Haplogroup S-M230

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Haplogroup S (M230)
Possible time of origin 28,000-41,000 years before present (Scheinfeldt 2006)
Possible place of origin New Guinea/Indonesia
Ancestor K2b1a.[1][2]
Descendants S1 (M254)
Defining mutations M230, P202, P204
Highest frequencies Ekari 74% (Mona 2007)

Haplogroup S (M230), also known as Haplogroup K2b1a4, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is the largest subclade of Haplogroup K2b1a (which was previously known as Haplogroup S-P405).

S-M230 is commonly found among populations of the highlands of Papua New Guinea (Kayser 2003). It is also found at lower frequencies in adjacent parts of Indonesia and Melanesia.[citation needed]



One study has reported finding haplogroup S-M230 in: 52% (16/31) of a sample from the Papua New Guinea Highlands; 21% (7/34) of a sample from the Moluccas; 16% (5/31) of a sample from the Papua New Guinea coast; 12.5% (2/16) of a sample of Tolai from New Britain; 10% (3/31) of a sample from Nusa Tenggara, and; 2% (2/89) of a sample from the West New Guinea lowlands/coast.(Kayser 2003 Cox 2006)



This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the ISOGG 2015 tree,[3] the YCC 2008 tree (Karafet 2008) and subsequent published research.

  • K (M526)
    • K2 (M526/PF5979) known previously as KxLT.
      • NO (M214/Page39) also known as K2a
      • K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) also known as MPS
        • K2b1 P397, P399
          • K2b1a P405
            • K2b1a1 P60, P304, P308
            • K2b1a2 P79, P307
            • K2b1a3 P315
            • S (M230, P202, P204) also known as K2b1a4


Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
K-M9 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu16 H5 F K* K K K - - - - - - -

Research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC tree.

2005 YCC tree[edit]

2008 YCC tree[edit]

From 2002 to 2008, it was known as Haplogroup K5.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


Y-DNA S subclades[edit]

  • S-M230

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups [n 1] [n 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [n 3]
A0 A1[n 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
I J LT [n 5]  K2
L T NO [n 6] K2b [n 7]   K2c K2d K2e [n 8]
N O K2b1 [n 9]    P
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) was previously known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as K2a and "Haplogroup X".
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) has a complex internal structure, which is broader than the former Haplogroup MS.



Works cited[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; et al. (2012). Kayser, Manfred, ed. "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLoS ONE 7 (3): e34288. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552. 
  • Karafet, Tatiana M.; Lansing, J. S.; Redd, Alan J.; Watkins, Joseph C.; Surata, S. P. K.; Arthawiguna, W. A.; Mayer, Laura; Bamshad, Michael; et al. (2005). "Balinese Y-Chromosome Perspective on the Peopling of Indonesia: Genetic Contributions from Pre-Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers, Austronesian Farmers, and Indian Traders". Human Biology 77 (1): 93–114. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0030. PMID 16114819. 
  • Kayser, M.; Brauer, S; Cordaux, R; Casto, A; Lao, O; Zhivotovsky, LA; Moyse-Faurie, C; Rutledge, RB; et al. (2006). "Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: MtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific". Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 (11): 2234–44. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl093. PMID 16923821. 


External links[edit]