Haplogroup T-M184

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This article is about the Y-Chromosome Haplogroup T-M184. For the unrelated mtDNA Haplogroup, see Haplogroup T (mtDNA).
Haplogroup T-M184
Distribution Haplogroup T Y-DNA II.svg
Possible time of origin 19,000-30,000 years BP[1]
Possible place of origin West Asia[1][2]
Ancestor LT
Descendants T-L206
Defining mutations M184/PAGES34/USP9Y+3178, M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, L445
Highest frequencies Somalis, Kurru, Bauris, Armenian Sasuntzis, Chians, Saccensi/Sicilians, Fulbe, Eivissencs, Northeastern Portuguese Jews, Rajus, Mahli, Zoroastrians in Kerman, Bakhtiaris/Lurs, Southern Egyptians

Haplogroup T-M184, often known as Haplogroup T, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. The unique-event polymorphism (UEP) which defines this clade is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) known as M184. Other SNPs – M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, and L445 – are considered to be phylogenetically equivalent to M184.

T-M184 is an immediate descendant of Haplogroup LT, which is an immediate descendant of Haplogroup K. From 2002 to 2008, T-M184 was known as Haplogroup K2 (a name that has since been reassigned to a quite different subclade of Haplogroup K).

Haplogroup T is unusual in that it is both relatively rare and geographically widespread. While it probably originated, about 20,000 years ago, on the Arabian Peninsula, T-M184 is most common in males native to West Asia (especially Iraq), the Horn of Africa, and many other parts of Eurasia and North Africa (albeit seldom at levels above 10%). It has also been detected in southern and eastern India, at levels of about 4.0%, and on the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) in about 2.0% of the male population. It is possible that European examples represent relatively recent immigration from North Africa, but they could also have reached Europe during the Neolithic, with the peoples who introduced agriculture from West Asia.


Initial research on the T1a-M70

K2-M70 is believed to have originated in Asia after the emergence of the K-M9 polymorphism (45–30 ky) (Underhill et al. 2001a). As deduced from the collective data (Underhill et al. 2000; Cruciani et al. 2002; Semino et al. 2002; present study), K2-M70 individuals, at some later point, proceeded south to Africa. While these chromosomes are seen in relatively high frequencies in Egypt, Oman, Tanzania, Ethiopia, they are especially prominent in the Fulbe 18%( [Scozzari et al. 1997, 1999])

J. R. Luis et al. 2004, [3]
The main T subclades in Europe

The occurrence in Europe of lineages belonging to both T1a1 (old T1a) and T1a2 (old T1b) subclades probably reflects multiple episodes of gene flow. T1a1* haplogroups in Europe likely reflect older gene flow

Mendez et al. 2011, [1]


Haplogroup T is a fairly rare lineage in Europe, high in the middle and eastern sides of the Arabian peninsula and Arab States of the Persian Gulf, Out of 867 reported in FTDNA haplogroup T-(former K2)project - 284 (32%) are from this area, almost 50% of those from east of Saudi Arabia [1] . It account for 10% of the people living in the Persian Gulf countries. It makes up only 1% of the population on most of the European continent, except in Greece, Macedonia and Italy where it exceeds 4%, and in Iberia where it reaches 2.5%, peaking at 10% in Cadiz and over 15% in Ibiza. The maximal worldwide frequency for haplogroup T is observed in East Africa (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania) and in the Middle East (especially the South Caucasus, southern Iraq, south-west Iran, Oman and southern Egypt), where it accounts for approximately 5 to 15% of the male lineages. Besides these regions and Europe, T is found in isolated pockets as far as Central Asia, India, Cameroon, Zambia and South Africa. Its highest density is actually found among the Fulani people of Cameroon (18% of the population). Haplogroup T-M184 (M193, M272, L206, PAGES129) is found in a majority of Kurru,[who?] Bauris & Lodha in South Asia; and in a significant minority of Rajus and Mahli in South Asia; Somalis, southern Egyptians and Fulbe in north Cameroon; Chian Greeks, Saccensi/Sicilians, Eivissencs / Ibizans and Northeastern Portuguese Jews in Europe and Zoroastrians, Bakhtiaris/Lurs in the Middle East.[citation needed] Haplogroup T is common in northern Somalia and in the Somalis of Ethiopia.[citation needed] The distribution of this haplogroup has been suggested to be associated with mtdna haplogroup M1 as the two tend to be common in the same regions.[4][incomplete short citation]

Haplogroup T-M184 is not associated with the R1, G and J lineages that entered Africa from Eurasia relatively recently. Luis et al. (2004) suggest that the presence of the clade on the African continent may, like R1* representatives, point to an older introduction from Asia. The Levant rather than the Arabian Peninsula appears to have been the main route of entry, as the Egyptian and Turkish haplotypes are considerably older in age (13,700 ybp and 9,000 ybp, respectively) than those found in Oman (only 1,600 ybp). According to the authors, the spotty modern distribution pattern of haplogroup T-M184 within Africa may therefore represent the traces of a more widespread early local presence of the clade. Later expansions of populations carrying the E1b1b, E1b1a, G and J NRY lineages may have overwhelmed the T-M184 clade-bearers in certain localities.[3]

The distribution of haplogroup T-M184 in most parts of Europe is patchy or regionalized; for example, haplogroup T-M184 was found in 1.7% (10/591) of a pool of six samples of males from southwestern Russia, but it was completely absent from a pool of eight samples totalling 637 individuals from the northern half of European Russia.[5] The Russians from the southwest were from the following cities: Roslavl, Livny, Pristen, Repyevka, and Belgorod; and Kuban Cossacks from the Republic of Adygea.


The paternal haplogroup T-M70 varies between 3% and 24% of male lineages in Germany.

