|Possible place of origin||Western Asia or Central Asia|
Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
It is the most frequently occurring paternal lineage in Western Europe, as well as some parts of Russia (e.g. the Bashkir minority) and Central Africa (e.g. Chad and Cameroon). The clade is also present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, Western Asia, as well as parts of North Africa and Central Asia.
R1b has two primary branches: R1b1a-L754 and R1b1b-PH155. R1b1a1a2-M269, which predominates in Western Europe, and R1b1a2-V88, which is common in Central Africa, are both subclades of R1b-L754. R1b1b-PH155 is so rare and widely dispersed that it is difficult to draw any conclusions about its origins. It has been found in Bahrain, Bhutan, Ladakh, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Western China.
Origin and dispersal
The age of R1 was estimated by Tatiana Karafet et al. (2008) at between 12,500 and 25,700 BP, and most probably occurred about 18,500 years ago. Since the earliest known example has been dated at circa 14,000 BP, and belongs to R1b1a (R-L754), R1b must have arisen relatively soon after the emergence of R1.
Early human remains found to carry R1b include:
- Villabruna 1 (individual I9030), a Western Hunter-Gatherer (WHG), found in an Epigravettian culture setting in the Cismon valley (modern Veneto, Italy), who lived circa 14000 BP and belonged to R1b1a.
- Several males of the Iron Gates Mesolithic in the Balkans buried between 11200 to 8200 BP carried R1b1a1a. These individuals were determined to be largely of WHG ancestry, with slight Eastern Hunter-Gatherer (EHG) admixture.
- Several males of the Mesolithic Kunda culture and Neolithic Narva culture buried in the Zvejnieki burial ground in modern-day Latvia c. 9500–6000 BP carried R1b1b. These individuals were determined to be largely of WHG ancestry, with slight EHG admixture.
- Several Mesolithic and Neolithic males buried at Deriivka and Vasil'evka in modern-day Ukraine c. 9500-7000 BP carried R1b1a. These individuals were largely of EHG ancestry, with significant WHG admixture.
- A WHG male buried at Ostrovul Corbuli, Romania c. 8700 BP carried R1b1c.
- A male buried at Lepenski Vir, Serbia c. 8200-7900 BP carried R1b1a.
- An EHG buried near Samara, Russia 7500 BP carried R1b1a1a.
- An Eneolithic male buried at Khvalynsk, Russia c. 7200-6000 BP carried R1b1a.
- A Neolithic male buried at Els Trocs, Spain c. 7178-7066 BP, who may have belonged to the Epi-Cardial culture, was found to be a carrier of R1b1.
- A Late Chalcolithic male buried in Smyadovo, Bulgaria c. 6500 BP carried R1b1a.
- An Early Copper Age male buried in Cannas di Sotto, Carbonia, Sardinia c. 6450 BP carried R1b1b2.
- A male of the Michelsberg culture or Wartberg culture buried at Blätterhöhle, Germany c. 6000-5300 BP carried R1b1, and was of about 50% WHG ancestry and 50% Early European Farmer (EFF) ancestry.
- A male of the Baalberge group in Central Europe buried c. 5600 BP carried R1b1a.
- A male of the Botai culture in Central Asia buried c. 5500 BP carried R1b1a1 (R1b-M478).
- Males of the closely related Yamnaya culture (c. 5300-4800 BP) Afanasievo culture (5300-4500 BP), Catacomb culture (4800-3700 BP), Poltavka culture (4700-4100 BP) and Bell Beaker culture (4800-3800 BP) of Eurasia overwhelmingly carry R1b1a1a2a2.
The point of origin of R1b is thought to lie in Western Eurasia, most likely in Western Asia. R1b is a subclade within the "macro-haplogroup" K (M9), the most common group of human male lines outside of Africa. K is believed to have originated in Asia (as is the case with an even earlier ancestral haplogroup, F (F-M89). Karafet T. et al. (2014) "rapid diversification process of K-M526 likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q".
Three genetic studies in 2015 gave support to the Kurgan hypothesis of Marija Gimbutas regarding the Proto-Indo-European homeland. According to those studies, haplogroups R1b-M269 and R1a, now the most common in Europe (R1a is also common in South Asia) would have expanded from the West Eurasian Steppe, along with the Indo-European languages; they also detected an autosomal component present in modern Europeans which was not present in Neolithic Europeans, which would have been introduced with paternal lineages R1b and R1a, as well as Indo-European languages.
Analysis of ancient Y-DNA from the remains from early Neolithic Central and North European Linear Pottery culture settlements have not yet found males belonging to haplogroup R1b-M269. Olalde et al. (2017) trace the spread of haplogroup R1b-M269 in western Europe, particularly Britain, to the spread of the Beaker culture, with a sudden appearance of many R1b-M269 haplogroups in Western Europe ca. 5000–4500 years BP during the early Bronze Age. In the 2016 Nature article "The genetic history of Ice Age Europe",.
D'Atanasio et al. (2018) propose that R1b-V88 originated in Europe about 12 000 years ago and crossed to North Africa by about 8000 years ago; it may formerly have been common in southern Europe, where it has since been replaced by waves of other haplogroups, leaving remnant subclades almost excusively in Sardinia. It first radiated within Africa likely between 7 and 8 000 years ago – at the same time as trans-Saharan expansions within the unrelated haplogroups E-M2 and A-M13 – possibly due to population growth allowed by humid conditions and the adoption of livestock herding in the Sahara. R1b-V1589, the main subclade within R1b-V88, underwent a further expansion around 5500 years ago, likely in the Lake Chad Basin region, from which some lines recrossed the Sahara to North Africa. The DNA sequencing of ancient individuals provides strong evidence for this proposed model of North to South trans-saharan movement: The earliest basal R1b-V88 haplogroups are found in several Eastern European Hunter Gatherers close to 10 000 years ago. The haplogroup then seemingly further spread with the Neolithic Cardial Ware expansion, which established agriculture in the Western Mediterranean around 7500 BP: R1b-V88 haplogroups were identified in ancient Neolithic individuals in central Italy, Iberia and, at a particularly high frequency, in Sardinia. A part of the branch leading to present-day African haplogroups (V2197) is already derived in some of these ancient Neolithic European individuals, providing further support for a North to South trans-saharan movement.
