|Possible time of origin||39,700-45,500 years BP|
|Possible place of origin||Western_Asia |
|Defining mutations||M184/PAGES34/USP9Y+3178, M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, L445|
|Highest frequencies||Dir (clan), Kurru, Bauris, Armenian Sasuntzis, Chians, Rural Saccensi, Aquilanis, Fulbe, Eivissencs, Mirandeses, Northeastern Portuguese Jews, Cretans from Lasithi, Rajus, Mahli, Zoroastrians in Kerman, Bakhtiaris, Southern Egyptians|
Haplogroup T-M184, also known as haplogroup T, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. The unique-event polymorphism (UEP) that defines this clade is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) known as M184. Other SNPs – M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, and L445 – are considered to be phylogenetically equivalent to M184.
T-M184 is an immediate descendant of haplogroup LT, whose parent clade is haplogroup K. From 2002 to 2008, T-M184 was known as haplogroup K2. This clade name has since been reassigned to a different subclade of haplogroup K.
Haplogroup T is unusual in that it is both relatively rare and geographically widespread. The clade possibly originated around 40,000 years ago somewhere between the Near East and [Eurasia]], despite of that some of their highest frequencies have been found in East African and East Indian populations, probably due to recent migration waves according to the available and most updated data. T2-PH110, the most basally splitted branch of T-M184, has been found in three very separate geographical regions: North European Plain, Kura-Araks Basin and Bhutan. None of these three regions belong to any of those regions with high frequencies of this linage. According to the Genographic Project the T-M184 frequencies in Germany goes from 3% to 24%, several studies give frequencies in Caucasus from 0% to 12% and the frequency in Bhutan is less than 5%. today T makes UP less then 1% of the total sample of Y DNA in North Europe.
Mendez et al. point to a very ancient origin for T1a-M70 in Europe, the subclade probably arrived with the very first farmers. This is supported by the recent findings of Haak et al. who discovered several T1a1-CTS880 members in a 7000 years old settlement in Karsdorf, Germany. Autosomal analysis of these skeletal remains show an unusual relationship with modern Southwest Asian populations, reaching close to 10%. The T1a1 skeletal remains from this settlement were also found to belong to the H mtdna haplogroup, this settlement have the highest frequency of this mtDNA haplogroup 30.4% (7/23) that have been found in any early Neolithic Europe population until now.
- 1 Possible Origins
- 2 Ancient DNA
- 3 Distribution
- 4 Geographical distribution
- 5 Elite endurance runners
- 6 Notable haplogroup members
- 7 Subclades
- 8 Phylogenetic history
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Settlement from Karsdorf, Germany, 7100 ybp
Haplogroup T1a (PF5604) has been found in two out of two 7500–6800 ybp individuals from Karsdorf, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany. Both T1a skeletal remains belong to the Linienbandkeramische Kultur. T1a from Karsdorf constitutes 22.2% of all ancient samples between 7500 and 6800 ybp in Germany. The remainder belong to other clades: 22.2% are H2 carriers from Derenburg, and the remaining 55.6% are G2a bearers from Halberstadt and Derenburg. These ancient specimens' mtDNA haplogroups have been found to be H1*/H1au1b and H46b. Their autosomal ancestral components also consist of around 70% Western European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) and 30% Basal Eurasian.
The Karsdorf site is located in the valley of Unstrut, Burgenlandkreis, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The slope on which Karsdorf sits is characterized by alluvial loess. The place itself was settled intensively since the earliest phase of the Linear Pottery culture (LBK) in the region. The settlement area is at least 50 acres in size and nearly 30 houses have been excavated. So-called ‘settlement burials’ were regularly found in pits in the center of the settlement area, of which individual KAR6/I0795 (feature 170, 5207-5070 calBCE, MAMS 22823) was sampled for this study.
The LBK settlement of Karsdorf (Burgenlandkreis, Saxony-Anhalt) is located approximately 100 km south of Derenburg and Halberstadt, on the river Unstrut, and was occupied between 5240 and 5000 BC (Behnke, 2007). The Neolithic buildings (n=24) of three settlement stages are dated to the early and middle LBK (after Meier-Arendt 1966). Except for four graves, all of the 30 burials are associated in groups next to houses in the centre of the settlement, similar to the site of Halberstadt. The individuals are buried in house-flanking pit graves at the western side of the houses and mostly arranged in north-east or north-west orientation. Grave goods are sparse; few graves contained more than one pot or a shell or horn pendant. Associated with every house group we[who?] can identify a person with outstanding grave inventory, who may represent a founding generation.|Oelze et al.
Special features of the LBK site of Karsdorf are graves in association with particular houses, which can therefore be regarded as settlement burials. Most of the individuals were buried in a flexed position, oriented to the north-east or north-west. Six individuals were inhumed in supine and four in prone position, of which only three showed a fully stretched body.
The LBK in Karsdorf is represented by 24 longhouses oriented north-west–south-east. The assemblage is composed of 20 adults (55% males and 35% females), one juvenile (15–18 years), four as infants of 7–14 years and six infants of 0–6 years. The maximum age at death of males ranged between 40 and 59 years and of females 40–49 years respectively. The oldest individual is a woman with 65–75 years. In association with the house S and H, women, men, and children were buried together, in some cases even in the same pit. The furnishing of the graves at Karsdorf can be regarded as rather sparse. Only 9 out of 34 burials contained grave goods, such as an axe in a man’s grave and a shell buried with a woman, imply sex-specific grave furnishings.
The large variability and the sparse indications for maternal kinship suggest a dynamic and mobile group of which several members were buried elsewhere and/or which integrated individuals who originated from other communities. These integrated individuals could be mostly females due to the high indications for paternal kinship among the analysed individuals. According to Sr isotope ratios, there are two distinct groups of individuals in Karsdorf but none of both are specially 'Exotic'. So, there is no indication of individuals who grew up in geologically distinct uplands or further north in central Germany.
The first group, composed of the majority of the males, could grew up in households that cultivated plots on calcareous soils, very probably in the Unstrut valley in the near vicinity of the settlement. The second group, composed of most of the females, could grew up in households that predominantly cultivated plots on loess, possibly beyond the landmarks of the Unstrut River or about 80m above the site on the Querfurt plateau 1–2 km away. Sex-specific tendencies, the combination of the Sr isotope data with the results of previous carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and the similarity of the Sr isotope data of the youngest child with the majority of the males may be evaluated as being in agreement with the predominance of patrilocal residential rules.
The Karsdorf population diet consisted of plant crops consumption quite similar to other LBK sites but ate slightly higher quantities of animal protein. Despite of this, there is one female individual that could be classified as a vegan because her results show that she fell in the range of those of the domestic and wild fauna from Karsdorf, indicating she might have lived on the similar herbivore diet for unknown reasons.