The Genographic Project 2.0, 2012
Armenians from Sasun

Interestingly, haplogroup T-M184, which is relatively rare in other Near Eastern populations, as well as in three of the Armenian collections tested here, represents the most prominent descent in Sasun, comprising 20.1% of the samples. The presence of this haplogroup in Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van, by contrast, is more limited, composing only 3.6%, 6.3% and 3.9%, respectively, of the individuals from those collections.[...]Sasun, however, exhibits statistically significant divergence from the remaining Armenian populations, most likely as the result of the prominence in Sasun of lineages (T-M184 and R2a-M124) found at substantially lower frequencies in Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van.

Kristian J Herrera, 2012

T-M184 (xM70)[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Leoneses Astur-Leonese (Romance) Leon 1/13 7.7% [6][7]
Ossetian Irons Iron (Scythian) South Ossetia 1/21 4.8% [7][8]
Cordobeses Andalusian (Romance) Córdoba 1/27 3.7% [7][9]
Leoneses Astur-Leonese (Romance) Leon 2/60 3.3% [7][9]
Cherkessians Besleney (Northwest Caucasian) Circassia 2/126 1.6% [7][8]
Bizkaians Bizkaiera (Isolate language) Bizkaia 1/72 1.4% [7][9]

T1-L206 (xM70)[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Syrians Unspecified Syria 1/95 1.1% [1]

T1a1-L162 (xL208)[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Pityusics Eivissenc (Romance) Eivissa 9/54 16.7% [10][11] L454+. All individuals were interviewed in order to assess the birthplace of their paternal grandfathers. All of them carrying typical Eivissan surnames
Pityusics Eivissenc (Romance) Eivissa 7/96 7.3% [12] L454+
Pityusics Eivissenc (Romance) Eivissa 3/45 6.7% [13] L454+
The Pityusic Islanders. One out of the three genetically different populations in the Balearic Islands

The population of the Pityusic Islands does present a clear genetic divergence in relation to the Mallorcan and Menorcan populations. Neither shows a confluence with the Catalan and Valencian populations like do the Mallorcan and Menorcan. With the comparison of the data provided by the Pityusic population with other circumediterranean populations surprises that practically there is no convergence with any of these populations, not even with the North African populations. The Pityusic case is paradigmatic: for some markers shows affinities with Oriental populations (some mtDNA variables), but diverges from these populations when considering other markers. Is a separate case, a island, not in the geographical sense but genetical.

Misericòrdia Ramon Juanpere et al., 1998-2004


Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Panamanians Panamanian Spanish (Romance languages) Los Santos Province 1/30 3.3% [14]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance languages) Caldas 2/75 2.7% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Panamanians Panamanian Spanish (Romance languages) Panama Province 1/43 2.3% [14]
Northwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance languages) Mountainous region of San Salvador de Jujuy 1/50 2% YHRD Admixed population
Puerto Ricans Puerto Rican Spanish (Romance languages) Southeast Puerto Rico 2/110 1.8% [15]
Native Mirandese speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Miranda de l Douro 1/58 1.7% [16]
Panamanians Panamanian Spanish (Romance languages) Chiriquí Province 1/92 1.1% [14]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance languages) Bogotá 2/195 1% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance languages) Valle del Cauca 1/103 1% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Europeans Brazilian Portuguese (Romance languages) São Paulo 1/120 0.8 YHRD European descents
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance languages) Antioquia 6/777 0.7% [17]
Mexicans Mexican Spanish (Romance languages) Tuxtla Gutiérrez 1/154 0.7 YHRD Mestizo individuals
Mexicans Mexican Spanish (Romance languages) Mérida 1/159 0.6% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Eastern Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Granada 1/180 0.6% [18]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance languages) Santander 1/193 0.5% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Concepción 1/198 0.5% YHRD
Mexicans Mexican Spanish (Romance languages) Guadalajara 1/246 0.4% YHRD Mestizo individuals

Northern Asia[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Nentsi Nenets Nenetsia and Western Siberia 27/54 50% [19] K(xL, NOP). In Karafet et al. 2008, Forest Nentsi and Tundra Nentsi were found to be 0% K(xL, NOP).
Kazakhs Kazakh Kosh-Agachski Raion 19/49 38.8% [20] K(xL, NOP). According to Dulik 2011 only T fit.
Tuvinians Tuvan Kyzyl and Ubsunur Hollow 10/102 9.8% [20] In Kharkov et al. 2013 were sampled 296 Tuvinians from Kyzyl and were found to be 0% T.
Kazakhs Kazakh Southwestern Altai 1/30 3.3% [21]
Khakass Khakas Abakan 3/176 1.7% .[20]


Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Arquata del Tronto and Apiro 2/2 100% [22]
Cretans and southern Aegeans Southeastern Greek Crete and southern Aegean 2/6 33.3% [23]
Rural Saccensi Sicilian (Romance) Sciacca 6/20 30% [24]
Chians Southeastern Greek Khíos 4/16 25% [25]
German Stilfser/Tyrolese Southern Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) Stilfs 4/17 23.5% [26]
Venetians Venetian (Romance) Vigasio and Povegliano Veronese 2/9 22.2% [27]
Abruzzesi Neapolitan language (Romance) L'Aquila 6/30 20% [28] macro-haplogroup LT is 30% in L'Aquila population.
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Sciacca 5/28 17.9% [29]
Urban Ragusani Sicilian (Romance) Ragusa 3/19 15.8% [24]
Northeastern Portuguese Jews Judaeo-Portuguese (Romance) Bragança 9/57 15.7% [30] T have been found to be the second largest lineage in the Mirandês speaking population of Miranda do Douro too. Haplogroup T was not found in a sample of Belmonte Jews.
Albanians Albanian Brescia (Lombardia) 12/83 14.5% [31] The haplogroup tested is K*(xNOP), is assumed as LT and most probably are members of T
Rural Normensi Italian (Romance) Norma 1/7 14.3% [24]
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Balagne (region of Haute-Corse) 3/83 12.5% [32]
Rural Piazzesi Sicilian (Romance) Piazza Armerina 3/24 12.5% [24]
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 2/18 11.1% [33] All individuals were interviewed in order to assess the geographical origin of their grandparents and their speaking dialect.
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Matelica 1/9 11.1% [22]
Gaditanos Andalusian (Romance) Cádiz 3/28 10.7% [34]
Native Mirandese speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Miranda de l Douro 6/58 10.3% [16]
Pacenses Astur-Leonese (Romance) Badajoz 3/29 10.3% [6]
Asturianos Astur-Leonese (Romance) Eastern Uviéu 1/10 10% [35]
Murcianos Murcian (Romance) Murcia 1/10 10% [36]
Rural Alcamesi Sicilian (Romance) Alcamo 2/22 9.1% [24]
Cretans Cretan Greek Lasithi 2/23 8.7% [37]
Lugueses Galician language (Romance) Lugo 1/12 8.3% [6]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) West Campania 7/84 8.3% [38]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) Cilento 4/48 8.3% [39]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Alcamo 2/24 8.3% [29]
Lebaniegos Astur-Leonese (Romance) Liébana 3/37 8.1% [40]
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Corte 5/62 8.1% [32]
Segovianos Castilian language (Romance) Segovia 2/25 8% [6]
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Offida 3/38 7.9% [41]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) East Sicily 9/114 7.9% [29]
Northern Portugueses Portuguese (Romance) Vila Real 3/39 7.7% [42]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) Campania 8/108 7.4% [43]
Cretans Cretan Greek Oropedio Lasithiou 3/41 7.3% [37]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Ragusa 2/28 7.1% [29]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Piazza Armerina 2/28 7.1% [29]
Walloons Walloon (Romance) Wallonia 3/47 6.4% [44]
Asturianos Eonavian (Romance) Navia-Eo 2/31 6.5% [35]
Gagauzes Gagauz (Turkic) Kongaz 3/48 6.3%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Aveiro 4/66 6.1%
Western Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Huelva 10/167 6% [18]
Aragonese Aragonese and Castilian (Romance) Aragón 2/34 5.9%
Corsicans Corsican Corsica 2/34 5.9%
Panteschis Sicilian with Siculo-Arabic influences (Romance) Pantelleria 1/17 5.9% [45]
Extremadurans Astur-Leonese and Castilian (Romance) Extremadura 3/52 5.8%
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Unspecified Bulgarian region 4/69 5.8% [46]
Dutch Hollandic (West Germanic) North Holland 1/18 5.6%
Lombardians Lombard and Italian (Romance) Lombardia 1/18 5.6% [32]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Mazara del Vallo 1/18 5.6%
Southern Italians Italian (Romance) South Apulia 4/71 5.6%
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) South Sicily 3/55 5.4%
Lombardians Lombard and Italian (Romance) Lombardia 7/131 5.3%
Hutterites Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) Tyrol 4/75 5.3%
Peloponnesians Southern Greek Peloponnese 1/19 5.3% [23]
Estonians Estonian (Uralic) Estonia 11/207 5.3%
Gutes Gutnish (North Germanic) Gotland 2/40 5%
Alsatians Alsatian (Upper German) Strossburi 4/80 5%
Asturians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Asturies 1/20 5%
Italian speakers Italian (Romance) Bozen 3/59 5%
Ladin Stilfser/Tyrolese Ladin (Romance) Stelvio 1/20 5%
Gaditanos Andalusian language (Romance) Cadiz 1/20 5% [6]
Malacitanos Andalusian language (Romance) Malaga 1/20 5% [6]
Macedonians and Thracians Northern Greek East Macedonia and Thrace 1/21 4.8% [23]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Razgrad 1/21 4.8% [46]
Northeastern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Trás os Montes 3/64 4.7%
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) East Sicily 4/87 4.6%
Western Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Huelva 1/22 4.5% [34]
West Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Sevilla 7/155 4.5% [34]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Santiago 2/46 4.4%
Palentinos Castilian language (Romance) Palencia 1/23 4.4% [6]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Aragó 1/23 4.4% [47]
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) Central Liguria 2/45 4.4% [41]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Penedès 7/164 4.3% [47]
Greeks Greek Athens 4/92 4.3%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese Beira Litoral 5/116 4.3%
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) La Spezia 2/46 4.3% [48]
South Italians Salentino (Romance) North Apulia 2/46 4.3%
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 3/70 4.3% [34]
Pincianos Castilian language (Romance) Valladolid 1/24 4.2% [6]
Macedonians Northern Greek Central Macedonia 1/25 4% [23]
Madrileños Castilian language (Romance) Madrid 2/50 4% [6]
Germans German (West Germanic) Berlin 4/103 3.9%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Braga 2/51 3.9%