External phylogeny of R1b
The broader haplogroup R (M207) is a primary subclade of haplogroup P1 (M45) itself a primary branch of P (P295), which is also known as haplogroup K2b2. R-M207 is therefore a secondary branch of K2b (P331), and a direct descendant of K2 (M526).
There was "an initial rapid diversification" of K-M526, according to Karafet et al. (2014), which "likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q".
- Phylogeny within K2b
- P P295/PF5866/S8 (also known as K2b2).
Internal structure of R1b
Names such as R1b, R1b1 and so on are phylogenetic (i.e. "family tree") names which make clear their place within the branching of haplogroups, or the phylogenetic tree. An alternative way of naming the same haplogroups and subclades refers to their defining SNP mutations: for example, R-M343 is equivalent to R1b. Phylogenetic names change with new discoveries and SNP-based names are consequently reclassified within the phylogenetic tree. In some cases, an SNP is found to be unreliable as a defining mutation and an SNP-based name is removed completely. For example, before 2005, R1b was synonymous with R-P25, which was later reclassified as R1b1; in 2016, R-P25 was removed completely as a defining SNP, due to a significant rate of back-mutation. (Below is the basic outline of R1b according to the ISOGG Tree as it stood on January 30, 2017.)
No confirmed cases of R1b* (R-M343*) – that is R1b1(xR1b1), also known as R-M343(xL278) – have been reported in peer-reviewed literature.
Likewise no known examples of R1b1*, also known as R-L278* and R-L278(xL754,PH155), have been found.
In early research, because R-M269, R-M73 and R-V88 are by far the most common forms of R1b, examples of R1b(xM73,xM269) were sometimes assumed to signify basal examples of "R1b*". However, while the paragroup R-M343(xM73,M269,V88) is rare, it does not preclude membership of rare and/or subsequently-discovered, relatively basal subclades of R1b, such as R-L278* (R1b1*), R-L389* (R1b1a1*), R-P297* (R1b1a1a*), R-V1636 (R1b1a1b) or R-PH155 (R1b1b).
The population believed to have the highest proportion of R-M343(xM73,M269,V88) are the Kurds of southeastern Kazakhstan with 13%. However, more recently, a large study of Y-chromosome variation in Iran, revealed R-M343(xV88,M73,M269) as high as 4.3% among Iranian sub-populations.
It remains a possibility that some, or even most of these cases, may be R-L278* (R1b1*), R-L389* (R1b1a1*), R-P297* (R1b1a1a*), R-V1636 (R1b1a1b), R-PH155 (R1b1b), R1b* (R-M343*), R1a* (R-M420*), an otherwise undocumented branch of R1 (R-M173), and/or back-mutations of a marker, from a positive to a negative ancestral state, and hence constitute undocumented subclades of R1b.
A compilation of previous studies regarding the distribution of R1b can be found in Cruciani et al. (2010). It is summarised in the table following. (Cruciani did not include some studies suggesting even higher frequencies of R1b1a1a2 [R-M269] in some parts of Western Europe.)
- Distribution of R-V88, R-M73 and M269
|Continent||Region||Sample size||Total R1b||R-P25
(unreliable marker for R1b1*)
|R-V88 (R1b1a2)||R-M269 (R1b1a1a2)||R-M73 (R1b1a1a1)|
|Africa||Central Sahel Region||461||23.0%||0.0%||23.0%||0.0%||0.0%|
|Europe||North Eastern Europeans||74||1.4%||0.0%||0.0%||1.4%||0.0%|
R-L278 among modern men falls into the R-L754 and R-PH155 subclades, though it is possible some very rare R-L278* may exist as not all examples have been tested for both branches. Examples may also exist in ancient DNA, though due to poor quality it is often impossible to tell whether or not the ancients carried the mutations that define subclades.
Some examples described in older articles, for example two found in Turkey, are now thought to be mostly in the more recently discovered sub-clade R1b1a2 (R-V88). Most examples of R1b therefore fall into subclades R1b1a2 (R-V88) or R1b1a (R-P297). Cruciani et al. in the large 2010 study found 3 cases amongst 1173 Italians, 1 out of 328 West Asians and 1 out of 156 East Asians. Varzari found 3 cases in the Ukraine, in a study of 322 people from the Dniester–Carpathian Mountains region, who were P25 positive, but M269 negative. Cases from older studies are mainly from Africa, the Middle East or Mediterranean, and are discussed below as probable cases of R1b1a2 (R-V88).
R-L754 contains the vast majority of R1b. The only known example of R-L754*(xL389,V88) is also the earliest known individual to carry R1b: "Villabruna 1", who lived circa 14,000 years BP (north east Italy). Villabruna 1 belonged to the Epigravettian culture.
R-L389, also known as R1b1a1 (L388/PF6468, L389/PF6531), contains the very common subclade R-P297 and the rare subclade R-V1636. It is unknown whether all previously reported R-L389*(xP297) belong to R-V1636 or not.
The SNP marker P297 was recognised in 2008 as ancestral to the significant subclades M73 and M269, combining them into one cluster. This had been given the phylogenetic name R1b1a1a (and, previously, R1b1a).
A majority of Eurasian R1b falls within this subclade, representing a very large modern population. Although P297 itself has not yet been much tested for, the same population has been relatively well studied in terms of other markers. Therefore, the branching within this clade can be explained in relatively high detail below.
Malyarchuk et al. (2011) found R-M73 in 13.2% (5/38) of Shors, 11.4% (5/44) of Teleuts, 3.3% (2/60) of Kalmyks, 3.1% (2/64) of Khakassians, 1.9% (2/108) of Tuvinians, and 1.1% (1/89) of Altaians. The Kalmyks, Tuvinians, and Altaian belong to a Y-STR cluster marked by DYS390=19, DYS389=14-16 (or 14–15 in the case of the Altaian individual), and DYS385=13-13.
Dulik et al. (2012) found R-M73 in 35.3% (6/17) of a sample of the Kumandin of the Altai Republic in Russia. Three of these six Kumandins share an identical 15-loci Y-STR haplotype, and another two differ only at the DYS458 locus, having DYS458=18 instead of DYS458=17. This pair of Kumandin R-M73 haplotypes resembles the haplotypes of two Kalmyks, two Tuvinians, and one Altaian whose Y-DNA has been analyzed by Malyarchuk et al. (2011). The remaining R-M73 Kumandin has a Y-STR haplotype that is starkly different from the haplotypes of the other R-M73 Kumandins, resembling instead the haplotypes of five Shors, five Teleuts, and two Khakassians.