The consumption of unfermented dairy products is unlikely as there is direct palaeogenetic evidence of lactose intolerance for the site Derenburg. Children in these LBK cultures may have been weaned around the age of three and apparently ate the similar diet as adults after weaning. The highest isotopic value for stable isotopes of nitrogen is found in the youngest Karsdorf individual likely due to breastfeeding effects. In the Karsdorf population the highest Animal Protein consumption signal is found in a 15–18 years old individual belonging to mtDNA H. In addition, the lowest Plant Crop consumption signal is found in the youngest Karsdorf individual and secondarily in two out of three 21–24 years old individuals belonging to mtDNA U5a and H.
In 2015 a published study by Mathieson et al. test several individuals from two Neolithic sites in northwest Anatolia, the results showed that Haplogroup T1a-M70, previously found in LBK sites from Germany, was not present in Barcin nor Mentese Neolithic settlements. This fact together with the absence of the mtDNA lineages carried by both of the T1a individuals from Karsdorf and the occurrence of G2a and the mtDNA lineages carried by all of these G2a individuals, could mean that the Early European Neolithic T1a-M70 had a different migration pattern and, therefore, a different geographical origin.
|Karsdorf T1a tribe||Karsdorf-SI||Karsdorf-HI|
|ID||I0795 KAR6 Feature 170 Musm.no. 2006:14423a||I0797 KAR16a Feature 611 Musm.no. 2004:26374a|
|Y DNA||T1a1-CTS880 (xT1a1a1b1a-Y13381, T1a1a1a2a-Y18474, T1a1a1a1b2-Y15724, T1a1a1a1b1a2a-Y10911, T1a1a1a1a2a-Y18145, T1a1a1a1a1-CTS8512, T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77)||T1a-M70 (xT1a1-Y3789, T1a2a1a-Z19909, T1a2a2-Y7391, T1a3a-Y9217)|
|Population||Early EN||Early EN|
|Date (YBP)||7076 ± 90||7087 ± 725|
|House / Location||S / Karsdorf||H / Karsdorf|
|Members / Sample Size||1/2||1/2|
|mtDNA||H1* or H1au1b||H46b|
|Isotope Sr||Native to Unstruttal||Native to Unstruttal|
|Eye color||Likely gray or blue eyes||Likely gray or blue eyes|
|Hair color||Likely non-dark hair||Likely non-red hair|
|Skin pigmentation||Rs1042602 (C;C)|
|ABO Blood Group||Likely O or B||Rs8176719 (T;T)|
|Diet (d13C%0 / d15N%0)||-20.0 / 9.0 (higher Animal Protein)||-20.2 / 9.1 (higher Animal Protein)|
|FADS activity||rs174554 (A;A)||rs174574 (A;A)|
|Lactase Persistence||Likely lactose-intolerant|
|Oase-1 Shared DNA||34.06%||18.06%|
|Ostuni1 Shared DNA||12.49%||2.43%|
|Neanderthal Vi33.26 Shared DNA||3.81%||1.08%|
|Neanderthal Vi33.25 Shared DNA||2.13%||1.79%|
|Neanderthal Vi33.16 Shared DNA||1.71%||0%|
|Ancestral Component (AC)||Neolithic Anatolia/Southeast Europe: 70.56%, Caucasus Hunter / Early European Farmer: 19.86%, Scandinavian / West European Hunter: 9.34%, Paleolithic Levant (Natufians): 0.24%||Neolithic Anatolia/Southeast Europe: 56.23%, Paleolithic Levant (Natufians): 16.56%, Caucasus Hunter / Early European Farmer: 14.19%, Scandinavian / West European Hunter: 9.64%, Neolithic Iran: 2.54%|
|puntDNAL K12 Ancient||59% Anatolia Neolithic Farmer + 24% Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer + 10% European Hunter-Gatherer + 7% Near Eastern||60% Anatolia Neolithic Farmer + 27% European Hunter-Gatherer + 9% Near Eastern + 2% Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer + 2% Sub-Saharan|
|Dodecad [dv3]||69.1% Mediterranean + 21% West European + 10% Southwest Asian||64.2% Mediterranean + 17.4% West European + 10.5% Southwest Asian + 4.2% West Asian + 3.7% Northwest African|
|Eurogenes [K=36]||56.9% Italian + 31.9% West Mediterranean + 6.3% Iberian + 2.1% Basque + 1.3% North African + 0.9 East Balkan + 0.3% East Mediterranean + 0.3% Arabian||37.1% Italian + 21% West Mediterranean + 16.9% Iberian + 11.8 East Balkan + 7.7% Armenian + 5.5% East Mediterranean + 0.05% North African|
|Dodecad [Globe13]||67.4% Mediterranean + 16.5% Southwest Asian + 16% North European||61% Mediterranean + 19.7% Southwest Asian + 19.2% North European|
|Genetic Distance||98.6cM in chr 8||98.6cM in chr 8|
|Parental Consanguinity||MRCA = 1.1 generations||MRCA = 1.1 generations|
|Age at Death||45-60||24-26|
|Death Position||Flexed Left||Stretched Dorsal|
|Sample||Tooth / Rib||Tooth / Rib|
|Notes||Goseck circle||Goseck circle|
The autosomal data of I0797 show the lowest frequency of Anatolian Neolithic component and the highest frequency of an unknown ancient human population for any studied LBK individual. This reinforces the hypothesis of a possible different geographical origin for this T1a tribe instead of the Greco-Anatolian origin of other human groups found in the LBK like G2a. By his side, I0795 show higher autosomal admixture frequencies of surrounding populations like Hunter Gatherer Europeans I2a (West Hunter Gatherers) and Aegean-Anatolian Neolithics G2a and H2. However, I0795 have the highest frequency of shared DNA with Upper Paleolithic Neanderthals from Central Europe found in any Early Neolithic population. Further comparisons show that I0795 has similar frequencies like Oase-1 when compared with Vindija Neanderthals. When I0795 and I0797 are compared to Oase-1, they both share a very high percentage of DNA 34% and 18% respectively and I0795 12% with Ostuni1. This could mean that this T1a1 tribe from Karsdorf was closest to Upper Paleolithic Hunter-Gatherers than to Mesolithic HG.
Why this Early Neolithic settlement was once abandoned, is still unclear.
Settlement from Ain Ghazal, Jordan 9573 ybp
The 9th millennium Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) period in the Levant represents a major transformation in prehistoric lifeways from small bands of mobile hunter–gatherers to large settled farming and herding villages in the Mediterranean zone, the process having been initiated some 2–3 millennia earlier.
