Haplogroup R (Y-DNA)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, see Haplogroup R (mtDNA).
Haplogroup R
Haplogroup R (Y-DNA).PNG
Possible time of origin 19,000 years BP [1]
Possible place of origin Most likely Central Asia
Ancestor P1 (P-M45)
Descendants R1 (R-M173), R2 (R-M479) (R2)
Defining mutations M207 (UTY2), P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, S4, S8, S9 and V45 (ISOGG 2010)

Haplogroup R or R-M207, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is both numerous and widespread amongst modern populations.

Some descendant subclades are common throughout Europe, Central Asia and South Asia, and also common in parts of the West Asia, Africa and North America. Others are primarily from West Asia and South Asia. This line is a descendant of haplogroup P-M45.

Origins[edit]

The SNP defining this haplogroup is believed to have arisen during the Upper Paleolithic era: about 19,000 – 34,000 years ago.(Hallast 2014) (Karafet 2008) The most likely geographical location for this is Central Asia, for two reasons:

The sole example of basal haplogroup R* has been found in the remains of a boy, known as MA-1, who lived at Mal'ta) near Lake Baikal in Siberia, 24,000 years ago.[2]

As a paper by Pille Hallast, Chiara Batini, Daniel Zadik and others put in 2014, the most recent common ancestor of all members of haplogroup R lived 19,000 years ago, "both R1a and R1b comprise young, star-like expansions" and present day Central Asian samples belong to "the deepest subclade of R1b-M269, while another, in a Bhutanese individual, forms an outgroup almost as old as the R1a/R1b split."(Hallast 2014)

Distribution[edit]

Y-haplogroup R-M207 is common throughout Europe, South Asia and Central Asia.(Kayser 2003). It also occurs in the Caucasus and Siberia. Some minorities in Africa also carry subclades of R-M207 at high frequencies.

While some indigenous peoples of The Americas and Australasia also feature high levels of R-M207, it is unclear whether these are deep-rooted, or an effect of European colonisation during the early modern era.

Subclades[edit]

According to the ISOGG Y-Tree, Haplogroup R has the following sub-clades

Paragroup R-M207[edit]

Haplogroup R* Y-DNA (xR1,R2) was found in 24,000-year-old remains from Mal'ta in Siberia near Lake Baikal.[3]

R1(R-M173)[edit]

R-M173 was historically known as R1 and has been common throughout Europe and South Asia since pre-history. It has many branches (Semino 2000 and Rosser 2000).

It is the second most common haplogroup in Indigenous peoples of the Americas following haplogroup Q-M242, especially in the Algonquian peoples of Canada and the United States (Malhi 2008). The origin of R-M173 among Native Americans is a matter of controversy:

  • some scholars claim that this is partly or wholly the result of colonial-era immigration from Europe, and not a pre-Columbian founding lineage (see e.g. Malhi 2008;
  • other authorities point to the greater similarity of many R-M173 subclades found in North America to those found in Siberia (e.g. Lell 2002 and Raghavan 2013), suggesting prehistoric immigration from Asia and/or Beringia.

R2(R-M479)[edit]

Main article: Haplogroup R-M479

Haplogroup R-M479 is defined by the presence of the marker M479. The paragroup for the R-M479 lineage is found predominantly in Pakistan and other parts of South Asia, although deep-rooted examples have also been found among Portuguese, Spanish, Tatar (Bashkortostan, Russia), and Ossetian (Caucasus) populations.(Myres 2010)

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA R-M207 subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1[χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1 F2 F3 GHIJK
G HIJK
H IJK
IJ K
I J LT [χ 5]  K2
L T NO [χ 6] K2b [χ 7]   K2c K2d K2e [χ 8]
N O K2b1 [χ 9]    P
M S [χ 10] Q R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similiar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  10. ^ Haplogroup S (S-M230) was previously known as Haplogroup K5.

References[edit]

  1. ^ {http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpR.html ISOGG Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree}
  2. ^ Raghavan, M. et al. 2014. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans, Nature, 505, 87–91.
  3. ^ Raghavan, Maanasa; Pontus Skoglund; Kelly E. Graf; Mait Metspalu; Anders Albrechtsen; Ida Moltke; Simon Rasmussen; Thomas W. Stafford Jr; Ludovic Orlando; Ene Metspalu; Monika Karmin; Kristiina Tambets; Siiri Rootsi; Reedik Mägi; Paula F. Campos; Elena Balanovska; Oleg Balanovsky; Elza Khusnutdinova; Sergey Litvinov; Ludmila P. Osipova; Sardana A. Fedorova; Mikhail I. Voevoda; Michael DeGiorgio; Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten; Søren Brunak; et al. (2 January 2014). "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans". Nature 505 (7481): 87–91. doi:10.1038/nature12736. PMC 4105016. PMID 24256729. 

Further reading[edit]

  • The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press. 1994. ISBN 0-691-08750-4. 
  • Anjana, Saha; Swarkar, Sharma; Audesh, Bhat; Awadesh, Pandit; Ramesh, Bamezai (2005). "Genetic affinity among five different population groups in India reflecting a Y-chromosome gene flow". J Hum Genet 50 (1): 49–51. doi:10.1007/s10038-004-0219-3. PMID 15611834. 

External links[edit]

Discussion and projects