While early research into R-M73 claimed that it was significantly represented among the Hazara of Afghanistan and the Bashkirs of the Ural Mountains, this has apparently been overturned. For example, supporting material from a 2010 study by Behar et al. suggested that Sengupta et al. (2006) might have misidentified Hazara individuals, who instead belonged to "PQR2" as opposed to "R(xR1a)." However, the assignment of these Hazaras' Y-DNA to the "PQR2" category by Behar et al. (2010) is probably ascribable to the habit that was popular for a while of labeling R-M269 as "R1b" or "R(xR1a)," with any members of R-M343(xM269) being placed in a polyphyletic, catch-all "R*" or "P" category. Myres et al. (2011), Di Cristofaro et al. (2013), and Lippold et al. (2014) all agree that the Y-DNA of 32% (8/25) of the HGDP sample of Pakistani Hazara should belong to haplogroup R-M478/M73. Likewise, most Bashkir males have been found to belong to U-152 (R1b1a1a2a1a2b) and some, mostly from southeastern Bashkortostan, belonged to Haplogroup Q-M25 (Q1a1b) rather than R1b; contra this, Myres et al. (2011) found a high frequency of R-M73 among their sample of Bashkirs from southeast Bashkortostan (77/329 = 23.4% R1b-M73), in agreement with the earlier study of Bashkirs. Besides the high frequency of R-M73 in southeastern Bashkirs, Myres et al. also reported finding R-M73 in the following samples: 10.3% (14/136) of Balkars from the northwest Caucasus, 9.4% (8/85) of the HGDP samples from northern Pakistan (these are the aforementioned Pakistani Hazaras), 5.8% (4/69) of Karachays from the northwest Caucasus, 2.6% (1/39) of Tatars from Bashkortostan, 1.9% (1/54) of Bashkirs from southwest Bashkortostan, 1.5% (1/67) of Megrels from the south Caucasus, 1.4% (1/70) of Bashkirs from north Bashkortostan, 1.3% (1/80) of Tatars from Kazan, 1.1% (1/89) of a sample from Cappadocia, Turkey, 0.7% (1/141) of Kabardians from the northwest Caucasus, 0.6% (3/522) of a pool of samples from Turkey, and 0.38% (1/263) of Russians from Central Russia.
Besides the aforementioned Pakistani Hazaras, Di Cristofaro et al. (2013) found R-M478/M73 in 11.1% (2/18) of Mongols from central Mongolia, 5.0% (1/20) of Kyrgyz from southwest Kyrgyzstan, 4.3% (1/23) of Mongols from southeast Mongolia, 4.3% (4/94) of Uzbeks from Jawzjan, Afghanistan, 3.7% (1/27) of Iranians from Gilan, 2.5% (1/40) of Kyrgyz from central Kyrgyzstan, 2.1% (2/97) of Mongols from northwest Mongolia, and 1.4% (1/74) of Turkmens from Jawzjan, Afghanistan. The Mongols as well as the individual from southwest Kyrgyzstan, the individual from Gilan, and one of the Uzbeks from Jawzjan belong to the same Y-STR haplotype cluster as five of six Kumandin members of R-M73 studied by Dulik et al. (2012). This cluster's most distinctive Y-STR value is DYS390=19.
Karafet et al. (2018) found R-M73 in 37.5% (15/40) of a sample of Teleuts from Bekovo, Kemerovo oblast, 4.5% (3/66) of a sample of Uyghurs from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, 3.4% (1/29) of a sample of Kazakhs from Kazakhstan, 2.3% (3/129) of a sample of Selkups, 2.3% (1/44) of a sample of Turkmens from Turkmenistan, and 0.7% (1/136) of a sample of Iranians from Iran. Four of these individuals (one of the Teleuts, one of the Uyghurs, the Kazakh, and the Iranian) appear to belong to the aforementioned cluster marked by DYS390=19 (the Kumandin-Mongol R-M73 cluster); the Teleut and the Uyghur also share the modal values at the DYS385 and the DYS389 loci. The Iranian differs from the modal for this cluster by having 13-16 (or 13-29) at DYS389 instead of 14-16 (or 14-30). The Kazakh differs from the modal by having 13–14 at DYS385 instead of 13-13. The other fourteen Teleuts and the three Selkups appear to belong to the Teleut-Shor-Khakassian R-M73 cluster from the data set of Malyarchuk et al. (2011); this cluster has the modal values of DYS390=22 (but 21 in the case of two Teleuts and one Khakassian), DYS385=13-16, and DYS389=13-17 (or 13–30, but 14–31 in the case of one Selkup).
A Kazakhstani paper published in 2017 found haplogroup R1b-M478 Y-DNA in 3.17% (41/1294) of a sample of Kazakhs from Kazakhstan, with this haplogroup being observed with greater than average frequency among members of the Qypshaq (12/29 = 41.4%), Ysty (6/57 = 10.5%), Qongyrat (8/95 = 8.4%), Oshaqty (2/29 = 6.9%), Kerey (1/28 = 3.6%), and Jetyru (3/86 = 3.5%) tribes. A Chinese paper published in 2018 found haplogroup R1b-M478 Y-DNA in 9.2% (7/76) of a sample of Dolan Uyghurs from Horiqol township, Awat County, Xinjiang.
R-M269 has received significant scientific and popular interest due to its possible connection to the Indo-European expansion in Europe. Specifically the R-L23 (R-Z2103) subclade has been found to be prevalent in ancient DNA associated with the Yamna culture. Seven individuals were determined to belong to the R1b-M269 subclade.
Older research, published before researchers could study the DNA of ancient remains, proposed that R-M269 likely originated in Western Asia and was present in Europe by the Neolithic period. But results based on actual ancient DNA noticed that there was a dearth of R-M269 in Europe before the Bronze Age, and the distribution of subclades within Europe is substantially due to the various migrations of the Bronze and Iron Age. Likewise, the oldest samples classified as belonging to R-M269, have been found in Eastern Europe and Pontic-Caspian steppe, not Western Asia. Western European populations are divided between the R-P312/S116 and R-U106/S21 subclades of R-M412 (R-L51).