'Ain Ghazal (" Spring of the Gazelles") is situated in a relatively rich environmental setting immediately adjacent to the Wadi Zarqa, the longest drainage system in highland Jordan. It is located at an elevation of about 720m within the ecotone between the oak-park woodland to the west and the open steppe-desert to the east.
Evidence recovered from the excavations suggests that much of the surrounding countryside was forested and offered the inhabitants a wide variety of economic resources. Arable land is plentifull within the site's immediate environs. These variables are atypical of many major neolithic sites in the Near East, several of which are located in marginal environments. Yet despite its apparent richness, the area of 'Ain Ghazal is climatically and environmentally sensitive because of its proximity throughout the Holocene to the fluctuating steppe-forest border.
The Ain Ghazal settlement first appear in the MPPNB and is splitted in 2 MPPNB phases. Phase 1 starts 10300 yBP and ends 9950 yBP, phase 2 ends 9550 yBP.
The estimated population of the MPPNB site from ‘Ain Ghazal is of 259-1349 individuals with an area of 3.01-4.7 ha. Is argued that at its founding at the commencement of the MPPNB ‘Ain Ghazal was likely 2 ha in size and grew to 5 ha by the end of the MPPNB. At this point in time their estimated population was 600-750 people or 125-150 people per hectare.
The diet of the occupants of PPNB 'Ain Ghazal was remarkably varied. Domesticated plants included wheat and barley species, but legumes (primarily lentils and peas) appear to have been preferred cultigens. A wide suite of wild plants also were consumed. The determination of domesticated animals, sensu stricto, is a topic of much debate. At PPNB 'Ain Ghazal goats were a major species, and they were used in a domestic sense, although they may not have been morphologically domestic. Many of the phalanges recovered exhibit pathologies that are suggestive of tethering. An impressive range of wild animal species also were consumed at the site. Over 50 taxa have been identified, including gazelle, Bos, Sus sp., Lepus, and Vulpes.
Considerable evidence for mortuary practices during the PPNB period have been described in recent years. Post-mortem skull removal, commonly restricted to the cranium, but on occasion including the mandible, and apparently following preliminary primary interments of the complete corpse. Such treatment has commonly been interpreted as representing rituals connected with veneration of the dead or some form of ‘‘ancestor worship’’
‘Ain Ghazal was in an area that was suitable for agriculture and then grew as a result of the same dynamic. Archaeologists think that throughout the mid east much of the land was exhausted after some 700 years of planting and so became unsuitable for agriculture. The people from those small villages abandoned their unproductive fields and migrated, with their domestic animals, to places with better ecological conditions, like ‘Ain Ghazal that could support larger populations. As opposed to other sites as new people migrated to ‘Ain Ghazal, probably with few possessions and possibly starving, class distinctions began to develop. The influx of new people placed stresses on the social fabric – new diseases, more people to feed from what was planted and more animals that needed grazing. There is evidence of class in the way the dead are treated. Some people are buried in the floors of their houses as they would be at other Neolithic sites. After the flesh had wasted away some of the skulls were disinterred and decorated. This was either a form of respect or so that they could impart their power to the house and the people in it. However, unlike other Neolithic sites, some people were thrown on trash heaps and their bodies remain intact. Scholars have estimated that a third of adult burials were found in trash pits with their heads intact. They may have seen the new comers as a lower class.
In the earlier levels at ‘Ain Ghazhal there are small ceramic figures that seem to have been used as personal or familial ritual figures. There are figurines of both animals and people. The animal figures are of horned animals and the front part of the animal is the most clearly modeled. They all give the impression of dynamic force. Some of the animal figures have been stabbed in their vital parts these figures have then been buried in the houses. Other figurines were burned and then discarded with the rest of the fire. They built ritual building and used large figurines or statues. The actual building of them is also a way for an elite group to demonstrate and reify its authority over those who owe the community or the elite labor as service and to bond laborers together as part of a new community. In addition to the monumental statues small, clay and stone tokens, some with incised with geometric or naturalistic shapes were found at ‘Ain Ghazal. The 195 figurines (40 human and 155 animal) he recovered were from MPPNB contexts The 81% of the figurines have been found to belong to the MPPNB while only 19% belonging to the LPPNB and PPNC. The vast majority of figurines are of cattle. A species that makes up only 8% of the overall number of identified specimens (NISP) count. The importance of hunted cattle to the domestic ritual sphere of ‘Ain Ghazal is telling. it was seemingly of importance for individual households to have members who participated both the hunting of cattle – likely a group activity – and the subsequent feasting on the remains.
There are evidences of mining activities as part of a production sequence conducted by craftspersons at the site of ‘Ain Ghazal, these potential part-time specialists in some way controlled access to such raw materials.
Haplogroup T is found among the Late MPPNB inhabitants from 'Ain Ghazal but was not found among the early and middle MPPNB populations. Is thought that the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B population is mostly composed of two different populations, the Natufians which trace their origins to the Earlier Natufian and a second population coming through a northerly influx from the region of northeastern Anatolia. Natufians have been found to belong mostly to the E1b1b1b2 lineage, which is found among 60% of the whole PPNB population and 75% of the 'Ain Ghazal population, being present in all three MPPNB stages. The complete absence of T-PF7466 among Natufians and the earlier MPPNB stages could mean that haplogroup T arrived later with the northerly influx.
As previously found in the early Neolithic settlement from Karsdorf, a mtDNA R0 descendant have been found together with Y-DNA T.
|Ain Ghazal T||Ghazal-I|
|ID||I1707 AG83_5 Poz-81097|
|Y DNA||T1-PF5610 (xT1a1-Z526, T1a1a-CTS9163, T1a1a-CTS2607, T1a2-S11611, T1a2-Y6031, T1a2a1-P322, T1a3a-Y9189)|
|Culture||Late Middle PPNB|
|Date (YBP)||9573 ± 39|
|House / Location||Ain Ghazal|
|Members / Sample Size||1/2|
|Eye Color||Likely non-Dark|
|Hair Color||Likely non-Dark|
|ABO Blood Group||Likely O or B|
|Diet (d13C%0 / d15N%0)|
|FADS activity||rs174551 (T), rs174553 (G), rs174576 (A)|
|Lactase Persistence||Likely lactose-intolerant|
|Oase-1 Shared DNA||14.2%|
|Ostuni1 Shared DNA||6.7%|
|Neanderthal Vi33.26 Shared DNA||0.93%|
|Neanderthal Vi33.25 Shared DNA||1.2%|
|Neanderthal Vi33.16 Shared DNA||0.3%|
|Ancestral Components (AC)||Neolithic Anatolia/Southeast Europe: 56.82%, Paleolithic Levant (Natufians): 24.09%, Caucasus Hunter / Early European Farmer: 12.51%, Scandinavian / West European Hunter: 4.16%, Sub Saharan: 2.04%, East European Hunter: 0.37%|
|puntDNAL K12 Ancient|
|Age at Death|
|Notes||Evidence of a northerly origin for this population, possibly indicating an influx from the region of northeastern Anatolia.|
LPPNB populations in the Southern Levant were already witnessing severe changes in climate that would have been exacerbated by large population demands on local resources. Beginning at 8.9 cal ka BP we see a significant decrease in population in highland Jordan, ultimately leading to the complete abandonment of almost all central settlements in this region.