Tuscans Tuscan (Romance) South Tuscany 3/79 3.8%
Riojans Riojan and Castilian (Romance) La Rioja 2/54 3.7% [33]
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Apennines Marche 1/27 3.7%
Calabrians Southern Italian (Romance) West Calabria 1/27 3.7% [41]
Urban Biellesi Piedmontese (Romance) Bièla 3/81 3.7% [24]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Kharkiv Oblast 2/55 3.6% [49]
Native Sayaguese speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Sayago 1/28 3.6% [16]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Montes Baixo Miño 1/28 3.6%
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Ajaccio 1/28 3.6% [32]
Estonians Estonian (Uralic) Estonia - 3.5%
Southern Portugueses Portuguese (Romance) Évora 1/29 3.5%
Canarians Canarian Spanish (Romance) La Palma 3/85 3.5%
Scanians Scanian dialects (South Scandinavian) Malmö 1/29 3.4%
Occitans Auvergnat (Romance) Clermont-Ferrand 3/89 3.4%
Azoreans Portuguese (Romance) Eastern Azores 3/87 3.4% [50]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Lugo 2/61 3.3%
Albanians Albanian dialects Albania 1/30 3.3%
Northeastern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Bragança 1/30 3.3% [30]
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Viseu 1/30 3.3%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Guarda 1/30 3.3%
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) West Sicily 4/122 3.3%
Leoneses Astur-leonese language (Romance) Leon 7/221 3.2% [6]
Lithuanians Aukštaitian (Baltic) West Aukstaiciai 1/31 3.2%
Greeks Northern Greek Western Greece 1/31 3.2% [23]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) San Giorgio La Molara 1/31 3.2% [41]
Valencians Catalan and Castilian (Romance) Valencia 1/31 3.2% [34]
Southern Tyroleans Southern Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) Lower Vinschgau 1/32 3.1%
Rhinelanders Ripuarian (Central Franconian) Köln 3/96 3.1%
Swedes Swedish dialects (East Scandinavian) Örebro 1/32 3.1%
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 3/98 3.1% [51]
Albaceteño Castilian language (Romance) Albacete 1/32 3.1% [6]
Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Madeira 4/129 3.1%
Asturianos Astur-Leonese language (Romance) Asturias 1/33 3% [6]
Shetlanders with Aboriginal surnames Scots language and Norn Language (Germanic) Shetland 1/35 2.9% Shetland Project.
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Smolensk Oblast 3/107 2.8% [49]
Gienenses Castilian language (Romance) Jaen 1/36 2.8% [6]
Native Alistano speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Aliste 1/36 2.8% [16]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Oryol Oblast 33/110 2.7% [49]
Azoreans Portuguese (Romance) Central Azores 2/76 2.6% [50]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Vysocina 1/40 2.5% [52]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Turnhout 1/42 2.4% [53] ‘1675’ data set
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Haskovo 1/41 2.4% [46]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Tongeren 1/43 2.3% [54] T1a1a-L208
Sardinians Sardinian, Corsican (Romance) Sardinia 28/1204 2.3% [55]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Kursk Oblast 1/45 2.2% [49]
Sardinians Corsican (Romance) Gaddùra 1/46 2.2% [32]
Sardinians Sardinian (Romance) Sardinia 27/1204 2.2% [56]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Chernihiv Raion 2/96 2.1% [49]
Sardinians Sardinian (Romance) Trexenta 1/47 2.1% [32]
Lithuanians Aukštaitian (Baltic) western Aukštaitija 1/50 2% [49]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Sumy Oblast 2/101 2% [49]
Zamoranos Castilian (Romance) Campos - Pan 1/50 2% [16]
Southwestern Almerians Andalusian (Romance) Alpujarra Almeriense and Poniente Almeriense 1/50 2% [57]
Alpujarreños Andalusian (Romance) Alpujarra de la Sierra 1/50 2%
Catalonians Catalan language (Romance language) Camp de Tarragona 4/214 1.9% [47]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Cherkasy Raion 2/101 1.8% [49]
Bosch surname members Catalan language (Romance language) Països Catalans 1/56 1.8% [58]
Basques Gipuzkoan (Isolate language) Southwestern Gipuzkoa 1/57 1.8% [33]
Basques Gipuzkoan (Isolate language) Gipuzkoa 1/58 1.7% [59]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Noord-Brabant 2/119 1.7% [53] ‘1775’ data set
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Sofia 1/59 1.7% [46]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Lovech 1/62 1.6% [46]
Balearics Majorcan (Romance) Majorca 2/129 1.6% [47]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Plzen 1/62 1.6% [52]
Mecklenburgers East Low Saxon (West Germanic) Rostock 3/200 1.5% [60]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Oryol Oblast 2/143 1.4% [49]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Castelló[disambiguation needed] 2/146 1.4% [47]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Plovdiv 2/159 1.3% [46]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Montana, Bulgaria 1/80 1.3% [46]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Central Catalonia 3/230 1.3% [47]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Barcelona 3/231 1.3% [47]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Barcelona Periphery 3/235 1.3% [47]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Usti nad Labem 1/86 1.2% [52]
Faroese Faroese (Germanic) Faroe Islands 1/89 1.1% [61] Grandfathers originated from various Faroese islands.
Eastern Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Granada 2/180 1.1% [18]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Lviv Oblast 1/101 1% [49]
Castellonenses Catalan language (Romance) Castellón[disambiguation needed] 5/515 1% [6]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) South Moravia 2/216 0.9% [52]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Girona 2/219 0.9% [47]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Sofia Province 2/257 0.8% [46]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) València 1/173 0.6% [47]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Prague 3/595 0.5% [52]
Individuals living in Catalonia Catalan language (Romance) Barcelona metropolitan area 1/247 0.4% [62]

