Haplogroup R (Y-DNA)

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For the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, see Haplogroup R (mtDNA).
Haplogroup R
Haplogroup R (Y-DNA).jpg
Possible time of origin 26,800 (24,000 [1] - 34,300) years ago (Karafet 2008)
Possible place of origin South or Central Asia
Ancestor P-M45
Descendants Paragroup R-M207, haplogroup R1, R-M479
Defining mutations R = M207 (UTY2), P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, S4, S8, S9 and V45 (ISOGG 2010)

Haplogroup R, or haplogroup R-M207, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It marks a major split in paleolithic lineages. Some descendant lines are common throughout Europe, Central Asia and South Asia, and also common in parts of the West Asia, Africa and North American. Others are primarily from West Asia and South Asia. This line is a descendant of haplogroup P-M45.


This haplogroup is believed to have arisen in the Upper Paleolithic, around 19,000 years ago (Hallast, P. et al. (2014), (Karafet 2008) estimated 24,000–34,000 years ago), presumably somewhere in South or Central Asia, where its ancestor haplogroup P-M45 is most often found at polymorphic frequencies.(Shirs 2001) "The TMRCA of hg R is 19 KYA, and within it both hgs R1a and R1b comprise young, star-like expansions discussed extensively elsewhere (Batini et al. submitted). The addition of Central Asian chromosomes here contributes a sequence to the deepest subclade of R1b-M269, while another, in a Bhutanese individual, forms an outgroup almost as old as the R1a/R1b split."

Haplogroup R* was found in the remains of a Palaeolithic boy MA-1 (Mal'ta) near Lake Baikal in Siberia, dating to 24,000 years ago.[1]


Y-haplogroup R-M207 is found throughout Europe, South Asia and Central Asia. Small frequencies are found in Indigenous Australians (Kayser 2003). It also occurs in the Caucasus and Siberia.

Subclade distribution[edit]

Paragroup R-M207[edit]

Haplogroup R* Y-DNA (xR1,R2) was found in 24,000-year-old remains from Mal'ta in Siberia near Lake Baikal.[2]


Spread of Haplogroup R-M173 in Native populations.

R-M173 was historically known as R1 and had been common throughout Europe and South Asia since pre-history. It has many branches (Semino 2000 and Rosser 2000).

However, R-M173 is the second most common haplogroup in Indigenous peoples of the Americas following haplogroup Q-M242, especially in the Algonquian peoples of Canada and the United States (Malhi 2008). The origin of R-M173 among Native Americans is a matter of controversy:

  • some scholars claim that this is partly or wholly the result of colonial-era immigration from Europe, and not a pre-Columbian founding lineage (see e.g. Malhi 2008;
  • other authorities point to the greater similarity of many R-M173 subclades found in North America to those found in Siberia (e.g. Lell 2002 and Raghavan 2013), suggesting prehistoric immigration from Asia and/or Beringia.


Main article: Haplogroup R-M479

Haplogroup R-M479 is defined by the presence of the marker M479. The paragroup for the R-M479 lineage is found in Pakistan North, Portugal, Spain, Tatars (Bashkortostan, Russia), Italy North, and Ossetians South (South Caucasus) (Myres 2010).

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup R-M207. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas.

The Genomic Research Center draft tree[edit]

This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's Draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup R-M207. The first three levels of subclades are shown. Additional detail is provided on the linked branch article pages (Krahn 2012).

  • P-M45
    • R-M207 M207, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, L248.2, L1031
      • R-M173 M173, M306, P231, P233, P234, P236, P238, P241, P242, P245, P286, P294
      • R-M479 M479

See also[edit]


Y-DNA R-M207 subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups [n 1] [n 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [n 3]
A0 A1[n 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
I J LT [n 5]  K2
L T NO [n 6] K2b [n 7]   K2c K2d K2e [n 8]
N O K2b1 [n 9]    P
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) was previously known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as K2a and "Haplogroup X".
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) has a complex internal structure, which is broader than the former Haplogroup MS.


  1. ^ Raghavan, M. et al. 2014. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans, Nature, 505, 87–91.
  2. ^ Raghavan, Maanasa; Pontus Skoglund; Kelly E. Graf; Mait Metspalu; Anders Albrechtsen; Ida Moltke; Simon Rasmussen; Thomas W. Stafford Jr; Ludovic Orlando; Ene Metspalu; Monika Karmin; Kristiina Tambets; Siiri Rootsi; Reedik Mägi; Paula F. Campos; Elena Balanovska; Oleg Balanovsky; Elza Khusnutdinova; Sergey Litvinov; Ludmila P. Osipova; Sardana A. Fedorova; Mikhail I. Voevoda; Michael DeGiorgio; Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten; Søren Brunak; et al. (2 January 2014). "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans". Nature 505 (7481): 87–91. doi:10.1038/nature12736. PMC 4105016. PMID 24256729. 

Further reading[edit]

  • The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press. 1994. ISBN 0-691-08750-4. 
  • Anjana, Saha; Swarkar, Sharma; Audesh, Bhat; Awadesh, Pandit; Ramesh, Bamezai (2005). "Genetic affinity among five different population groups in India reflecting a Y-chromosome gene flow". J Hum Genet 50 (1): 49–51. doi:10.1007/s10038-004-0219-3. PMID 15611834. 

External links[edit]

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