Haplogroup T-M184 (M193, M272, L206, PAGES129) is rare almost everywhere in Europe. It makes up to 4% of the population on Central Italy, Western Sicily, Northwest Corsica, Northwestern Iberian Peninsula, Western Andalucia, Western Alps, Eastern Crete, and Macedonia, frequencies up to 10% in Ibiza, Miranda l Douro, Eastern Oviedo, Cádiz, Badajoz, Balagna, Norma and Ragusa, peaking up to 20% in Sciacca, L'Aquila and some German regions. In Caucasus and Anatolia it makes up to 4% of the population on Southeast and Northwest Caucasus as well as in Southeastern and Western Anatolia, peaking up to 20% in Armenians from Sasun. In Middle East it makes up to 4% of the population around the Zagros Mountains and the Persian Gulf as well as around the Taurus Mountains and the Levant basin, peaking up to 10% in Zoroastrians from Kerman, Bakhtiaris, Assyrians from Azerbaijan, Abudhabians, Armenians from Historical Southwestern Armenia and Druzes from Galilee. In Eastern Africa it makes up to 4% of the population on Upper Egypt and Somalia, peaking up to 10% in Luxor, Jijiga and Dire Dawa. The maximal worldwide frequency for haplogroup T is observed in the Dir Clan of Somalia, Djibouti and Ogaden region, where it accounts for approximately 70 to 90% of the male lineages. Besides these regions, T is found in isolated pockets as far as Central Asia, Northeast and Eastern India, Northern Asia, Central Africa, and South Africa. Haplogroup T is found in a majority of Dirs in East Africa, Kurru,[who?] Bauris & Lodha in South Asia; and in a significant minority of Rajus and Mahli in South Asia; Somalis, southern Egyptians and Fulbe in north Cameroon; Chian Greeks, Aquilanis, Saccensis, Eivissencs / Ibizans and Mirandeses in Europe and Zoroastrians, Bakhtiaris in the Middle East.
Luis et al. (2004) suggest that the presence of T on the African continent may, like R1* representatives, point to an older introduction from Asia. The Levant rather than the Arabian Peninsula appears to have been the main route of entry, as the Egyptian and Turkish haplotypes are considerably older in age (13,700 ybp and 9,000 ybp, respectively) than those found in Oman (only 1,600 ybp). According to the authors, the spotty modern distribution pattern of haplogroup T-M184 within Africa may therefore represent the traces of a more widespread early local presence of the clade. Later expansions of populations carrying the E1b1b, E1b1a, G and J NRY lineages may have overwhelmed the T-M184 clade-bearers in certain localities.
The distribution of haplogroup T-M184 in most parts of Europe is patchy or regionalized; for example, haplogroup T-M184 was found in 1.7% (10/591) of a pool of six samples of males from southwestern Russia, but it was completely absent from a pool of eight samples totalling 637 individuals from the northern half of European Russia. The Russians from the southwest were from the following cities: Roslavl, Livny, Pristen, Repyevka, and Belgorod; and Kuban Cossacks from the Republic of Adygea.
|Altaians||Altai (Turkic)||Kurmach-Baygol||2/11||18.2%||||K* (xT1a-M70, L-M20, N-DYF155S2, O-M175, P-92R7)|
|Cape Verdeans||Cape Verdean Creole (Portuguese Creole)||Leeward islands Brava, Fogo, Santiago, Maio, the later settled islands of Boa Vista and Sal||12/100||12%||||K* (xT1a-M70, L-M61, N-LLy22g, O-M175, P-M45)|
|Altaians||Altai (Turkic)||Turochak||2/19||10.5%||||K* (xT1a-M70, L-M20, N-DYF155S2, O-M175, P-92R7)|
|Leoneses||Astur-Leonese (Romance)||Leon||1/13||7.7%||||K-M9 (xT1a-M70, L1-M22, P-92R7)|
|Cape Verdeans||Cape Verdean Creole (Portuguese Creole)||Windward islands São Nicolau, São Vicente, and Santo Antão||6/101||5.9%||||K* (xT1a-M70, L-M61, N-LLy22g, O-M175, P-M45)|
|Ossetian Irons||Iron (Scythian)||South Ossetia||1/21||4.8%|||
|Bhutaneses||Unknown (Tibeto-Burman language)||Bhutan||1/21||4.8%||||T2-PH110|
|Tharus||Tharu (Indo-Aryan)||Morang||1/37||2.7%||||K-M9 (xT1a-M70, L-M20, NO-M214, P-M74)|
|Cherkessians||Besleney (Northwest Caucasian)||Circassia||2/126||1.6%|||
|Bizkaians||Bizkaiera (Isolate language)||Bizkaia||1/72||1.4%|||
|Macedonians||Macedonian (Balto-Slavic)||Macedonia||1/201||0.5%||||Orthodox Christians of Macedonian ethnicity|
Formed 16000 ybp (17400-14600 ybp). Is the largest lineage downstream T1a-M70 and was widely widespread acorss Eurasia and Africa before the American colonisation.
This is an extreme rare T1a1 branch that only have been found in Eivissan islanders and Pontic Greeks from Giresun. The first Y-STR haplotype belonging to this lineage appeared in the paper of Tomas et al in 2006 among a sample of Eivissan individuals but is not until August 2009 when the first T1a1-L162(xL208) individual was reported in a 23andMe customer of Pontic Greek background and Metaxopoulos surname, thanks to the public Adriano Squecco's Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Project.