With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 14% (3/23) of Russians in Yaroslavl,[63] 12.5% (3/24) of Italians in Matera,[39] 10.3% (3/29) of Italians in Avezzano,[39] 10% (3/30) of Tyroleans in Nonstal,[39] 10% (2/20) of Italians in Pescara,[39] 8.7% (4/46) of Italians in Benavento,[39] 7.8% (4/51) of Italians in South Latium,[38] 7.4% (2/27) of Italians in Paola,[39] 7.3% (11/150) of Italians in Central-South Italy,[64] 7.1% (8/113) of Serbs in Serbia,[65] 7% (6/86) of Sardinians in Tempio,[66] 4.7% (2/42) of Aromanians in Romania,[67] 3.7% (3/82) of Italians in Biella,[68] 3.7% (1/27) of Andalusians in Córdoba,[34] 3.3% (2/60) of Leoneses in León|,[34] 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Postua,[68] 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Cavaglià,[68] 3.1% (3/97) of Calabrians in Reggio Calabria,[69] 2.8% (1/36) of Russians in Ryazan Oblast,[70] 2.8% (2/72) of Italians in South Apulia,[71] 2.7% (1/37) of Calabrians in Cosenza,[69] 2.6% (3/114) of Serbs in Belgrade,[72] 2.5% (1/40) of Russians in Pskov,[63] 2.4% (1/42) of Russians in Kaluga,[63] 2.2% (2/89) of Transylvanians in Miercurea Ciuc,[73] 2.2% (2/92) of Italians in Trino Vercellese,[68] 1.9% (2/104) of Italians in Brescia,[74] 1.9% (2/104) of Romanians in Romania,[75] 1.7% (4/237) of Serbs and Montenegrins in Serbia and Montenegro,[76] 1.7% (1/59) of Italians in Marche,[71] 1.7% (1/59) of Calabrians in Catanzaro,[69] 1.6% (3/183) of Greeks in Northern Greece,[77] 1.3% (2/150) of Swiss Germans in Zürich Area,[78] 1.3% (1/79) of Italians in South Tuscany and North Latium,[71] 1.1% (1/92) of Dutch in Leiden,[79] 0.8% (1/132) of "Andalusians" in Northwest Tunisia,[80] 0.5% (1/185) of Serbs in Novi Sad (Vojvodina),[81] 0.5% (1/186) of Polish in Podlasie[82] and 0.4% (1/234) of Germans in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt.[83]

