Haplogroup R0 (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup R0
Possible time of origin23,600 to 54,900 YBP[1]
Possible place of originMiddle East
AncestorR
DescendantsR0a, HV
Defining mutations73, 11719[2]

Haplogroup R0 (formerly known as haplogroup pre-HV[3]) is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Origin[edit]

Haplogroup R0 derives from the macro-haplogroup R. It is an ancestral clade to the R0a subclade and haplogroup HV, and is therefore antecedent to the haplogroups H and V.

R0's greater subclade variety in the Arabian Peninsula suggests that the clade originated in and spread from there.

R0a is believed to have evolved in Ice Age oases in South Arabia around 22,000 years ago. The subclade would then have spread from there with the onset of the Late Glacial period circa 15,000 ybp.[4]

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup R0 has been found in around 55% of osteological remains belonging to the Eneolithic Trypillia culture.[5]

The R0 clade has also been found among Iberomaurusian specimens at the Taforalt and Afalou prehistoric sites, which date from the Epipaleolithic. Among the Taforalt individuals, around 17% of the observed haplotypes belonged to various R0 subclades, including R0a1a (3/24; 13%) and R0a2c (1/24; 4%). Among the Afalou individuals, one R0a1a haplotype was detected (1/9; 11%).[6]

R0 has likewise been observed among ancient Egyptian mummies excavated at the Abusir el-Meleq archaeological site in Middle Egypt, which date from the Pre-Ptolemaic/late New Kingdom, Ptolemaic, and Roman periods.[7]

The 3rd century AD Catholic Church Saint, Fortunato of Serracapriola, was also found to carry the R0a'b subclade.[8]

R0 today occurs commonly in the Arabian peninsula, with its highest frequency observed nearby among the Soqotri (40.7%).[9] The Soqotri also have the greatest R0 subclade diversity.[10] The clade is likewise found at high frequencies among the Kalash in South Asia (23%).[11] Additionally, moderate frequencies of R0 occur in Northeast Africa, Anatolia, the Iranian Plateau and Dalmatia. The haplogroup has been observed among Chad Arabs (19%),[12] Copts (13.8%),[13] Tigrais (13.6%),[9] Somalis (13.3%),[9] Oromos (13.3%),[9] Afar (12.5%),[9] Amhara (11.5%),[9] Gurage (10%),[9] Reguibate Sahrawi (9.26%; 0.93% R0a and 8.33% R0a1a),[14] Gaalien (9%),[13] Beja (8.3%),[13] Nubians (8%),[9] Arakien (5.9%),[13] Yemenis (5.1–27.7%),[9] Iraqis (4.8%),[9] Druze (4.3%),[9] Palestinians (4%),[9] Algerians (1.67%),[14] and Saudis (0–25%).[9]

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of haplogroup R0 subclades
Projected spatial frequency distribution of haplogroup R0a. Most common in the Arabian peninsula, with a peak in nearby Socotra (~40%; see observed frequencies above)

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup R0 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • R
    • R0 (or pre-HV)
      • R0a (or (pre-HV)1)
        • R0a1 or (pre-HV)1a
          • R0a1a
        • 60.1T
          • R0a2 or (pre-HV)1b
            • R0a2a
            • R0a2b
            • R0a2c
            • R0a2d
            • R0a2e
        • HV
          • HV0
          • HV1
          • 73
          • HV4
          • HV5
          • H

See also[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6  
L1 L2   L3     L4 L5 L6
M N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT   P   U
HV JT K
H V J T

References[edit]

  1. ^ Soares, P; Ermini, L; Thomson, N; Mormina, M; Rito, T; Röhl, A; Salas, A; Oppenheimer, S; et al. (2009). "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". American Journal of Human Genetics. 84 (6): 740–59. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773.
  2. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation. 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  3. ^ Haplogroup H Sub-clades, Family Tree DNA
  4. ^ Francesca Gandini; Alessandro Achilli; Maria Pala; Martin Bodner; Stefania Brandini; Gabriela Huber; Balazs Egyed; Luca Ferretti; Alberto Gómez-Carballa; Antonio Salas; Rosaria Scozzari; Fulvio Cruciani; Alfredo Coppa; Walther Parson; Ornella Semino; Pedro Soares; Antonio Torroni; Martin B. Richards; Anna Olivieri (5 May 2016). "Mapping human dispersals into the Horn of Africa from Arabian Ice Age refugia using mitogenomes". Scientific Reports. 6: 25472. doi:10.1038/srep25472. PMC 4857117. PMID 27146119. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  5. ^ Nikitin, Alexey G.; Sokhatsky, Mykhailo P.; Kovaliukh, Mykola M.; Videiko, Mykhailo Y. (14 April 2011). "Comprehensive Site Chronology and Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Analysis from Verteba Cave – a Trypillian Culture Site of Eneolithic Ukraine" (PDF). Interdisciplinaria Archaeologica – Natural Sciences in Archaeology. Archaeological Centre Olomouc, Government Funded Organisation (1–2): 9–18. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
  6. ^ Kefi, Rym; et al. (2016). "On the origin of Iberomaurusians: new data based on ancient mitochondrial DNA and phylogenetic analysis of Afalou and Taforalt populations". Mitochondrial DNA Part A: 1–11. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  7. ^ Schuenemann, Verena J.; et al. (2017). "Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods". Nature Communications. 8: 15694. doi:10.1038/ncomms15694. PMC 5459999. PMID 28556824.
  8. ^ Francesco Sessa, Gabriela Perilli, Amos Tambo, Mohsin Roshan, Luigi Cipolloni, Christian Zammit, Cristoforo Pomara, Monica Salerno (January 2017). "Faith and Forensic: A Case Study" (PDF). Journal of Forensic Sciences & Criminal Investigation. 1 (3).
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Non, Amy. "ANALYSES OF GENETIC DATA WITHIN AN INTERDISCIPLINARY FRAMEWORK TO INVESTIGATE RECENT HUMAN EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY AND COMPLEX DISEASE" (PDF). University of Florida. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  10. ^ Černý, Viktor; et al. (2009). "Out of Arabia—the settlement of island Soqotra as revealed by mitochondrial and Y chromosome genetic diversity" (PDF). American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 138 (4): 439–447. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20960. PMID 19012329. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  11. ^ Quintana-Murci L, et al. (2004). "Where West Meets East: The Complex mtDNA Landscape of the Southwest and Central Asian Corridor" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 74: 2004. doi:10.1086/383236. PMC 1181978. PMID 15077202.
  12. ^ Cerezo, María; et al. (2011). "New insights into the Lake Chad Basin population structure revealed by high-throughput genotyping of mitochondrial DNA coding SNPs". PLOS ONE. 6 (4): e18682. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018682. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  13. ^ a b c d Mohamed, Hisham Yousif Hassan. "Genetic Patterns of Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation, with Implications to the Peopling of the Sudan" (PDF). University of Khartoum. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
  14. ^ a b Asmahan Bekada; Lara R. Arauna; Tahria Deba; Francesc Calafell; Soraya Benhamamouch; David Comas (September 24, 2015). "Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations". PLoS ONE. 10 (9): e0138453. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138453. PMC 4581715. PMID 26402429. Retrieved 28 April 2016.; S5 Table

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