Distribution of R-M269 in Europe increases in frequency from east to west. It peaks at the national level in Wales at a rate of 92%, at 82% in Ireland, 70% in Scotland, 68% in Spain, 60% in France (76% in Normandy), about 60% in Portugal, 45% in Eastern England, 50% in Germany, 50% in the Netherlands, 42% in Iceland, and 43% in Denmark, 39% in Italy. R-M269 reaches levels as high as 95% in parts of Ireland. It has also been found at lower frequencies throughout central Eurasia, but with relatively high frequency among the Bashkirs of the Perm region (84.0%). This marker is present in China and India at frequencies of less than one percent. In North Africa and adjoining islands, while R-V88 (R1b1a2) is more strongly represented, R-M269 appears to have been present since antiquity. R-M269 has been found, for instance, at a rate of ~44% among remains dating from the 11th to 13th centuries at Punta Azul, in the Canary Islands. These remains have been linked to the Bimbache (or Bimape), a subgroup of the Guanche. In living males, it peaks in parts of North Africa, especially Algeria, at a rate of 10%. In Sub-Saharan Africa, R-M269 appears to peak in Namibia, at a rate of 8% among Herero males. In western Asia, R-M269 has been reported in 40% of Armenian males.[verification needed] (The table below lists in more detail the frequencies of M269 in regions in Asia, Europe, and Africa.)
Apart from undiverged, basal R-M269*, there are (as of 2017) two primary branches of R-M269:
- R-L23 (R1b1a1a2a; L23/PF6534/S141) and
- R-PF7558 (R1b1a1a2b; PF7558/PF7562.)
R-L23 (Z2105/Z2103; a.k.a. R1b1a1a2a) has been reported among the peoples of the Idel-Ural (by Trofimova et al. 2015): 21 out of 58 (36.2%) of Burzyansky District Bashkirs, 11 out of 52 (21.2%) of Udmurts, 4 out of 50 (8%) of Komi, 4 out of 59 (6.8%) of Mordvins, 2 out of 53 (3.8%) of Besermyan and 1 out of 43 (2.3%) of Chuvash were R1b-L23.
Subclades within the paragroup R-M269(xL23) – that is, R-M269* and/or R-PF7558 – appear to be found at their highest frequency in the central Balkans, especially Kosovo with 7.9%, Macedonia 5.1% and Serbia 4.4%. Unlike most other areas with significant percentages of R-L23, Kosovo, Poland and the Bashkirs of south-east Bashkortostan are notable in having a high percentage of R-L23(xM412) also known as R1b1a1a2a(xR1b1a1a2a1) – at rates of 11.4% (Kosovo), 2.4% (Poland) and 2.4% south-east Bashkortostan. (This Bashkir population is also notable for its high level of R-M73 (R1b1a1a1), at 23.4%.) Five individuals out of 110 tested in the Ararat Valley of Armenia belonged to R-M269(xL23) and 36 to R-L23*, with none belonging to known subclades of L23.
In 2009, DNA extracted from the femur bones of 6 skeletons in an early-medieval burial place in Ergolding (Bavaria, Germany) dated to around AD 670 yielded the following results: 4 were found to be haplogroup R1b with the closest matches in modern populations of Germany, Ireland and the USA while 2 were in Haplogroup G2a.
The following gives a summary of most of the studies which specifically tested for M269, showing its distribution (as a percentage of total population) in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia as far as China and Nepal.
The phylogeny of R-M269 according to ISOGG 2017:
R1b1a2 (PF6279/V88; previously R1b1c) is defined by the presence of SNP marker V88, the discovery of which was announced in 2010 by Cruciani et al. Apart from individuals in southern Europe and Western Asia, the majority of R-V88 was found in the Sahel, especially among populations speaking Afroasiatic languages of the Chadic branch.
Studies in 2005–08 reported "R1b*" at high levels in Jordan, Egypt and Sudan. However, subsequent research indicates that the samples concerned most likely belong to the subclade R-V88, which is now concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa, following migration from Asia.
- Distribution of R1b in Africa
|Region||Population||Country||Language||N||Total%||R1b1c (R-V88)||R1b1a1a2 (R-M269)||R1b1c* (R-V88*)||R1b1c3 (R-V69)|
|N Africa||Mozabite Berbers||Algeria||AA/Berber||67||3.0%||3.0%||0.0%||3.0%||0.0%|
|N Africa||Northern Egyptians||Egypt||AA/Semitic||49||6.1%||4.1%||2.0%||4.1%||0.0%|
|N Africa||Berbers from Siwa||Egypt||AA/Berber||93||28.0%||26.9%||1.1%||23.7%||3.2%|
|N Africa||Gurna Oasis||Egypt||AA/Semitic||34||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%|
|N Africa||Southern Egyptians||Egypt||AA/Semitic||69||5.8%||5.8%||0.0%||2.9%||2.9%|
|C Africa||Hausa||Nigeria (North)||AA/Chadic||10||20.0%||20.0%||0.0%||20.0%||0.0%|
|C Africa||Fulbe||Nigeria (North)||NC/Atlantic||32||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%|
|C Africa||Yoruba||Nigeria (South)||NC/Defoid||21||4.8%||4.8%||0.0%||4.8%||0.0%|
|C Africa||Ouldeme||Cameroon (Nth)||AA/Chadic||22||95.5%||95.5%||0.0%||95.5%||0.0%|
|C Africa||Mada||Cameroon (Nth)||AA/Chadic||17||82.4%||82.4%||0.0%||76.5%||5.9%|
|C Africa||Mafa||Cameroon (Nth)||AA/Chadic||8||87.5%||87.5%||0.0%||25.0%||62.5%|
|C Africa||Guiziga||Cameroon (Nth)||AA/Chadic||9||77.8%||77.8%||0.0%||22.2%||55.6%|
|C Africa||Daba||Cameroon (Nth)||AA/Chadic||19||42.1%||42.1%||0.0%||36.8%||5.3%|
|C Africa||Guidar||Cameroon (Nth)||AA/Chadic||9||66.7%||66.7%||0.0%||22.2%||44.4%|
|C Africa||Massa||Cameroon (Nth)||AA/Chadic||7||28.6%||28.6%||0.0%||14.3%||14.3%|
|C Africa||Other Chadic||Cameroon (Nth)||AA/Chadic||4||75.0%||75.0%||0.0%||25.0%||50.0%|
|C Africa||Shuwa Arabs||Cameroon (Nth)||AA/Semitic||5||40.0%||40.0%||0.0%||40.0%||0.0%|
|C Africa||Kanuri||Cameroon (Nth)||NS/Saharan||7||14.3%||14.3%||0.0%||14.3%||0.0%|
|C Africa||Fulbe||Cameroon (Nth)||NC/Atlantic||18||11.1%||11.1%||0.0%||5.6%||5.6%|
|C Africa||Moundang||Cameroon (Nth)||NC/Adamawa||21||66.7%||66.7%||0.0%||14.3%||52.4%|
|C Africa||Fali||Cameroon (Nth)||NC/Adamawa||48||20.8%||20.8%||0.0%||10.4%||10.4%|
|C Africa||Tali||Cameroon (Nth)||NC/Adamawa||22||9.1%||9.1%||0.0%||4.5%||4.5%|
|C Africa||Mboum||Cameroon (Nth)||NC/Adamawa||9||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%|
|C Africa||Composite||Cameroon (Sth)||NC/Bantu||90||0.0%||1.1%||0.0%||1.1%||0.0%|
|C Africa||Biaka Pygmies||CAR||NC/Bantu||33||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%|
Two branches of R-V88, R-M18 and R-V35, are found almost exclusively on the island of Sardinia.