Pontic Greeks from Giresun descend from Sinope colonists and Sinope was colonised by Ionians from Miletus. Is interesting to note that there exist an Ionian colony known as Pityussa just like the known Greek name for Eivissa Pityuses. In Eivissa, where is found the famous bust of Demeter that have been confused with the punic Tanit for decades, is known the cult to Demeter. The bust belonging to Demeter have been analysed and is found to contains black particles of volcanic sand origin from the Etna, is thought to be made in Sicily with red clays typical of the eastern Trinacria, which was colonized by the Ionians. The Ionians could be arrived to Eivissa c.2700 YBP. This lineage could be an Ionian marker.
|Pityusics||Eivissenc (Romance)||Eivissa||9/54||16.7%||||L454+. All individuals were interviewed in order to assess the birthplace of their paternal grandfathers. All of them carrying typical Eivissan surnames|
This lineage, formed 12600 ybp (14200-11000 ybp), is the largest branch downstream T1a1-L162. Firstly discovered and reported at August 2009 in a 23andMe customer of Iberian ancestry that participated in the public Squecco's Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Project and appearing there as "Avilés" and as "AlpAstur" in 23andMe. Named as "L208" at November 2009.
|Sardinians||Campidanese (Romance languages)||Casteddu||1/187||0.5%|||
This lineage is mostly found among individuals from the Iberian Peninsula, where is found their highest diversity. The first Y-STR haplotype of this lineage, characterized by DYS437=13, was found in the public FTDNA Y-DNA Haplogroup T project, appearing there at April 2009 as kit E8011. However, is not until June 2014 when the Y-SNP Y3836 was discovered in the public YFULL project among two of their participants of Iberian ancestry, appearing there as YF01637 and YF01665.
|Nentsi||Nenets (Uralic)||Nenetsia and Western Siberia||27/54||50%||||K(xL, NOP). In Karafet et al. 2008, Forest Nentsi and Tundra Nentsi were found to be 0% K(xL, NOP).|
|Kazakhs||Kazakh (Turkic)||Kosh-Agachski Raion||19/49||38.8%||||K* (xL-M20, N-M231, O-M175, R-M207, Q-M242). According to Dulik 2011 only T fit.|
|Tuvinians||Tuvan (Turkic)||Kyzyl and Ubsunur Hollow||10/102||9.8%||||K* (xL-M20, N-M231, O-M175, R-M207, Q-M242). In Kharkov et al. 2013 were sampled 296 Tuvinians from Kyzyl and were found to be 0% T.|
|Kazakhs||Kazakh (Turkic)||Southwestern Altai||1/30||3.3%||||T1a-M70|
|Khakass||Khakas (Turkic)||Abakan||3/176||1.7%||.||K* (xL-M20, N-M231, O-M175, R-M207, Q-M242)|
|Evens||Even (Tungusic)||eastern Siberia||1/61||1.6%|||
|Barghuts||Barga (Mongolic)||different localities of Hulun Buir Aimak||1/76||1.3%||||T1a-M70. In the 12–13th centuries, the Barga (Barghuts) Mongols appeared as tribes near Lake Baikal, named Bargujin.|
With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 14% (3/23) of Russians in Yaroslavl, 12.5% (3/24) of Italians in Matera, 10.3% (3/29) of Italians in Avezzano, 10% (3/30) of Tyroleans in Nonstal, 10% (2/20) of Italians in Pescara, 8.7% (4/46) of Italians in Benevento, 7.8% (4/51) of Italians in South Latium, 7.4% (2/27) of Italians in Paola, 7.3% (11/150) of Italians in Central-South Italy, 7.1% (8/113) of Serbs in Serbia, 4.7% (2/42) of Aromanians in Romania, 3.7% (3/82) of Italians in Biella, 3.7% (1/27) of Andalusians in Córdoba, 3.3% (2/60) of Leoneses in León, 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Postua, 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Cavaglià, 3.1% (3/97) of Calabrians in Reggio Calabria, 2.8% (1/36) of Russians in Ryazan Oblast, 2.8% (2/72) of Italians in South Apulia, 2.7% (1/37) of Calabrians in Cosenza, 2.6% (3/114) of Serbs in Belgrade, 2.5% (1/40) of Russians in Pskov, 2.4% (1/42) of Russians in Kaluga, 2.2% (2/89) of Transylvanians in Miercurea Ciuc, 2.2% (2/92) of Italians in Trino Vercellese, 1.9% (2/104) of Italians in Brescia, 1.9% (2/104) of Romanians in Romania, 1.7% (4/237) of Serbs and Montenegrins in Serbia and Montenegro, 1.7% (1/59) of Italians in Marche, 1.7% (1/59) of Calabrians in Catanzaro, 1.6% (3/183) of Greeks in Northern Greece, 1.3% (2/150) of Swiss Germans in Zürich Area, 1.3% (1/79) of Italians in South Tuscany and North Latium, 1.1% (1/92) of Dutch in Leiden, 0.5% (1/185) of Serbs in Novi Sad (Vojvodina), 0.5% (1/186) of Polish in Podlasie
Other parts that have been found to contain a significant proportion of haplogroup T-M184 individuals include Trentino (2/67 or 3%), Mariña Lucense (1/34 or 2.9%), Heraklion (3/104 or 2.9%), Roslavl (3/107 or 2.8%), Ourense (1/37 or 2.7%), Livny (3/110 or 2.7%), Biella (3/114 or 2.6%), Entre Douro (6/228 or 2.6%), Porto (3/118 or 2.5%), Urbino (1/40 or 2.5%), Iberian Peninsula (16/629 or 2.5%), Blekinge/Kristianstad (1/41 or 2.4%), Belarus (1/41 or 2.4%), Modena (3/130 or 2.3%), Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (1/45 or 2.2%), Pristen (1/45 or 2.2%), Cáceres (2/91 or 2.2%), Brac (1/47 or 2.1%), Satakunta (1/48 or 2.1%), Western Croatia (2/101 or 2%), Ukrainia (1/50 or 2%), Greifswald (2/104 or 1.9%), Moldavians in Sofia (1/54 or 1.9%), Uppsala (1/55 or 1.8%), Lublin (2/112 or 1.8%), Pias in Beja (1/54 or 1.8%), Macedonian Greeks (1/57 or 1.8%), Nea Nikomedeia (1/57 or 1.8%), Sesklo/Dimini (1/57 or 1.8%), Lerna/Franchthi (1/57 or 1.8%), Açores (2/121 or 1.7%), Viana do Castelo (1/59 or 1.7%), Toulouse (1/67 or 1.5%), Belgorod (2/143 or 1.4%), Sardinia (1/77 or 1.3%). According to data from commercial testing, 3.9% of Italian males belonging to this haplogroup. Approximately 3% of Sephardi Jews and 2% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup T.
Middle East and Caucasus
Haplogroup T has some significant frequencies in Southeast and Eastern Anatolia, the Zagors Mountains and some parts around the Persian Gulf on both sides. Out of 867 reported in FTDNA haplogroup T-(former K2)project - 284 (32%) are from this area, almost 50% of those from eastern Saudi Arabia .
Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 28% (7/25) of Lezginians in Dagestan, 21.7% (5/23) of Ossetians in Zamankul, 14% (7/50) of Iranians in Isfahan, 13% (3/23) of Ossetians in Zil'ga, 12.6% (11/87) of Kurmanji Kurds in Eastern Turkey, 11.8% (2/17) of Palestinian Arabs in Palestine, 8.3% (1/12) of Iranians in Shiraz, 8.3% (2/24) of Ossetians in Alagir, 8% (2/25) of Kurmanji Kurds in Georgia, 7.5% (6/80) of Iranians in Tehran, 7.4% (10/135) of Palestinian Arabs in Israeli Village, 7% (10/143) of Palestinian Arabs in Israel and Palestine, 5% (1/19) of Chechens in Chechenia, 4.2% (3/72) of Azerbaijanians in Azerbaijan, 4.1% (2/48) of Iranians in Isfahan, 4% (4/100) of Armenians in Armenia, 4% (1/24) of Bedouins in Israel and 2.6% (1/39) of Turks in Ankara.
Haplogroup T1a-M70 in India has been considered to be of West Eurasian origin.
Haplogroup T-M184 has been detected in:
|Kurru||Yerukala (Dravidian)||Andhra Pradesh||10/18||55.6%|||
|Bauris||Bengali (Indo-Aryan)||West Bengal||10/19||52.6%||||K* is found at 6/19, if M70- but M184+, then could be 84.2%. Bauris are thought to be descendants of a native tribe of the Central Highlands before the Aryan invasion, then as Bauris have not been well assimilated and have not participated satisfactorily in the new Aryan society, the Bauris ended up being seen as "low caste". They are at "halfway" between the old Bauri tribal and the new Aryan society lifestyle.|
|Lodha||Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda)||West Bengal||2/4||50%|||
|Rajus||Telugu (Dravidian)||Andhra Pradesh||3/19||15.9%|||
|Maheli||Mahali (Kherwari Munda)||West Bengal||2/13||15.3%|||
|Chenchus||Chenchu (Dravidian)||Andhra Pradesh||3/20||15%||||K* is found at 7/20, if M70- but M184+, then could be 50%|
|Kare Vokkal||Kannada (Dravidian)||Uttara Kannada||4/30||13.3%||||K* is found at 3/30, if M70- but M184+, then could be 23.3%|
|Banjaras||Lambadi (Indo-Aryan)||Andhra Pradesh||2/18||11.1%|||
|Gonds||Gondi (Dravidian)||South Uttar Pradesh||4/38||10.6%|||
|Gonds||Gondi (Dravidian)||Madhya Pradesh||10/139||7.2%|||
|Indians||languages of India||South India||18/305||5.9%|||
|Maheli||Mahali (Kherwari Munda)||Jamshedpur from Jharkhand; Purulia, Midnapore & other location from West Bengal||2/38||5.3%||||Two samples from different studies grouped together|
|Chenchus||Chenchu (Dravidian)||Andhra Pradesh||3/61||4.9%||||Samples from Trivedi et al. and Kivisild et al.|
|Banjaras||Lambadi (Indo-Aryan)||Andhra Pradesh||2/53||3.8%||||Two samples from different studies grouped together|
|Indians||languages of India||East India||14/367||3.8%|||
|Lodha||Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda)||Midnapore & other location from West Bengal||2/71||2.8%||||Three samples from different studies grouped together|
|Sahariyas||Saharia (Munda)||Madhya Pradesh||2/73||2.7%|||
|Maravars||Tamil (Dravidian)||Ramanathapuram||1/80||1.3%||||Dry Land Farmers|
|Garos||Garo (Sino-Tibetan)||Tangail||1/120||0.8%||||Likely P77+|
With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 56.6% (30/53) of Kunabhis in Uttar Kannada, 32.5% (13/40) of Kammas in Andhra Pradesh, 26.8% (11/41) of Brahmins in Visakhapatnam, 25% (1/4) of Kattunaiken in South India, 22.4% (11/49) of Telugus in Andhra Pradesh, 20% (1/5) of Ansari in South Asia, (2/20) of Poroja in Andhra Pradesh, 9.8% (5/51) of Kashmiri Pandits in Kashmir, 8.2% (4/49) of Gujars in Kashmir, 7.7% (1/13) of Siddis (migrants from Ethiopia) in Andhra Pradesh, 5.5% (3/55) of Adi in Northeast India, 5.5% (7/128) of Pardhans in Adilabad, 5.3% (2/38) of Brahmins in Bihar, 4.3% (1/23) of Bagata in Andhra Pradesh, 4.2% (1/24) of Valmiki in Andhra Pradesh, (1/32) of Brahmins in Maharashtra, 3.1% (2/64) of Brahmins in Gujarat, 2.9% (1/35) of Rajput in Uttar Pradesh, 2.3% (1/44) of Brahmins in Peruru, and 1.7% (1/59) of Manghi in Maharashtra.
Central Asia and East Asia
|Bao'an||Bonan (Mongolic)||Gansu and Qinghai||6/27||22.2%||||K* (xN-M231, O-M175, P-M45)|
|Uyghur||Uyghur (Turkic)||Ili||5/39||12.8%||||K* (xNOP)|
|Sherpas||Sherpa (Sino-Tibetan)||Zhangmu||15/120||12.5%||||K-M9 (xM-P256, NO-M214, P-M45) Parents and grandparents were reported to be Sherpas. Individuals unrelated for at least three generations.|
|Bajo sea Nomads||Bajaw (Malayo-Polynesian)||Sulawesi||2/27||7.4%||||T1a-M70|
|Yugurs||Eastern Yugur and Western Yugur||Sunan Yugur Autonomous County||2/32||6.3%||||K* (xN-M231, O-M175, P-M45)|
|Khampas||Khams Tibetan (Sino-Tibetan)||Markham||1/18||5.6%||||T-M272|
|Adis||Adi (Sino-Tibetan)||Arunachal Pradesh||3/55||5.5%|||
|Xibes||Xibe (Tungusic)||-||2/41||4.9%||||K* (xNOP)|
|Mongolians||Mongolian (Mongolic)||Inner Mongolia||2/45||4.4%||||K* (xNOP)|
|Mongolians||Mongolian (Mongolic)||Inner Mongolia||2/50||4%||||K* (xN-M231, O-M175, P-M45)|
|Evenks||Ewenki (Tungusic)||-||1/26||3.9%||||K* (xNOP)|
|Uzbeks||Uzbek (Turkic)||Sar-e Pol Province||1/28||3.6%|||
|Sherpas||Sherpa (Sino-Tibetan)||Khumjung, Namche, Chaurikharka and Lukla||5/157||3.2%||||K-M9 (xM-P256, NO-M214, P-M45) Parents and grandparents were reported to be Sherpas. Individuals unrelated for at least three generations.|
|Oroqen||Oroqen (Tungusic)||-||1/31||3.2%||||K* (xNOP)|
|Manchu||Manchu (Tungusic)||-||1/35||2.9%||||K* (xNOP)|
|Uyghur||Uyghur (Turkic)||Xinjiang||1/48 (1/4 samples)||2.1%|||
|Tu||Monguor (Mongolic)||Qinghai||1/50||2%||||K* (xN-M231, O-M175, P-M45)|
|Mongolians||Mongolian (Mongolic)||Outer Mongolia||1/65||1.5%||||K* (xNOP)|
|Kozha Kazakhs (Steppe Clergy)||Kazakh (Turkic)||Kazakhstan||1/71||1.4%||||T1a-M70|
|Uzbeks||Uzbek (Turkic)||Jawzjan Province||1/94||1.1%|||
|Mongolians||Mongolian (Mongolic)||Inner Mongolia||1/100||1%|||
|Uyghur||Uyghur (Turkic)||Hotan Prefecture||3/478||0.6%|||
|Mongolians||Mongolian (Mongolic)||Ordos (city)||1/258||0.4%||||Could be 0.8% (2/258)|
|Hans||Mandarin (Sino-Tibetan)||Qujing, Yuxi and Honghe County||1/320||0.3%||||K* (xN-M231, O-M175, P-M45)|
Elite endurance runners
