Haplogroup R2a

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Haplogroup R2a
R2, Y-DNA haplogroup.jpg
Possible time of origin 12,000 years BP
Possible place of origin South Asia or Central Asia
Ancestor R-M479
Descendants R-M124*, R-L295, R-L263, R-L1069
Defining mutations M124, P249, P267, L266 [1][2]

Haplogroup R2a, or haplogroup R-M124, is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic markers M124, P249, P267, L266, and is mainly found in South Asia, parts of Central and West Asia.

Term history[edit]

Haplogoup R2a is also known as haplogroup R-M124.[1] The first reference to the newly defined haplogroup, "R-M124", was on the 25th of August 2010.[3]

Before the publication of the 2005 Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree, Haplogroup R-M124 was known as Haplogroup P1 and formerly thought to be a sister clade of Haplogroup R rather than derived from it.[4]

At least 90% of R-M124 individuals are located in the Indian sub-continent.[4] It is also reported in Caucasus and Central Asia at lower frequency..


According to Sengupta et al. (2006),

uncertainty neutralizes previous conclusions that the intrusion of HGs R1a1 and R2 [Now R-M124] from the northwest in Dravidian-speaking southern tribes is attributable to a single recent event. Rather, these HGs contain considerable demographic complexity, as implied by their high haplotype diversity. Specifically, they could have actually arrived in southern India from a southwestern Asian source region multiple times, with some episodes considerably earlier than others.


Haplogroup R-M124 

 Paragroup R-M124*

 Haplogroup R-L295

 Haplogroup R-L263

 Haplogroup R-L1069

Paragroup R-M124*[edit]

Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers. They are typically represented by an asterisk (*) placed after the main haplogroup.

Y-chromosomes which are positive to the M124, P249, P267, and L266 SNPs and negative to the L295, L263, and L1069 SNPs, are categorized as belonging to Paragroup R-M124*.

Haplogroup R-L295[edit]

Haplogroup R-L295 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic marker L295. It is found in South Asia, Anatolia, Arabian Peninsula, Europe, & Central Asia so far.

Haplogroup R-L263[edit]

Haplogroup R-L263 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic marker L263. It is found in Greek Asia Minor & Armenia so far.[5]

Haplogroup R-L1069[edit]

Haplogroup R-L1069 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic marker L1069. It is found in Kuwait so far.[5]


At least 90% of R-M124 individuals are located in the Indian sub-continent.[4] It is also reported in Caucasus and Central Asia.

South Asia[edit]

Frequency of R-M124 in Social and Linguistic Subgroups of Indian Populations
(Source: Sengupta et al. 2006)
Tibeto-Burman Austro-Asiatic Dravidian Indo-European
Tribe 5.75% 10.94% 5.00% -
Lower Caste - - 13.79% 10.00%
Middle Caste - - 3.53% 18.75%
Upper Caste - - 10.17% 16.28%

Haplogroup R-M124, along with haplogroups H, L, R1a1, and J2, forms the majority of the South Asian male population. The frequency is around 10-15% in India and Sri Lanka and 7-8% in Pakistan. Its spread within South Asia is very extensive, ranging from Baluchistan in the west to Bengal in the east; Hunza in the north to Sri Lanka in the south.

North Indian Muslims have a frequency of 11% (Sunni) and 9% (Shia), while Dawoodi Bohra Muslim in the western state of Gujarat have a frequency of 16% and Mappla Muslims of South India have a frequency of 5%.[6] The R-M124 haplogroup is also found in 14% of the Burusho people who speak the language isolate called Burushaski.[7]

Some of the other studies like Bamshad et al., 2001, Kivisild et al., 2003 found Haplogroup 1(the old representation for non-R1a1 Haplogroup R subclades) at around 40% among Telugus of coastal Andhra Pradesh. The identification of this Haplogroup with R-M124 is confirmed from Sanghamitra Sahoo et al., 2006 study which observed R-M124 ranging from 35% to 55% among non-Brahmin castes of this region.

Haplogroup R-M124 comprises 53% of Y-chromosomes among Sinti, a subgroup of the Romani people living in Germany who were relocated to Central Asia, however the sample size was only 15 individuals. This Romani branch has its ancient roots in India.

Central Asia[edit]

In Central Asia, Tajikistan shows Haplogroup R-M124 at 6%, while the other '-stan' states vary around 2%. Bartangis of Tajikistan have a high frequency of R-M124 at about 17%, Ishkashimi at 8%, Khojant at 9% and Dushanbe at 6%.

Specifically, Haplogroup R-M124 has been found in approximately 7.5% (4/53) of recent Iranian emigrants living in Samarkand,[8] 7.1% (7/99) of Pamiris,[8] 6.8% (3/44) of Karakalpaks,[8] 5.1% (4/78) of Tajiks,[8] 5% (2/40) of Dungans in Kyrgyzstan,[8] 3.3% (1/30) of Turkmens,[8] 2.2% (8/366) of Uzbeks,[8] and 1.9% (1/54) of Kazakhs.[8]

West Asia[edit]

The haplogroup R-M124 frequency of %6.1 was found among Kurds.[9]

An R-M124 frequency of 15.8% was observed among Chechens.[10] R-M124 has been found in approximately 8% (2/24) of a sample of Ossetians from Alagir.[11]

In the Caucasus, around 16% of Mountain Jews, 8% of Balkarians,[12] 6% of Kalmyks,[13] 3% of Azerbaijanis,[10] 2.6% of Kumyks,[14] 2.4% of Avars,[14] 2% of Armenians,[10] and 1% to 6% of Georgians[10][12][15] belong to the R-M124 haplogroup. Approximately 1% of Turks[16] and 1% to 3% of Iranians[17] also belong to this haplogroup.