As can be seen in the above data table, R-V88 is found in northern Cameroon in west central Africa at a very high frequency, where it is considered to be caused by a pre-Islamic movement of people from Eurasia. On the other hand, Gonzalez et al. (2013) found that patterns of diversity in African R1b-V88 did not fit with a movement of Chadic-speaking people from the North across the Sahara to West-Central Africa, but was compatible with the reverse, an origin of the V88 lineages in Central-West Africa, followed by migration to North Africa.
The other primary branch of R1b1 is R-PH155 (R1b1b), which is extremely rare and defined by the presence of PH155. Living males carrying subclades of R-PH155 have been found in Bahrain, Bhutan, Ladakh, Tajikistan, Turkey, Xinjiang, and Yunnan. ISOGG (2017) cites two primary branches: R-M335 (R1b1b1) and R-PH200 (R1b1b2).
The defining SNP of R1b1b1, M335, was first documented in 2004, when an example was discovered in Turkey, though it was classified at that time as R1b4. Other examples of R-M335 have been reported in a sample of Hui from Yunnan, China and in a sample of people from Ladakh, India. In commercial testing of Y-DNA, R-M335 has been found in individuals who have reported paternal ancestry in Germany and Italy (including Arbëreshë).
Examples of the other subclade of R-PH155, i.e. R1b1b2-PH200, have been found in individuals from Turkey (Konya and Gaziantep, with at least the latter reporting Armenian ethnicity), Bahrain, and Bhutan.
Other examples of R-PH155, with precise subclade unresolved, have been found in a Tajik in Tajikistan and in a Uyghur in academic studies and in an individual who has reported paternal ancestry in Varanasi, India in commercial testing.
Historic people of R1b
The following are historic people or dynasties that may belong to the R1b haplogroup, as suggested by the testing descendants or other relatives:
In popular culture
- Bryan Sykes, in his 2006 book Blood of the Isles, gives the members – and the notional founding patriarch – of R1b the name "Oisín".
- Stephen Oppenheimer, in his 2007 book Origins of the British, gives the R1b patriarch the Basque name "Ruisko" in honour of what Oppenheimer believed to be the Iberian origin of R1b.
- A filmmaker named Artem Lukichev created (circa 2009), a 14-minute animated film based on a Bashkir epic from the Ural Mountains, relating the epic to the emergence and geographical expansion of R1a and R1b.
- DNA tests that assisted in the identification of Czar Nicholas II of Russia found that he belonged to R1b. This may suggest that the later Czars of the House of Romanov, descended in the male line from the House of Holstein-Gottorp (which originated in Schleswig-Holstein) are also members of R1b.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haplogroup R1b of Y-DNA.|
|Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2 [χ 6]|
|L||T||K2a [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|K-M2313 [χ 10]||K2b1 [χ 11]||P [χ 12]|
|NO||S [χ 13]||M [χ 14]||P1||P2|
- "ISOGG 2017 Y-DNA Haplogroup R". isogg.org.
- Jeong C (2018). "Characterizing the genetic history of admixture across inner Eurasia". bioRxiv 10.1101/327122. doi:10.1101/327122. Cite journal requires
- Haak W, Lazaridis I, Patterson N, Rohland N, Mallick S, Llamas B, et al. (June 2015). "Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe". Nature. 522 (7555): 207–11. arXiv:1502.02783. Bibcode:2015Natur.522..207H. bioRxiv 10.1101/013433. doi:10.1038/NATURE14317. PMC 5048219. PMID 25731166.
- Allentoft ME, Sikora M, Sjögren KG, Rasmussen S, Rasmussen M, Stenderup J, et al. (June 2015). "Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia". Nature. 522 (7555): 167–72. Bibcode:2015Natur.522..167A. doi:10.1038/nature14507. PMID 26062507.
- Mathieson I, Lazaridis I, Rohland N, Mallick S, Patterson N, Roodenberg SA, et al. (2015). "Eight thousand years of natural selection in Europe". bioRxiv: 016477. doi:10.1101/016477.
- Cassidy LM, Martiniano R, Murphy EM, Teasdale MD, Mallory J, Hartwell B, Bradley DG (January 2016). "Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (2): 368–73. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113..368C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1518445113. PMC 4720318. PMID 26712024.
- Martiniano R, Cassidy LM, Ó'Maoldúin R, McLaughlin R, Silva NM, Manco L, et al. (July 2017). "The population genomics of archaeological transition in west Iberia: Investigation of ancient substructure using imputation and haplotype-based methods". PLoS Genetics. 13 (7): e1006852. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006852. PMC 5531429. PMID 28749934.
- Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274.
- Fu Q, Posth C, Hajdinjak M, Petr M, Mallick S, Fernandes D, et al. (June 2016). "The genetic history of Ice Age Europe". Nature. 534 (7606): 200–5. Bibcode:2016Natur.534..200F. doi:10.1038/nature17993. hdl:10211.3/198594. PMC 4943878. PMID 27135931.
- Mathieson 2018, Supplementary Table 1, Row 467.
- Mathieson 2018, Supplementary Table 1, Rows 251-272.
- Jones 2017.
- Mathieson 2018, Supplementary Table 1, Rows 205-245.
- Mathieson 2018, Supplementary Table 1.
- Mathieson 2018, pp. 2-3.
- González-Fortes et al. 2017, pp. 8-9.