Other parts that have been found to contain a significant proportion of haplogroup T-M184 individuals include Trentino (2/67 or 3%), Mariña Lucense (1/34 or 2.9%), Heraklion (3/104 or 2.9%), Roslavl (3/107 or 2.8%), Ourense (1/37 or 2.7%), Livny (3/110 or 2.7%), Biella (3/114 or 2.6%), Entre Douro (6/228 or 2.6%), Porto (3/118 or 2.5%), Urbino (1/40 or 2.5%), Iberian Peninsula (16/629 or 2.5%), Blekinge/Kristianstad (1/41 or 2.4%), Belarus (1/41 or 2.4%), Modena (3/130 or 2.3%), Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (1/45 or 2.2%), Pristen (1/45 or 2.2%), Cáceres (2/91 or 2.2%), Brac (1/47 or 2.1%), Satakunta (1/48 or 2.1%), Western Croatia (2/101 or 2%), Ukrainia (1/50 or 2%), Greifswald (2/104 or 1.9%), Moldavians in Sofia (1/54 or 1.9%), Uppsala (1/55 or 1.8%), Lublin (2/112 or 1.8%), Pias in Beja (1/54 or 1.8%), Macedonian Greeks (1/57 or 1.8%), Nea Nikomedeia (1/57 or 1.8%), Sesklo/Dimini (1/57 or 1.8%), Lerna/Franchthi (1/57 or 1.8%), Açores (2/121 or 1.7%), Viana do Castelo (1/59 or 1.7%), Toulouse (1/67 or 1.5%), Belgorod (2/143 or 1.4%), Sardinia (1/77 or 1.3%).[84][85][86][87][88][89][38][90][42][91][61][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][90][104][105][106][22][57][107][108][109][110] According to data from commercial testing, 3.9% of Italian males belonging to this haplogroup.[111] Approximately 3% of Sephardi Jews and 2% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup T.[112]

Middle East and Caucasus[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Tajiks Darî (Southwestern Iranian) Logar Province 2/4 50% [113]
Armenian Sasuntzis Western Armenian dialect, Kurmanji and Dimli (Northwestern Iranian) languages Sasun 21/104 20.2% [114] T1a1 and T1a2 subclades
Zoroastrians Persian Kerman 5/37 13.5% [115]
Bakhtiaris/Lurs Bakhtiari/Lurs (Southwestern Iranian (Perside)) Izeh 13/103 12.6% [116][117]
Armenians Western Armenian dialect Historical Southwestern Armenia 11/96 11.5% [118]
Abudhabians Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Abu Dhabi 21/191 11% [Research 1]
Assyrians Assyrian (Central Semitic) West Azerbaijan Province 4/39 10.3% [119]
Persian Muslims Persian Shiraz 5/51 9.8% [115]
Persian Muslims Persian Kerman 6/66 9.1% [115]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Al-Qadisiyah 6/69 8.7% [120]
Kurds Sorani (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdestan 5/59 8.5% [119]
Omani Arabs Omani Arabic (Semitic) Oman 10/121 8.3% [3]
Azeris Azeri (Oghuz) West Azerbaijan Province 5/63 7.9% [119]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Iraq 10/139 7.2% [121]
Kuwaitis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 3/42 7.1% [91]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Iraq 3/43 7% [122]
Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 10/143 7% [123]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Fars 3/44 6.8% [119]
Christian Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 3/44 6.8% [124]
Western Armenians Armenian Eastern Turkey 6/90 6.7% [125]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Yazd 3/46 6.5% [119]
Armenians Armenian Gardman 6/96 6.3% [114]
Muslim Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 7/119 5.9% [124]
Northern Armenians Armenian Northern Armenia, southern Georgia (Bolnisi, Akhalkalaki and Akhaltsikhe) and northwestern Azerbaijan (around Gyanja) 10/189 5.3% [125]
Armenians Armenian Tehran 2/38 5.3% [115]
Eastern Armenians Armenian Karabakh 11/215 5.1% [125]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Khorasan 3/59 5.1% [119]
Saudi Arabians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Saudi Arabia 8/157 5.1% [126]
Armenians Armenian Syunik 7/140 5% [125]
Emiratis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) United Arab Emirates 8/164 4.9%
Lebanese Muslims Lebanese Arabic (Semitic) Lebanon 28/568 4.9% [127]
Avars Avar (Northeast Caucasian) southeastern Dagestan 2/42 4.8% [8]
Kurds Kurmanji (Northwestern Iranian) Anatolia 12/251 4.8% [128]
Kurds Kurdish dialects (Northwestern Iranian) Iraq 6/126 4.8% [Research 2]
Anizes Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 1/21 4.7% [129]
Lebaneses Levantine Arabic (Semitic) Lebanon 43/914 4.7%
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Cyprus 3/65 4.6%
Maronites Lebanese Arabic and Syriac (Semitic) Lebanon 24/518 4.6% [127]
Armenians Armenian Ararat 2/44 4.6% [125]
Qeshmis Qishmi (southwestern Iranian) Qeshm 2/49 4.1% [119]
Lurs Luri (Southwestern Iranian) Lorestan 2/50 4% [119]
Sadats Languages of Iran Different cities of Iran 2/50 4% [130]
Armenians Armenian Lake Van 4/103 3.9% [114]
Armenians Armenian Ararat Valley 4/110 3.6% [114]
Tajiks Tajik (Southwestern Iranian) Afghanistan 2/56 3.6% [113]
Armenians Armenian Armenia 2/57 3.5% [8]
Iranians Languages of Iran South Iran 4/117 3.4% [85]
Ionians Greek Phokaia 1/31 3.2% [131]
Bandaris Bandari (Southwestern Iranian) Bandar Abbas 4/131 3.1% [119]
Alans Karachay-Baksan-Chegem (Turkic) Kabardino-Balkaria 1/69 2.9% [8]
Tajiks Darî (Southwestern Iranian) Ferghana 1/35 2.9% [132]
Jordanians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Jordania 8/273 2.9%
Lezghins Lezgian (Northeast Caucasian) Southern Dagestan 2/81 2.5% [133]
Turks Turkish Turkey 13/523 2.5%
Iranians Languages of Iran Iran 7/324 2.2% [127]
Azerbaijani Muslims Azerbaijani (Turkic) Uromia 2/91 2.2% [115]
Andis Andi (Northeast Caucasian) western Dagestan 1/49 2% [8]
Assyrians Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (Semitic) Uromia and Tehran 1/55 1.8% [115]
Abkhazians Abkhaz (Northwest Caucasian) Abkhazia 1/58 1.7% [133]
Kuwaitis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 2/117 1.7% [134]
Greek Orthodox Koine Greek Lebanon 2/116 1.7% [127]
Aeolians Greek Smyrna 1/68 1.5% [131]
Turkmens Turkmen (Oghuz) the people of Golestan 1/68 1.5% [119]
Kumyks Kumyk (Turkic) Northern Dagestan 1/73 1.4% [8]
Kuban Nogays Nogai (Turkic) north of Sea of Azov around Prymorsk 1/87 1.2% [8]
Ossetian Digors Digorian (Scythian) North Ossetia 1/127 0.8% [133]
Yemeni Arabs Sanaani Arabic (Semitic) Sana'a 1/129 0.8% [Research 3]
Syrians Syrian Arabic (Semitic) Syria 4/518 0.8% [127]
Kabardins Kabardian (Northwest Caucasian) Kabardino-Balkaria 1/140 0.7% [8]
Circassians Adyghe (Northwest Caucasian) Republic of Adygea 1/142 0.7% [133]
Pashtuns Pashto (Eastern Iranian) mainly living in the Southern Afghanistan province of Kandahar 1/141 0.7% [135]
Abkhazians Abkhaz (Northwest Caucasian) Abkhazia 1/162 0.6% [8]

Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 28% (7/25) of Lezginians in Dagestan,[117] 21.7% (5/23) of Ossetians in Zamankul,[136] 14% (7/50) of Iranians in Isfahan,[117] 13% (3/23) of Ossetians in Zil'ga,[136] 12.6% (11/87) of Kurmanji Kurds in Eastern Turkey,[137] 11.8% (2/17) of Palestinian Arabs in Palestine,[138] 8.3% (1/12) of Iranians in Shiraz,[139] 8.3% (2/24) of Ossetians in Alagir,[136] 8% (2/25) of Kurmanji Kurds in Georgia,[137] 7.5% (6/80) of Iranians in Tehran,[117][140] 7.4% (10/135) of Palestinian Arabs in Israeli Village,[138] 7% (10/143) of Palestinian Arabs in Israel and Palestine,[138] 5% (1/19) of Chechens in Chechenia,[117][140] 4.2% (3/72) of Azerbaijanians in Azerbaijan,[117][140] 4.1% (2/48) of Iranians in Isfahan,[140] 4% (4/100) of Armenians in Armenia,[117][140] 4% (1/24) of Bedouins in Israel[138] and 2.6% (1/39) of Turks in Ankara.[140]


Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Northern Dir tribes Northern Somali (East Cushitic) Dire Dawa 14/17 82.4% [141] Dir sub-clans of Dire Dawa are Issa, Gurgura and Gadabuursi.
Issas and/or Gadabuursi Northern Somali (East Cushitic) Djibouti 30/40 75% [142] This sample is only 25% E-M215. According to Plaster et al. only have been found two very different lineages, T-M184 and E-M215, among northern Dirs.
Anteony Antemoro (Plateau Malagasy) old Antemoro Kingdom 22/37 59.5% [143] The Anteony are the descendants of aristocrats, from whom the Antemoro king is chosen. Can be grouped into the Silamo, because they have the right to undertake the ritual slaughter of animals (Sombily)
Aushi Aushi Zambia 1/2 50% [144]
Akie Akie people (Nilotic) Tanzania 3/13 23.1% [Hirbo et al.] Akie people have remnants of a Cushitic language
Somalis Darood Somali (East Cushitic) Jijiga (Ogaden) 19/83 22.9% [141] Jijiga is mostly inhabited by Darod subclans like Bartire, Geeri Koombe and Ogaden.
Arabs from Somalia Benaadir (Cushitic) immigrants in Yemen 7/33 21.2% [145]
Lemba Venda and Shona (Bantu) South Africa 6/34 17.6% [1] Exclusively belong to T1a2* (old T1b*). Possible recent founder effect. Low frequency of T1a2 has been observed in Bulgarian Jews and Turks but is not found in other Jewish communities. Y-str Haplotypes close to some T1a2 Armenians.
Fulbe Fula northern Cameroon 3/17 17.6% [146]
Rangi Rangi Language (Bantu) Tanzania 5/32 15.6% [Hirbo et al.]
Multiple ethnicity - Somalia 15/105 14.3% [147][148]
Iraqw Iraqw language (Cushitic) Tanzania 6/47 12.8% [Hirbo et al.]
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Norway 12/104 11.5% [149]
Bench Bench(northern Omotic) Bench Maji Zone 14/126 11.4% [141]
Kores (Cushitic) SNNP 2/18 11.1% [141]
Oromo Afaan Oromo language (Cushitic) Oromiyaa 1/9 11.1% [150]
Gorowa Gorowa language (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/19 10.5% [Hirbo et al.]
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Denmark 21/201 10.4% [151]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Luxor Governorate 3/29 10.3% [10][152]
Kontas Konta language (Omotic) Konta special woreda 11/107 10.3% [141]
Rendille Rendille language (Cushitic) Kenya 3/31 9.7% [Hirbo et al.]
Gewadas Gewada language (east Cushitic) SNNP 11/116 9.5% [141]
Antalaotra Antemoro (Plateau Malagasy) old Antemoro Kingdom 4/43 9.3% [143] The Antalaotra are in charge of the magical and religious domains; they have the ability to read and write Sorabe. Can be grouped into the Silamo, because they have the right to undertake the ritual slaughter of animals (Sombily)
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Aswan Governorate 1/11 9.1% [153]
Subiya Subiya/Kuhane (Bantu) Zambia 1/11 9% [144]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Assiut Governorate 6/70 8.6% [153]
Konsos (Semitic) Konso special woreda 2/24 8.3% [141]
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Sweden 12/147 8.2% [154]
Arabs and Berbers Egyptian Arabic and Siwi Lower Egypt 12/147 8.2% [3]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Sohag Governorate 4/52 7.7% [153]
Egyptians Erythraic (Cushitic) Egypt 7/92 7.6% [148][150] If the K* sample is M184+ then 8.7%
Oromo (Semitic) SNNP 2/28 7.1% [144]
Tigray-Tigrinyas Tigrinya (South Semitic) SNNP 2/30 6.7% [141]
Dirashas Dirasha (east Cushitic) Dirashe special woreda 5/79 6.3% [141]
Canarians Canarian Spanish Tenerife 11/178 6.2%
Omo Valley Omotic languages Ethiopia 6/98 6.1% [144]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Qena Governorate 3/52 5.8% [153]
Afars Afar (East Cushitic) Afar Region 6/111 5.4% [141]
Ethiopians Ethiopian languages Ethiopia 4/74 5.4% [122]
Mashiles Mashile language (Cushitic) SNNP 7/130 5.4% [141]
Gurages Gurage languages (South Semitic) SNNP 6/118 5.1% [141]
Canarians Canarian Spanish Gran Canaria 4/78 5.1% [144]
Oromo Afaan Oromo language (Cushitic) Oromiyaa 4/78 5.1% [144]
Oromo Afaan Oromo language (Cushitic) Adis Abeba 2/40 5% [144]
Turu Nyaturu (Bantu) Tanzania 1/20 5% [155]
Gedeos Gedeo (east Cushitic) SNNP 6/122 4.9% [141]
Western Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Tripoli region 7/142 4.9% [156]
Kanuri Kanuri Cameroon 1/21 4.8% [Hirbo et al.]
Iraqw[157] Iraqw (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/43 4.7%
Yems Yemsa (Omotic) SNNP 5/107 4.7% [141]
Gobeze Cushitic SNNP 5/113 4.4% [141]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Minya Governorate 1/23 4.3% [153]
Konsos Konso language (East Cushitic) Konso special woreda 4/94 4.3% [141]
Amhara Amharic (Semitic) Ethiopia 2/48 4.2% [144]
Kembaatas East Cushitic Kembata Tembaro Zone 4/102 3.9% [141]
Maasai Maasai (Eastern Nilotic) Kenya 3/79 3.8% [144]
Lower Egyptians Egyptian Arabic (Semitic) Mansoura 1/44 2.2% [10][152]
Berbers Siwi (Berber) Siwa Oasis 2/93 2.2% [158][159]
Meru Meru (Northeast Bantu) Tanzania 2/99 2% [160]
Itam Ibibio Obong Itam (Southeast Nigeria) 1/50 2% [161]
Berbers Shilha (Berber) Asni 1/54 1.9% [158][159]
Eastern Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Benghazi 4/214 1.9% [162]
Algerians Algerian Arabic (Semitic) Algeria 3/164 1.8% [138]
Baribas Bariba (Niger–Congo) Benin 1/57 1.8% [163]
Bokoras Karamojong (Eastern Nilotic) Karamoja region 1/59 1.7% [164]
Lower Egyptians Egyptian Arabic (Semitic) Cairo 1/63 1.6% [165]
Soussians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) Sousse 3/220 1.4% [166]
Nilotes Ateker (Eastern Nilotic) Karamoja region 1/118 0.8% [164]

Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 9.7% (3/31) of Datogs in Tanzania,[155] 5.8% (4/69) of Kordofanians in Kurdufan,[138] 5.6% (1/18) of Tuaregs in Gorom-Gorom,[167] 4.8% (5/105) of Tunisians in Sfax,[168] 4.8% (3/63) of Libyans in Tripoli Area,[169] 2.6% (1/39) of Hutus in Rwanda[170] 2.1% (1/47) of Berbers in Sejenane,[171] 1.9% (1/53) of Ovimbundo in Angola,[172] and 1.5% (1/68) of Mozabites in Ghardaia,[173]

South Asia[edit]

Haplogroup T-M184 has been detected in:

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Kurru Yerukala (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 10/18 55.6% [90]
Bauris Bengali (Indo-Aryan) West Bengal 10/19 52.6% [90] K* is found at 6/19, if M70- but M184+, then could be 84.2%. Bauris are thought to be descendants of a native tribe of the Central Highlands before the Aryan invasion, then as Bauris have not been well assimilated and have not participated satisfactorily in the new Aryan society, the Bauris ended up being seen as "low caste". They are at "halfway" between the old Bauri tribal and the new Aryan society lifestyle.
Lodha Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda) West Bengal 2/4 50% [90]
Rajus Telugu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/19 15.9% [90]
Maheli Mahali (Kherwari Munda) West Bengal 2/13 15.3% [90]
Chenchus Chenchu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/20 15% [90] K* is found at 7/20, if M70- but M184+, then could be 50%
Kare Vokkal Kannada (Dravidian) Uttara Kannada 4/30 13.3% [174] K* is found at 3/30, if M70- but M184+, then could be 23.3%
Banjaras Lambadi (Indo-Aryan) Andhra Pradesh 2/18 11.1% [90]
Gonds Gondi (Dravidian) South Uttar Pradesh 4/38 10.6% [175]
Gonds Gondi (Dravidian) Madhya Pradesh 10/139 7.2% [175]
Indians languages of India South India 18/305 5.9% [90]
Maheli Mahali (Kherwari Munda) Jamshedpur from Jharkhand; Purulia, Midnapore & other location from West Bengal 2/38 5.3% [90][176] Two samples from different studies grouped together
Chenchus Chenchu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/61 4.9% [90][177] Samples from Trivedi et al. and Kivisild et al.
Banjaras Lambadi (Indo-Aryan) Andhra Pradesh 2/53 3.8% [90][177] Two samples from different studies grouped together
Indians languages of India East India 14/367 3.8% [90]
Gujaratis Gujarati (Indo-Aryan) Gujarat 1/29 3.4% [177]
Lodha Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda) Midnapore & other location from West Bengal 2/71 2.8% [90][176][178] Three samples from different studies grouped together
Sahariyas Saharia (Munda) Madhya Pradesh 2/73 2.7% [179]