Possible patterns between Y-chromosome and elite endurance runners were studied in an attempt to find a genetic explanation to the Ethiopian endurance running success. Given the superiority of East African athletes in international distance running over the past four decades, it has been speculated that they are genetically advantaged. Elite marathon runners from Ethiopia were analysed for K*(xP) which according to the previously published Ethiopian studies is attributable to the haplogroup T and specifically to the T1a1a* (old T1a*) subclade, according to further studies. T1a1a* was found to be proportionately more frequent in the elite marathon runners sample than in the control samples than any other haplogroup, therefore this y-chromosome could play a significant role in determining Ethiopian endurance running success. Haplogroup T1a1a* was found in 14% of the elite marathon runners sample of whom 43% of this sample are from Arsi province. In addition, haplogroup T1a1a* was found in only 4% of the Ethiopian control sample and only 1% of the Arsi province control sample. T1a1a* is positively associated with aspects of endurance running, whereas E1b1b1 (old E3b1) is negatively associated.
Notable haplogroup members
A notable member of the T-M184 haplogroup is American President Thomas Jefferson (most distant known ancestor "MDKA" is Samuel Jefferson, Born 11 October 1607 in Pettistree, Suffolk, England). The Y-chromosomal complement of the Jefferson male line was studied in 1998 in an attempt to resolve the controversy over whether he had fathered the mixed-race children of his slave Sally Hemings. A 1998 DNA study of the Y chromosome in the Jefferson male line found that it matched that of a descendant of Eston Hemings, Sally Hemings' youngest son. This confirmed the body of historical evidence, and most historians believe that Jefferson had a long-term intimate liaison with Hemings for 38 years, and fathered her six children of record, four of whom lived to adulthood. In addition, the testing conclusively disproved any connection between the Hemings descendant and the Carr male line. Jefferson grandchildren had asserted in the 19th century that a Carr nephew had been the father of Hemings' children, and this had been the basis of historians' denial for 180 years. Jefferson's paternal family traced back Wales, where T is incredibly rare, as it is throughout Britain. A couple of British males with the Jefferson surname have been found with the third president's type of T, reinforcing the idea that his immediate paternal ancestry was British. But Jefferson's T type is also closely related to Egyptian and Iberian T branches of the haplogroup.
|Latest 2015 tree (ISOGG 2015)|
This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the 2012 ISOGG Tree.
- T (L445, L452, L455/PF5670, PR4091, L810, M184/Page34/USP9Y+3178, M272/PF5667, Page129) Found in the North European Plain, Armenia, Iberian Peninsula and Bhutan. Also found in a South Australia European sample and a Palestinian individual.
- T1 (L206, L490) Found in Syria.
- T1a (M70/Page46/PF5662, PAGES78) Found in Early Neolithic skeleton found in Karsdorf, Germany, 7200 years old. Also in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Ossetia, England, Italy and Portugal.
- T1a1 (L162/Page21, L299, L453/PF5617, L454) Found in Eivissa, northern Anatolia and Germany.
- T1a1a (L208/Page2, L905) Mostly found in Upper Egypt, Horn of Africa, western Europe, eastern Anatolia, Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Some spots in western Morocco, Sahrawis and Canarias.
- T1a1a1 (P77) Mostly found in Middle East, western Europe and Ashkenazi Jews.
- T1a1a2 (P321) Found in Syria and Ashkenazi Jews.
- T1a1a2a (P317) Found in Syria, Italian Jews and Ashkenazi Jews.
- T1a1a (L208/Page2, L905) Mostly found in Upper Egypt, Horn of Africa, western Europe, eastern Anatolia, Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Some spots in western Morocco, Sahrawis and Canarias.
- T1a2 (L131) Mostly found in northern Europe, eastern Europe, southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Also found in Xinjiang, Lemba, Tunisia, south and east Iberian Peninsula.
- T1a2a (P322, P328) Found in Scandinavia, Denmark, Germany and Netherlands. Some spots in Yemenite Jews and Palestine(P327).
- T1a2b (L446) Found in Northwest Europe and eastern Alps.
- T1a3 (L1255) Found in Kuwait.
- T1a1 (L162/Page21, L299, L453/PF5617, L454) Found in Eivissa, northern Anatolia and Germany.
- T1a (M70/Page46/PF5662, PAGES78) Found in Early Neolithic skeleton found in Karsdorf, Germany, 7200 years old. Also in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Ossetia, England, Italy and Portugal.
- T1 (L206, L490) Found in Syria.
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.
|YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)||(a)||(ß)||(?)||(d)||(e)||(?)||(?)||YCC 2002 (Longhand)||YCC 2005 (Longhand)||YCC 2008 (Longhand)||YCC 2010r (Longhand)||ISOGG 2006||ISOGG 2007||ISOGG 2008||ISOGG 2009||ISOGG 2010||ISOGG 2011||ISOGG 2012||ISOGG 2013|
Original research publications
The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.
? Su 1999
Y-DNA backbone tree
|Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2|
|L||T [χ 6]||NO [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|N||O||K2b1 [χ 10]||P|
|K2b1a [χ 11]||K2b1b||K2b1c||M||P1||P2|
|K2b1a1||K2b1a2||K2b1a3||S [χ 12]||Q||R|
- W. Goodwin et al., " Department of Forensic and Investigative Science ," "www.yhrd.org/" (2012),
- Carsten Hohoff and Bernd Brinkmann "Institut für Rechtsmedizin"," 'Universität Münster <http://www.yhrd.org>
- Uta D. Immel et al., "Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Martin-Luther Universität Haale/Saale," "www.yhrd.org/" (1999),
- Laura Valverde Potes et al., "Grupo BIOMICs / BIOMICs Research Group," "www.yhrd.org/" (2011),
Other works cited
- YFull YTree v4.02
- Hallast (Nov 2014). The Y-chromosome tree bursts into leaf: 13,000 high-confidence SNPs covering the majority of known clades (Thesis).