- González-Fortes et al. 2017, p. 4, Table 1, OC1_Meso.
- Sánchez-Quinto et al. 2019, Extended Dataset 1.3, OC1.
- Mathieson 2018, Supplementary Table 1, Row 298, I4666.
- Mathieson 2018, Supplementary Table 1, Row 153, I0124.
- Mathieson 2018, Supplementary Table 1, Row 375, I0122.
- Haak 2015, Supplementary Information, pp. 26-27.
- Haak 2015, Extended Data Table 2, I0410.
- Haak 2015, Supplementary Information, pp. 44-45.
- Mathieson 2018, Supplementary Table 1, I0410.
- Mathieson 2018, Supplementary Table 1, Row 73, I2430.
- Marcus et al. 2020, Supplementary Data 1, A Master Table, Row 25, MA89.
- Lipson et al. 2017, Sup Table 1, Sample Information, Row 121, Bla16.
- Mathieson 2018, Supplementary Table 1, Row 128, I0559.
- de Barros Damgaard P, Martiniano R, Kamm J, Moreno-Mayar JV, Kroonen G, Peyrot M, et al. (June 2018). "The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia". Science. 360 (6396): eaar7711. doi:10.1126/science.aar7711. PMC 6748862. PMID 29743352.
- Narasimhan et al. 2019, Table S1.
- Hollard et al. 2018, pp. 6-7.
- Onalde et al. 2019, Supplementary Table 4.
- Myres NM, Rootsi S, Lin AA, Järve M, King RJ, Kutuev I, et al. (January 2011). "A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics. 19 (1): 95–101. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.146. PMC 3039512. PMID 20736979.
- Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Sudoyo H, Lansing JS, Hammer MF (March 2015). "Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia". European Journal of Human Genetics. 23 (3): 369–73. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.106. PMC 4326703. PMID 24896152.
- Lacan M, Keyser C, Ricaut FX, Brucato N, Duranthon F, Guilaine J, et al. (June 2011). "Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (24): 9788–91. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.9788L. doi:10.1073/pnas.1100723108. PMC 3116412. PMID 21628562.
- Haak W, Balanovsky O, Sanchez JJ, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, Adler CJ, et al. (November 2010). Penny D (ed.). "Ancient DNA from European early neolithic farmers reveals their near eastern affinities". PLoS Biology. 8 (11): e1000536. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536. PMC 2976717. PMID 21085689.
- Olalde I, Brace S, Allentoft ME, Armit I, Kristiansen K, Booth T, et al. (March 2018). "The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe". Nature. 555 (7695): 190–196. Bibcode:2018Natur.555..190O. doi:10.1038/nature25738. PMC 5973796. PMID 29466337.
- Fu Q, Posth C, Hajdinjak M, Petr M, Mallick S, Fernandes D, et al. (June 2016). "The genetic history of Ice Age Europe". Nature. 534 (7606): 200–5. Bibcode:2016Natur.534..200F. doi:10.1038/nature17993. PMC 4943878. PMID 27135931.
- D'Atanasio E, Trombetta B, Bonito M, Finocchio A, Di Vito G, Seghizzi M, et al. (February 2018). "The peopling of the last Green Sahara revealed by high-coverage resequencing of trans-Saharan patrilineages". Genome Biology. 19 (1): 20. doi:10.1186/s13059-018-1393-5. PMC 5809971. PMID 29433568.
- Marcus JH, Posth C, Ringbauer H, Lai L, Skeates R, Sidore C, et al. (February 2020). "Genetic history from the Middle Neolithic to present on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 939. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14523-6. PMID 32094358.
- Cinnioğlu C, King R, Kivisild T, Kalfoğlu E, Atasoy S, Cavalleri GL, et al. (January 2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia" (PDF). Human Genetics. 114 (2): 127–48. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-19.
- "ISOGG 2016 Y-DNA Haplogroup R". isogg.org.
- "R-V1636 YTree". www.yfull.com.
- Grugni V, Battaglia V, Hooshiar Kashani B, Parolo S, Al-Zahery N, Achilli A, et al. (July 18, 2012). "Ancient migratory events in the Middle East: new clues from the Y-chromosome variation of modern Iranians". PLOS ONE. 7 (7): e41252. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...741252G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041252. PMC 3399854. PMID 22815981.
- Lkhagvasuren G, Shin H, Lee SE, Tumen D, Kim JH, Kim KY, et al. (September 14, 2016). "Molecular Genealogy of a Mongol Queen's Family and Her Possible Kinship with Genghis Khan". PLOS ONE. 11 (9): e0161622. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1161622L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161622. PMC 5023095. PMID 27627454.
- Adams SM, King TE, Bosch E, Jobling MA (May 2006). "The case of the unreliable SNP: recurrent back-mutation of Y-chromosomal marker P25 through gene conversion". Forensic Science International. 159 (1): 14–20. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.06.003. hdl:2381/443. PMID 16026953.
- Cruciani F, Trombetta B, Sellitto D, Massaia A, Destro-Bisol G, Watson E, et al. (July 2010). "Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages". European Journal of Human Genetics. 18 (7): 800–7. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.231. PMC 2987365. PMID 20051990.
- Varzari A (2006). "Population History of the Dniester-Carpathians: Evidence from Alu Insertion and Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms" (PDF). Dissertation der Fakultät für Biologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
- Malyarchuk B, Derenko M, Denisova G, Maksimov A, Wozniak M, Grzybowski T, et al. (August 2011). "Ancient links between Siberians and Native Americans revealed by subtyping the Y chromosome haplogroup Q1a". Journal of Human Genetics. 56 (8): 583–8. doi:10.1038/jhg.2011.64. PMID 21677663.
- Dulik MC, Zhadanov SI, Osipova LP, Askapuli A, Gau L, Gokcumen O, et al. (February 2012). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome variation provides evidence for a recent common ancestry between Native Americans and Indigenous Altaians". American Journal of Human Genetics. 90 (2): 229–46. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.014. PMC 3276666. PMID 22281367.
- Behar DM, Yunusbayev B, Metspalu M, Metspalu E, Rosset S, Parik J, et al. (July 2010). "The genome-wide structure of the Jewish people". Nature. 466 (7303): 238–42. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..238B. doi:10.1038/nature09103. PMID 20531471.
- Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, Mehdi SQ, Edmonds CA, Chow CE, et al. (February 2006). "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists". American Journal of Human Genetics. 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607.
