately 7.5% (4/53) of recent Iranian emigrants living in Samarkand,[8] 7.1% (7/99) of Pamiris,[8] 6.8% (3/44) of Karakalpaks,[8] 5.1% (4/78) of Tajiks,[8] 5% (2/40) of Dungans in Kyrgyzstan,[8] 3.3% (1/30) of Turkmens,[8] 2.2% (8/366) of Uzbeks,[8] and 1.9% (1/54) of Kazakhs.[8]

West Asia[edit]

The haplogroup R-M124 frequency of 6.1% (6/114) was found among overall Kurds[9] while in one study which was done with 25 samples of Kurmanji Kurds from Georgia, R-M124 has been observed at 44% (11/25)[10]

In Caucasus high frequency was observed in Armenians from Sason at 18% (18/104)[11] while it was observed at %1 in Armenians from Van. R2 has been found in Chechens at 16%.[12] R-M124 has been found in approximately 8% (2/24) of a sample of Ossetians from Alagir.[13].

In the Caucasus, around 16% of Mountain Jews, 8% of Balkarians,[14] 6% of Kalmyks,[15] 3% of Azerbaijanis,[12] 2.6% of Kumyks,[16] 2.4% of Avars,[16] 2% of Armenians,[12] and 1% to 6% of Georgians[12][14][17] belong to the R-M124 haplogroup. Approximately 1% of Turks[18] and 1% to 3% of Iranians[19] also belong to this haplogroup.

In Iran R-M124 follows a similar distribution as R1a1 with higher percentages in the southeastern Iran. It has been found at Frequencies of 9.1% at Isfahan, 6.9% at Hormozgan and 4.2% in Mazandaran. [20]

Arab World[edit]

Frequency of Haplogroup R-M124 in the Arab World from DNA studies
Count Sample Size R-M124 Frequency %
UAE[21] 8 217 3.69%
Qatar[22] 1 72 1.39%
Kuwait[23] 1 153 0.65%
Yemen[22] 1 104 0.96%
Jordan[24] 2 146 1.37%
Lebanon[25] 2 935 0.21%
Palestine[26] 1 49 2.04%
Egypt[27] 1 147 0.68%

In the R2-M124-WTY and R-Arabia Y-DNA Projects,[5][28] Haplogroup R-M124 has appeared in the following Arab countries: Kuwait (3 clusters), United Arab Emirates (1 cluster), Syrian Arab Republic (1 cluster), and Tunisia (1 cluster).

Thus, Haplogroup R-M124 has been observed among Arabs at low frequencies in 11 countries/territories (Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine, Qatar, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen) of the 22 Arab countries/territories so far.

Position on the ISOGG tree and related SNPs[edit]

Haplogroup R-M124 is a subgroup of Haplogroup R-M479 (M479):

  • R-M479 (M479)
    • R-M124 (M124, P249, P267, L266)
      • R-L295 (L295)
      • R-L263 (L263)
      • R-L1069 (L1069)

Prediction with haplotypes[edit]

Haplotype can be used to predict haplogroup. The chances of any person part of this haplogroup is the highest if DYS391=10, DYS392=10 and DYS426=12.

See also[edit]

Y-DNA R-M207 subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO    S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
NO1    Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. PMID 24166809. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)


  1. ^ a b ISOGG (2010), "Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades - 2010."
  2. ^ FTDNA's Draft phylogeny tree, "FTDNA's Draft phylogeny tree."
  3. ^ Myres et al. (2010), "A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe - 2010."
  4. ^ a b c Manoukian, Jean-Grégoire (2006), "A Synthesis of Haplogroup R2 - 2006."
  5. ^ a b c R2-M124-WTY (Walk Through the Y) Project, "R2-M124-WTY (Walk Through the Y) Project."
  6. ^ Muthukrishnan Eaaswarkhanth; Ikramul Haque; Zeinab Ravesh; Irene Gallego Romero; Poorlin Ramakodi Meganathan; Bhawna Dubey; Faizan Ahmed Khan; Gyaneshwer Chaubey; Toomas Kivisild; Chris Tyler-Smith; Lalji Singh; Kumarasamy Thangaraj. "Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations". 
  7. ^ Firasat S, Khaliq S, Mohyuddin A, Papaioannou M, Tyler-Smith C, Underhill PA, Ayub Q. "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan". 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h R.Spencer Wells et al, The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity, PNAS August 28, 2001, vol. 98 no. 18, pp.10244-10249.
  9. ^ "Kurdish Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries". 
  10. ^ "[1]."
  11. ^ "[2]."
  12. ^ a b c d Nasidze I, Sarkisian T, Kerimov A, Stoneking M (Mar 2003). "Testing hypotheses of language replacement in the Caucasus: evidence from the Y-chromosome". Human Genetics. 112 (3): 255–61. PMID 12596050. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0874-4.  [3]
    Manoukian (2006)
  13. ^ I. Nasidze, D. Quinque, I. Dupanloup et al., "Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of South and North Ossetians," Annals of Human Genetics (2004) 68, 588–599
  14. ^ a b Vincenza Battaglia, Simona Fornarino, Nadia Al-Zahery et al., "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe," European Journal of Human Genetics (2008), 1 – 11
  15. ^ Ivan Nasidze, Dominique Quinque, Isabelle Dupanloup, Richard Cordaux, Lyudmila Kokshunova, and Mark Stoneking, "Genetic Evidence for the Mongolian Ancestry of Kalmyks," American Journal of Physical Anthropology 126:000–000 (2005).
  16. ^ a b Yunusbaev et al. (2006): 2/76 = 2.6% R-M124 Kumyks, 1/42 = 2.4% R-M124 Avars
  17. ^ Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, Marcikiae M, Mika A, Mika B, Primorac D, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA (Nov 2000). "The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective" (PDF). Science. 290 (5494): 1155–9. PMID 11073453. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. 
  18. ^ Cinnioğlu et al. (2003), "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia."
  19. ^ Regueiro M, Cadenas AM, Gayden T, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ (2006). "Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration". Human Heredity. 61 (3): 132–43. PMID 16770078. doi:10.1159/000093774. 
  20. ^ "[4]."
  21. ^ Alshamali et al. (2009), "Local Population Structure in Arabian Peninsula Revealed by Y-STR Diversity."
  22. ^ a b Cadenas et al. (2007), "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman."
  23. ^ Mohammad et al. (2009), "Genetic structure of nomadic Bedouin from Kuwait."
  24. ^ Flores et al. (2005), "Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan."
  25. ^ Zalloua et al. (2008), "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events."
  26. ^ Myres et al. (2010), "A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe."
  27. ^ Luis et al. (2004), "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations."
  28. ^ R-Arabia Y-DNA Project, "R-Arabia Y-DNA Project."


External links[edit]