- "The Y-DNA Haplogroup T (former K2) Project".
- Mendez, Fernando L.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Krahn, Thomas; Ostrer, Harry; Soodyall, Himla; Hammer, Michael F. (2011). "Increased Resolution of Y Chromosome Haplogroup T Defines Relationships among Populations of the Near East, Europe, and Africa". Human Biology. 83 (1): 39–53. doi:10.3378/027.083.0103. PMID 21453003.
Estimates of the timing of the branching events within haplogroup T, along with a comprehensive geographic survey of the major T subclades, suggest that this haplogroup began to diversify in the Near East ~25 kya. Our survey also points to a complex history of dispersal of this rare and informative haplogroup within the Near East and from the Near East to Europe and sub-Saharan Africa.
- PH = Pille Hallast, Ph.D., University of Leicester, Department of Genetics, United Kingdom
- Bekada, Asmahan; et al. (2013). "Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape". PLOS ONE. 8: e56775. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775. PMC . PMID 23431392.
- Herrera, Kristian J; et al. (2011). "Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists". European Journal of Human Genetics. 20: 313–320. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.192. PMC . PMID 22085901.
- Tatiana M Karafet et al., "Coevolution of genes and languages and high levels of population structure among the highland populations of Daghestan," " Journal of Human Genetics " (2016),
- Nasidze; et al. (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus". Annals of Human Genetics. 68: 205–221. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00092.x. PMID 15180701.
- Grugni, Viola; Battaglia, Vincenza; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Parolo, Silvia; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; et al. (2012). Kivisild, Toomas, ed. "Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians". PLOS ONE. 7 (7): e41252. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041252. PMC . PMID 22815981.
- Haak, Wolfgang; et al. (2015). "Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe". Nature. 522: 207–211. doi:10.1038/nature14317.
- Mathieson, Iain; et al. (2015). "Eight thousand years of natural selection in Europe". BioR XIV.
- Luis JR, Rowold DJ, Regueiro M, et al. (March 2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74 (3): 532–44. doi:10.1086/382286. PMC . PMID 14973781.
- Batini, Chiara; et al. (2015). "Large-scale recent expansion of European patrilineages shown by population resequencing". Nature Communications. 6: 7152. doi:10.1038/ncomms8152.
- Oelze (June 2012). Mobility and diet in Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age Germany : evidence from multiple isotope analysis (PDF) (PhD Thesis). Leiden University. hdl:1887/19045.
- Oelze, Vicky M.; et al. (2010). "Early Neolithic diet and animal husbandry: stable isotope evidence from three Linearbandkeramik (LBK) sites in Central Germany". Journal of Archaeological Science. 38: 270–279. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.08.027.
- Brandt, Guido; et al. (2014). "Settlement Burials at the Karsdorf LBK Site, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany". British Academy Scholarship Online.
- Simmons, Alan H.; et al. (2014). "'Ain Ghazal: A Major Neolithic Settlement in Central Jordan". American Association for the Advancement of Science.
- Goren, Yuval; et al. (2001). "The Technology of Skull Modelling in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB): Regional Variability, the Relation of Technology and Iconography and their Archaeological Implications". Journal of Archaeological Science.
- Rollefson, G.; et al. (1992). "Early Neolithic exploitation patterns in the Levant: cultural impact on the environment". Population and Environment.
- Rollefson, G. O.; et al. (1998). "Invoking the Spirit Prehistoric religion at Ain Ghazal". Archaeology Odyssey.
- Lazaridis, Iosif; et al. (2016). "The genetic structure of the world's first farmers". BioR XIV.
- Zielhofer, Christoph; et al. (2012). "The decline of the early Neolithic population center of 'Ain Ghazal and corresponding earth-surface processes, Jordan Rift Valley". Quaternary Research.
- Plaster; et al. (2011). "Variation in Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA and labels of identity on Ethiopia" (PDF). UCL Discovery.
- Balanovsky, Oleg; Rootsi, Siiri; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Kivisild, Toomas; Churnosov, Michail; Evseeva, Irina; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Boldyreva, Margarita; et al. (2008). "Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 82 (1): 236–50. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.019. PMC . PMID 18179905.
- Kharkov, V.N.; et al. (2006). "Gene pool differences between Northern and Southern Altaians inferred from the data on Y-chromosomal haplogroups". Russian Journal of Genetics. doi:10.1134/S1022795407050110.
- Gonçalves, Rita; et al. (2003). "Y-chromosome lineages in Cabo Verde Islands witness the diverse geographic origin of its first male settlers". Human Genetics. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1007-4.
- Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; et al. (2015). "The relationship between surname frequency and Y chromosome variation in Spain". European Journal of Human Genetics. 24: 120–128. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.75.
- Yunusbayev, Bayazit; et al. (2012). "The Caucasus as an Asymetric Semipermeable Barrier to Ancient Human Migrations". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 29: 359–365. doi:10.1093/molbev/msr221. PMID 21917723.
- López-Parra; et al. (2009). "In search of the Pre- and Post-Neolithic Genetic Substrates in Iberia: Evidence from Y-Chromosome in Pyrenean Populations". Annals of Human Genetics. 73: 42–53. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00478.x. PMID 18803634.
- Simona Fornarino (Nov 2009). Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation (Thesis).
- Taylor; et al. (2012). "Haplotype data for 16 Y-chromosome STR loci in Aboriginal and Caucasian populations in South Australia". Forensic Science International: Genetics. 6: e187–e188. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2012.05.005.
- Frigi, Sabeh; et al. (2005). "Data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by 17 STRs (AmpFLSTR1 YfilerTM) in two Tunisian Berber communities". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 160: 80–83. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.05.007.
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- The Y-DNA Haplogroup T Project
- YFull T YTree
- T1a-M70 skeleton, Germany I0795_390K
- T1a-M70 skeleton, Germany I0795_1240K
- T1a-M70 skeleton, Germany I0797_1240K
- Settlement Burials at the Karsdorf LBK Site, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
- Map of the 7100ybp T1a settlement of Karsdorf
- Video: Karsdorf's adjacent pagan structure for tribal rituals
- Video: Tribal culture contemporaneous to T1a and their adjacent pagan structure
- The Digital Archaeological Atlas of the 'Ain Ghazal settlement
- C14 radiocarbon CONTEXT database