- Di Cristofaro J, Pennarun E, Mazières S, Myres NM, Lin AA, Temori SA, et al. (2013). "Afghan Hindu Kush: where Eurasian sub-continent gene flows converge". PLOS ONE. 8 (10): e76748. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...876748D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076748. PMC 3799995. PMID 24204668.
- Lippold S, Xu H, Ko A, Li M, Renaud G, Butthof A, et al. (2014). "Human paternal and maternal demographic histories: insights from high-resolution Y chromosome and mtDNA sequences". Investigative Genetics. 5: 13. doi:10.1186/2041-2223-5-13. PMC 4174254. PMID 25254093.
- Karafet TM, Osipova LP, Savina OV, Hallmark B, Hammer MF (November 2018). "Siberian genetic diversity reveals complex origins of the Samoyedic-speaking populations". American Journal of Human Biology. 30 (6): e23194. doi:10.1002/ajhb.23194. PMID 30408262.
- Ashirbekov EE, Botbaev DM, Belkozhaev AM, Abayldaev AO, Neupokoeva AS, Mukhataev JE, et al. (2017). "Distribution of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups of the Kazakh from the South Kazakhstan, Zhambyl, and Almaty Regions". Reports of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 6 (316): 85–95. ISSN 2224-5227.
- Shuhu LI, Yilihamu NI, Bake RA, Bupatima AB, Matyusup DO (2018). "A study of genetic diversity of three isolated populations in Xinjiang using Y-SNP". Acta Anthropologica Sinica. 37 (1): 146–56. doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2017.0067.
- R1b1a1a2 (R-M269) was previously R1b1a2, From 2003 to 2005, what is now R1b1a2 was designated R1b3. From 2005 to 2008, it was R1b1c. From 2008 to 2011, it was R1b1b2.
- Balaresque P, Bowden GR, Adams SM, Leung HY, King TE, Rosser ZH, et al. (January 2010). Penny D (ed.). "A predominantly neolithic origin for European paternal lineages". PLoS Biology. 8 (1): e1000285. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000285. PMC 2799514. PMID 20087410.
- Haak W, Lazaridis I (February 10, 2015). "Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe". bioRxiv 10.1101/013433.
- Arredi B, Poloni ES, Tyler-Smith C (2007). "The peopling of Europe". In Crawford MH (ed.). Anthropological genetics: theory, methods and applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-521-54697-3.
- Cruciani F, Trombetta B, Antonelli C, Pascone R, Valesini G, Scalzi V, et al. (June 2011). "Strong intra- and inter-continental differentiation revealed by Y chromosome SNPs M269, U106 and U152". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 5 (3): e49-52. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2010.07.006. PMID 20732840.
- Peter A. Underhill, Peidong Shen, Alice A. Lin et al., "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations", Nature Genetics, Volume 26, November 2000
- Lobov AS (2009). Structure of the Gene Pool of Bashkir Subpopulations (PDF) (Ph.D. thesis) (in Russian). Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics of the Ufa Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-16.
- Ordóñez AC, Fregel R, Trujillo-Mederos A, Hervella M, de-la-Rúa C, Arnay-de-la-Rosa M (2017). "Genetic studies on the prehispanic population buried in Punta Azul cave (El Hierro, Canary Islands)". Journal of Archaeological Science. 78: 20–28. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.004.
- Robino C, Crobu F, Di Gaetano C, Bekada A, Benhamamouch S, Cerutti N, et al. (May 2008). "Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 122 (3): 251–5. doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0203-5. PMID 17909833.
- Wood ET, Stover DA, Ehret C, Destro-Bisol G, Spedini G, McLeod H, et al. (July 2005). "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes" (PDF). European Journal of Human Genetics. 13 (7): 867–76. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201408. PMID 15856073. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 26, 2008.
- Yepiskoposian L, Khudoyan A, Harutyunian A (2006). "Genetic Testing of Language Replacement Hypothesis in Southwest Asia". Iran and the Caucasus. 10 (2): 191–208. doi:10.1163/157338406780345899. JSTOR 4030922.
- Трофимова Натал'я Вадимовна (Feb. 2015), "Изменчивость Митохондриальной ДНК и Y-Хромосомы в Популяциях Волго-Уральского Региона" Archived 2017-04-02 at the Wayback Machine ("Mitochondrial DNA variation and the Y-chromosome in the population of the Volga-Ural Region"). Автореферат. диссертации на соискание ученой степени кандидата биологических наук. Уфа – 2015.
- Herrera KJ, Lowery RK, Hadden L, Calderon S, Chiou C, Yepiskoposyan L, et al. (March 2012). "Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists". European Journal of Human Genetics. 20 (3): 313–20. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.192. PMC 3286660. PMID 22085901.
- Vanek D, Saskova L, Koch H (June 2009). "Kinship and Y-chromosome analysis of 7th century human remains: novel DNA extraction and typing procedure for ancient material". Croatian Medical Journal. 3. 50 (3): 286–95. doi:10.3325/cmj.2009.50.286. PMC 2702742. PMID 19480023.
- Flores et. al. (2005) found that 20 out of all 146 men tested (13.7%) – including 20 out of 45 men tested from the Dead Sea area of Jordan – were positive for M173 (R1), and negative for both the R1a markers SRY10831.2 and M17, as well as P25 (which was later discovered to be an unreliable marker for R1b1), a study  indicates that they are mostly R-V88 (later known as R1b1a2). Wood et al. (2005) also reported two Egyptian cases of R1* (R-M173*) that were negative for SRY10831 (R1a1) and the unreliable R1b1 marker P25, out of a sample of 1,122 males from African countries, including 92 from Egypt. Hassan et al. (2008) found an equally surprising 14 out of 26 (54%) of Sudanese Fula people who were M173+ and P25-
- Flores C, Maca-Meyer N, Larruga JM, Cabrera VM, Karadsheh N, Gonzalez AM (2005). "Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan". Journal of Human Genetics. 50 (9): 435–441. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0274-4. PMID 16142507.
- Hassan HY, Underhill PA, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Ibrahim ME (November 2008). "Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: restricted gene flow, concordance with language, geography, and history" (PDF). American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 137 (3): 316–23. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20876. PMID 18618658. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-04.