Arab World[edit]

Frequency of Haplogroup R-M124 in the Arab World from DNA studies
Count Sample Size R-M124 Frequency %
UAE[18] 8 217 3.69%
Qatar[19] 1 72 1.39%
Kuwait[20] 1 153 0.65%
Yemen[19] 1 104 0.96%
Jordan[21] 2 146 1.37%
Lebanon[22] 2 935 0.21%
Palestine[23] 1 49 2.04%
Egypt[24] 1 147 0.68%

In the R2-M124-WTY and R-Arabia Y-DNA Projects,[5][25] Haplogroup R-M124 has appeared in the following Arab countries: Kuwait (3 clusters), United Arab Emirates (1 cluster), Syrian Arab Republic (1 cluster), and Tunisia (1 cluster).

Thus, Haplogroup R-M124 has been observed among Arabs at low frequencies in 11 countries/territories (Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine, Qatar, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen) of the 22 Arab countries/territories so far.

Position on the ISOGG tree and related SNPs[edit]

Haplogroup R-M124 is a subgroup of Haplogroup R-M479 (M479):

  • R-M479 (M479)
    • R-M124 (M124, P249, P267, L266)
      • R-L295 (L295)
      • R-L263 (L263)
      • R-L1069 (L1069)

Prediction with haplotypes[edit]

Haplotype can be used to predict haplogroup. The chances of any person part of this haplogroup is the highest if DYS391=10, DYS392=10 and DYS426=12.

See also[edit]

Y-DNA R-M207 subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO    S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
NO1    Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. doi:10.1038/ng.3559. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)


  1. ^ a b ISOGG (2010), "Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades - 2010."
  2. ^ FTDNA's Draft phylogeny tree, "FTDNA's Draft phylogeny tree."
  3. ^ Myres et al. (2010), "A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe - 2010."
  4. ^ a b c Manoukian, Jean-Grégoire (2006), "A Synthesis of Haplogroup R2 - 2006."
  5. ^ a b c R2-M124-WTY (Walk Through the Y) Project, "R2-M124-WTY (Walk Through the Y) Project."
  6. ^ Muthukrishnan Eaaswarkhanth; Ikramul Haque; Zeinab Ravesh; Irene Gallego Romero; Poorlin Ramakodi Meganathan; Bhawna Dubey; Faizan Ahmed Khan; Gyaneshwer Chaubey; Toomas Kivisild; Chris Tyler-Smith; Lalji Singh; Kumarasamy Thangaraj. "Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations". 
  7. ^ Firasat S, Khaliq S, Mohyuddin A, Papaioannou M, Tyler-Smith C, Underhill PA, Ayub Q. "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan". 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h R.Spencer Wells et al, The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity, PNAS August 28, 2001, vol. 98 no. 18, pp.10244-10249.
  9. ^ "Kurdish Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries". 
  10. ^ a b c d Nasidze I, Sarkisian T, Kerimov A, Stoneking M (Mar 2003). "Testing hypotheses of language replacement in the Caucasus: evidence from the Y-chromosome". Human Genetics. 112 (3): 255–61. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0874-4. PMID 12596050.  [1]
    Manoukian (2006)
  11. ^ I. Nasidze, D. Quinque, I. Dupanloup et al., "Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of South and North Ossetians," Annals of Human Genetics (2004) 68, 588–599
  12. ^ a b Vincenza Battaglia, Simona Fornarino, Nadia Al-Zahery et al., "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe," European Journal of Human Genetics (2008), 1 – 11
  13. ^ Ivan Nasidze, Dominique Quinque, Isabelle Dupanloup, Richard Cordaux, Lyudmila Kokshunova, and Mark Stoneking, "Genetic Evidence for the Mongolian Ancestry of Kalmyks," American Journal of Physical Anthropology 126:000–000 (2005).
  14. ^ a b Yunusbaev et al. (2006): 2/76 = 2.6% R-M124 Kumyks, 1/42 = 2.4% R-M124 Avars
  15. ^ Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, Marcikiae M, Mika A, Mika B, Primorac D, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA (Nov 2000). "The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective" (PDF). Science. 290 (5494): 1155–9. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453. 
  16. ^ Cinnioğlu et al. (2003), "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia."
  17. ^ Regueiro M, Cadenas AM, Gayden T, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ (2006). "Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration". Human Heredity. 61 (3): 132–43. doi:10.1159/000093774. PMID 16770078. 
  18. ^ Alshamali et al. (2009), "Local Population Structure in Arabian Peninsula Revealed by Y-STR Diversity."
  19. ^ a b Cadenas et al. (2007), "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman."
  20. ^ Mohammad et al. (2009), "Genetic structure of nomadic Bedouin from Kuwait."
  21. ^ Flores et al. (2005), "Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan."
  22. ^ Zalloua et al. (2008), "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events."
  23. ^ Myres et al. (2010), "A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe."
  24. ^ Luis et al. (2004), "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations."
  25. ^ R-Arabia Y-DNA Project, "R-Arabia Y-DNA Project."


External links[edit]