Haplogroup R (Y-DNA)

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For the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, see Haplogroup R (mtDNA).
Haplogroup R
Possible time of origin 19,000–27,000 years BP (Hallast 2014)[1] [2]
Possible place of origin Most likely India or somewhat likely Central Asia
Ancestor P1 (P-M45), the only primary clade of P* (P-P295)
Descendants R1 (R-M173), R2 (R-M479) (R2)
Defining mutations M207/Page37/UTY2, CTS207/M600/PF5992, CTS2426/M661/PF6033, CTS2913/M667, CTS3229/M672/PF6036/YSC0001265, CTS3622/PF6037, CTS5815/M696, CTS6417/Y480, CTS7876/PF6052, CTS7880/M725/PF6053, CTS8311/M732, CTS9005/M741, CTS10663/M788, CTS11075/M795/P6078, CTS11647/Y369, F33/M603/PF6013, F63/M614/PF6016, F82/M620, F154/M636, F295/M685, F356/M703/PF5919, F370/M708/Y479, F459/Y482, F652/M805, F765, FGC1168, L248.3/M705.3, L747/M702/PF5918/YSC0000287, L760/M642/PF5877/YSC0000286, L1225/M789/YSC0000232, L1347/M792/PF6077/YSC0000233, M613, M628/PF5868, M651/Y296, M718, M734/PF6057/S4/YSC0000201, M760/Y506, M764/PF5953, M799, P224/PF6050, P227, P229/PF6019, P232, P280, P285, PF5938, PF6014/S9 (ISOGG 2016)

Haplogroup R or R-M207, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is both numerous and widespread amongst modern populations.

Some descendant subclades are common throughout Europe, Central Asia and South Asia, and also common in parts of the West Asia, Africa and North America. Others are primarily from West Asia and South Asia. This line is a descendant of haplogroup P-M45 (P1).

Origins[edit]

The SNP defining this haplogroup is believed to have arisen during the Upper Paleolithic era: about 19,000 – 27,000 years ago (ISOGG 2016) (Hallast 2014) (Karafet 2008).

The sole confirmed example of basal haplogroup R* has been found in 24,000 year old remains, known as MA-1, found at Mal'ta near Lake Baikal in Siberia.[3] While a living example of R-M207(xM17,M124) was reported in 2012, the sample of 158 ethnic Tajik males from Badakshan, Afghanistan were not tested for the SNP M478; the male concerned may therefore belong to R2*.

Despite the rarity of R*, the relatively rapid expansion – geographically and numerically – of subclades from R1 in particular, was noted in a 2014 paper by Pille Hallast, Chiara Batini, Daniel Zadik and others: "both R1a and R1b comprise young, star-like expansions" (Hallast 2014). The authors noted that living examples found in Central Asian samples included the "deepest subclade" of R-M269 (R1b1a2) – the most numerous branch of R1b in Western Europe. Hallast, Batini, Zadik et al., also noted a Bhutanese individual (with R-PH155) who apparently constituted "an outgroup almost as old as the R1a/R1b split".

Distribution[edit]

Y-haplogroup R-M207 is common throughout Europe, South Asia and Central Asia (Kayser 2003). It also occurs in the Caucasus and Siberia. Some minorities in Africa also carry subclades of R-M207 at high frequencies.

While some indigenous peoples of The Americas and Australasia also feature high levels of R-M207, it is unclear whether these are deep-rooted, or an effect of European colonisation during the early modern era.

Subclades[edit]

Human Y-DNA Phylogenetic Tree
Haplogroup R
M207 (R)
M173 (R1)
M420 (R1a)
M459

(R1a1)



(R1a*)



M343 (R1b)
L278

(R1b1)



(R1b*)




M479 (R2)
M124 (R2a)
L263

(R2a1)


F1092

(R2a2)


Y12100

(R2a3)




(R2*)






Paragroup R-M207[edit]

Haplogroup R* Y-DNA (xR1,R2) was found in 24,000-year-old remains from Mal'ta in Siberia near Lake Baikal.[4]

R1(R-M173)[edit]

R-M173 was historically known as R1 and has been common throughout Europe and South Asia since pre-history. It has many branches (Semino 2000 and Rosser 2000).

It is the second most common haplogroup in Indigenous peoples of the Americas following haplogroup Q-M242, especially in the Algonquian peoples of Canada and the United States (Malhi 2008). The origin of R-M173 among Native Americans is a matter of controversy:

  • some scholars claim that this is partly or wholly the result of colonial-era immigration from Europe, and not a pre-Columbian founding lineage (see e.g. Malhi 2008);
  • other authorities point to the greater similarity of many R-M173 subclades found in North America to those found in Siberia (e.g. Lell 2002 and Raghavan 2013), suggesting prehistoric immigration from Asia and/or Beringia.

R2(R-M479)[edit]

Main article: Haplogroup R-M479

Haplogroup R-M479 is defined by the presence of the marker M479. The paragroup for the R-M479 lineage is found predominantly in Pakistan and other parts of South Asia, although deep-rooted examples have also been found among Portuguese, Spanish, Tatar (Bashkortostan, Russia), and Ossetian (Caucasus) populations (Myres 2010).

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA R-M207 subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
H IJK
IJ   K
I J   LT [χ 5]  K2
L T [χ 6] NO [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]     K2c  K2d  K2e [χ 9]
N O   K2b1 [χ 10]     P
K2b1a [χ 11]    K2b1b K2b1c    M P1 P2
K2b1a1   K2b1a2   K2b1a3   S [χ 12] Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup K2b1a has also been known as Haplogroup S-P405.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S (S-M230), also known as K2b1a4, was previously known as Haplogroup K5.

References[edit]

  1. ^ {http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpR.html ISOGG Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree}
  2. ^ Karafet, TM; Mendez, FL; Meilerman, MB; Underhill, PA; Zegura, SL; Hammer, MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Res. 18: 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805free to read. PMID 18385274. 
  3. ^ Raghavan, M. et al. 2014. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans, Nature, 505, 87–91.
  4. ^ Raghavan, Maanasa; Pontus Skoglund; Kelly E. Graf; Mait Metspalu; Anders Albrechtsen; Ida Moltke; Simon Rasmussen; Thomas W. Stafford Jr; Ludovic Orlando; Ene Metspalu; Monika Karmin; Kristiina Tambets; Siiri Rootsi; Reedik Mägi; Paula F. Campos; Elena Balanovska; Oleg Balanovsky; Elza Khusnutdinova; Sergey Litvinov; Ludmila P. Osipova; Sardana A. Fedorova; Mikhail I. Voevoda; Michael DeGiorgio; Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten; Søren Brunak; et al. (2 January 2014). "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans". Nature. 505 (7481): 87–91. doi:10.1038/nature12736. PMC 4105016free to read. PMID 24256729. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Discussion and projects