- Cruciani F, Santolamazza P, Shen P, Macaulay V, Moral P, Olckers A, et al. (May 2002). "A back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome haplotypes". American Journal of Human Genetics. 70 (5): 1197–214. doi:10.1086/340257. PMC 447595. PMID 11910562., pp. 13–14
- González M, Gomes V, López-Parra AM, Amorim A, Carracedo A, Sánchez-Diz P, et al. (March 2013). "The genetic landscape of Equatorial Guinea and the origin and migration routes of the Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88". European Journal of Human Genetics. 21 (3): 324–31. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.167. PMC 3573200. PMID 22892526.
- Contu D, Morelli L, Santoni F, Foster JW, Francalacci P, Cucca F (January 2008). "Y-chromosome based evidence for pre-neolithic origin of the genetically homogeneous but diverse Sardinian population: inference for association scans". PLOS ONE. 3 (1): e1430. Bibcode:2008PLoSO...3.1430C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001430. PMC 2174525. PMID 18183308.
- Zalloua PA, Xue Y, Khalife J, Makhoul N, Debiane L, Platt DE, et al. (April 2008). "Y-chromosomal diversity in Lebanon is structured by recent historical events". American Journal of Human Genetics. 82 (4): 873–82. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.01.020. PMC 2427286. PMID 18374297.
- Zhong H, Shi H, Qi XB, Duan ZY, Tan PP, Jin L, et al. (January 2011). "Extended Y chromosome investigation suggests postglacial migrations of modern humans into East Asia via the northern route". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28 (1): 717–27. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq247. PMID 20837606.
- Rowold DJ, Perez Benedico D, Garcia-Bertrand R, Chennakrishnaiah S, Alfonso-Sanchez MA, Gayden T, Herrera RJ (March 2016). "Ladakh, India: the land of high passes and genetic heterogeneity reveals a confluence of migrations". European Journal of Human Genetics. 24 (3): 442–9. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.80. PMC 4755386. PMID 25966630.
- "FamilyTreeDNA - R1b Basal Subclades".
- Larmuseau MH, Delorme P, Germain P, Vanderheyden N, Gilissen A, Van Geystelen A, et al. (May 2014). "Genetic genealogy reveals true Y haplogroup of House of Bourbon contradicting recent identification of the presumed remains of two French Kings". European Journal of Human Genetics. 22 (5): 681–7. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.211. PMC 3992573. PMID 24105374.
- Marks K (2010-02-04). "Darwin family DNA shows African origin". NZ Herald. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 2020-07-16.
- Lkhagvasuren G, Shin H, Lee SE, Tumen D, Kim JH, Kim KY, et al. (2016-09-14). "Molecular Genealogy of a Mongol Queen's Family and Her Possible Kinship with Genghis Khan". PloS One. 11 (9): e0161622. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161622. PMC 5023095. PMID 27627454.
- "About R1a and R1b from Ural epic story. Artem Lukichev (c)" – via www.youtube.com.
- Coble MD, Loreille OM, Wadhams MJ, Edson SM, Maynard K, Meyer CE, et al. (2009). "Mystery solved: the identification of the two missing Romanov children using DNA analysis". PLOS ONE. 4 (3): e4838. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.4838C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004838. PMC 2652717. PMID 19277206.
- Jones ER, Zarina G, Moiseyev V, Lightfoot E, Nigst PR, Manica A, et al. (February 2017). "The Neolithic Transition in the Baltic Was Not Driven by Admixture with Early European Farmers". Current Biology. 27 (4): 576–582. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.12.060. PMC 5321670. PMID 28162894.
- González-Fortes G, Jones ER, Lightfoot E, Bonsall C, Lazar C, Grandal-d'Anglade A, et al. (June 2017). "Paleogenomic Evidence for Multi-generational Mixing between Neolithic Farmers and Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherers in the Lower Danube Basin". Current Biology. 27 (12): 1801–1810.e10. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.05.023. PMC 5483232. PMID 28552360.
- Haak W, Lazaridis I, Patterson N, Rohland N, Mallick S, Llamas B, et al. (June 2015). "Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe". Nature. 522 (7555): 207–11. doi:10.1038/nature14317. PMC 5048219. PMID 25731166.
- Hollard C, Zvénigorosky V, Kovalev A, Kiryushin Y, Tishkin A, Lazaretov I, et al. (September 2018). "New genetic evidence of affinities and discontinuities between bronze age Siberian populations". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 167 (1): 97–107. doi:10.1002/ajpa.23607. PMID 29900529.
- Lipson M, Szécsényi-Nagy A, Mallick S, Pósa A, Stégmár B, Keerl V, et al. (November 2017). "Parallel palaeogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early European farmers". Nature. 551 (7680): 368–372. doi:10.1038/nature24476. PMC 5973800. PMID 29144465.
- Marcus JH, Posth C, Ringbauer H, Lai L, Skeates R, Sidore C, et al. (February 2020). "Genetic history from the Middle Neolithic to present on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 939. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14523-6. PMC 7039977. PMID 32094358.
- Mathieson I, Alpaslan-Roodenberg S, Posth C, Szécsényi-Nagy A, Rohland N, Mallick S, et al. (March 2018). "The genomic history of southeastern Europe". Nature. 555 (7695): 197–203. doi:10.1038/nature25778. PMC 6091220. PMID 29466330.
- Narasimhan VM, Patterson N, Moorjani P, Rohland N, Bernardos R, Mallick S, et al. (September 2019). "The formation of human populations in South and Central Asia". Science. 365 (6457). doi:10.1126/science.aat7487. PMC 6822619. PMID 31488661.
- Olalde I, Brace S, Allentoft ME, Armit I, Kristiansen K, Booth T, et al. (March 2018). "The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe". Nature. 555 (7695): 190–196. doi:10.1038/nature25738. PMC 5973796. PMID 29466337.
- Sánchez-Quinto F, Malmström H, Fraser M, Girdland-Flink L, Svensson EM, Simões LG, et al. (May 2019). "Megalithic tombs in western and northern Neolithic Europe were linked to a kindred society". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116 (19): 9469–9474. doi:10.1073/pnas.1818037116. PMC 6511028. PMID 30988179.
- Fu Q, Posth C, Hajdinjak M, Petr M, Mallick S, Fernandes D, et al. (June 2016). "The genetic history of Ice Age Europe". Nature. 534 (7606): 200–5. Bibcode:2016Natur.534..200F. doi:10.1038/nature17993. PMC 4943878. PMID 27135931.
- R1b-YDNA discussion group Yahoo! Groups;