Haplogroup R (mtDNA)

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For the Y-chromosome haplogroup, see Haplogroup R (Y-DNA).
Haplogroup R
Haplogroup R (mtDNA) & subclades.PNG
Possible time of origin 66,000 YBP [1]
Possible place of origin Near East
Ancestor N
Descendants R0, R1, R2'JT, R3, R5, R6'7, R8, R9, R11'B, R12'21, R14, R22, R23, R30, R31, P, U
Defining mutations 12705, 16223[2]

Haplogroup R is a widely distributed human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It is the most common macro-haplogroup in West Eurasia.

Haplogroup R is a descendant of macro-haplogroup N. Among its descendant haplogroups are B, U (and thus K), F, R0 (and thus HV, H, and V), and JT (the ancestral haplogroup of J and T).


As of June 2009, the most recent study dates the origin of haplogroup R to 66.8kya (thousand years ago) with a 95% confidence interval of 52.6-81kya.[1]

South Asia lies on the way of earliest dispersals from Africa and is therefore a valuable well of knowledge on early human migrations.[3] The analysis of the indigenous haplogroup R lineages in India points to a common first spread of the root haplotypes of M, N, and R along the southern route some 60–70 kya.[4]

Haplogroup R has wide diversity and antiquity among varied ethnic status and different language families in South Asia. In Indian western region among the castes and southern region among the Adivasi show higher haplogroup diversity than the other regions, possibly suggesting their autochthonous status.[5]


Haplogroup R and its descendants are distributed all over Europe, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Near East, the Indian Subcontinent, Oceania and the Americas.

The basal R* clade is found among the Socotri (1.2%), as well as in Northeast Africa (1.5%), the Middle East (0.8%), the Near East (0.8%), and the Arabian peninsula (0.3%).[6]



This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup R subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • R
    • R0 (formerly pre-HV)
      • R0a
        • R0a1
        • R0a2
      • HV
        • HV0 (formerly pre-V)
          • HV0a
        • H
    • R1
      • R1a
        • R1a1
          • R1a1a
    • R2'JT
    • R5
      • R5a
        • R5a1
          • R5a1a
        • R5a2
          • R5a2a
          • R5a2b
            • R5a2b1
            • R5a2b2
            • R5a2b3
            • R5a2b4
    • R6'7
      • R6
        • R6a
          • R6a1
            • R6a1a
      • R7
        • R7a
          • R7a1
            • R7a1a
            • R7a1b
              • R7a1b1
              • R7a1b2
        • R7b
          • R7b1
            • R7b1a
    • R8
      • R8a
        • R8a1
          • R8a1a
            • R8a1a1
            • R8a1a2
            • R8a1a3
          • R8a1b
        • R8a2
      • R8b
        • R8b1
        • R8b2
    • (16304)
      • R9
        • R9b
          • R9b1
          • R9b2
        • R9c
        • F
        • R22
    • R11'B (16189)
      • R11
        • R11a
      • B
      • R24
    • R12'21
      • R12
      • R21
    • R14
    • R23
    • R30
      • R30a
      • R30b
        • R30b1
    • R31
      • R31a
        • R31a1
      • R31b
    • P
    • U


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Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M   N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U

External links[edit]