With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 56.6% (30/53) of Kunabhis in Uttar Kannada,[180] 32.5% (13/40) of Kammas in Andhra Pradesh,[181] 26.8% (11/41) of Brahmins in Visakhapatnam,[181] 25% (1/4) of Kattunaiken in South India,[182] 22.4% (11/49) of Telugus in Andhra Pradesh,[183] 20% (1/5) of Ansari in South Asia, (2/20) of Poroja in Andhra Pradesh,[181] 9.8% (5/51) of Kashmiri Pandits in Kashmir,[175] 8.2% (4/49) of Gujars in Kashmir,[175] 7.7% (1/13) of Siddis (migrants from Ethiopia) in Andhra Pradesh,[181] 5.5% (3/55) of Adi in Northeast India,[184] 5.5% (7/128) of Pardhans in Adilabad,[183] 5.3% (2/38) of Brahmins in Bihar,[175] 4.3% (1/23) of Bagata in Andhra Pradesh,[181] 4.2% (1/24) of Valmiki in Andhra Pradesh,[181] (1/32) of Brahmins in Maharashtra,[175] 3.1% (2/64) of Brahmins in Gujarat,[175] 2.9% (1/35) of Rajput in Uttar Pradesh,[185] 2.3% (1/44) of Brahmins in Peruru,[181] and 1.7% (1/59) of Manghi in Maharashtra.[183]

Also in Desasth-Brahmins in Maharashtra (1/19 or 5.3%) and Chitpavan-Brahmins in Konkan (1/21 or 4.8%), Chitpavan-Brahmins in Konkan (2/66 or 3%).

East Asia[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Xibes Xibe (Tungusic) Xinjiang 1/8 12.5% [186][187]
Bajo sea Nomads Bajaw (Malayo-Polynesian) Sulawesi 2/27 7.4% [188] T1a-M70
Uyghur Uyghur (Turkic) Xinjiang 1/48 (1/4 samples) 2.1% [189]
Uyghur Uyghur (Turkic) Xinjiang 3/284 1.1% [190]
Mongolians Mongolian (Mongolic) Inner Mongolia 1/100 1% [190]

Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 4.9% (2/41) of Xibe in Xinjiang,[191] 2% (4/204) of Hui in Liaoning province,[192] and 0.9% (1/113) of Bidayuh in Sarawak.[193]

Colonial America[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Movimas Movima language (Language isolate) Beni 1/5 20% [194]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Antioquia 9/51 17.6% [195]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Aranzazu, Caldas 23/190 12.1% [195]
Panamians Castilian (Romance languages) Los Santos Province 3/30 10% [14]
Bahamians Bahamian English (West Germanic) Long Island 3/43 7% [196]
Panamians Castilian (Romance languages) Panama Province 3/43 7% [14]
Northwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of San Salvador de Jujuy 6/86 7% [197]
Kolla Quechua, Aymara and Argentinian Spanish Mountainous region of Tucumán 2/29 6.9% [198][199]
Tule Kuna (Chibchan languages) Kuna Yala 1/16 6.3% [14] According to Hamilton 2014, around 2% of Tule people in Kuna Yala are Albinos. This is the highest known frequency in the world.
Basques Basque (Isolate language) Nevada 1/16 6.3% [Research 4]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Marinilla and its zone of influence 15/241 6.2% [200]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of La Rioja (Capital) 5/87 5.7% [197]
Kolla Quechua, Aymara and Argentinian Spanish Mountainous region of Jujuy 1/18 5.6% [201]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Cundinamarca 1/22 4.5% [195]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of Mendoza (Capital) 3/75 4% [197]
Brazilians Brazilian Portuguese (Romance) Serra, Espírito Santo 1/29 3.5% [202]
Panamians Castilian (Romance languages) Herrera Province 1/36 2.8% [14]
Bahamians Bahamian English (West Germanic) Eleuthera 1/60 1.7% [196]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Peque (Antioquia) 1/62 1.6% [195]
Panamians Castilian (Romance languages) Chiriquí Province 1/92 1.1% [14]

Ancient DNA from Karsdorf, Germany[edit]

The 7000-year-old "Goseck circle", a pagan cult structure in Goseck, Burgenlandkreis, Saxony-Anhalt.
The spread of different groups without close social or biological kinship

Building on both the evidence previously available for the LBK and the evidence presented here, we suggest that the repeated occurrence of almost indiscriminate massacres, the possible abduction of selected members, and the patterns of torture, mutilation, and careless disposal all fit into the concept of prehistoric warfare as currently understood within anthropology. Particular LBK groups were singled out for as yet unknown reasons, attacked with brute force, and annihilated by others, probably close neighbors and very likely other LBK groups of the wider region. As has been shown, even within the overall quite homogenous-appearing LBK, recognizable boundaries did exist in many places. These borders most probably were a result of the spread of different groups without close social or biological kinship ties to one another who came in to close contact as a consequence of the LBK colonization pattern. In fact, because the LBK was the first complete Neolithic culture in Central Europe, today all farmers of this time and region are classified as members of the LBK by default, regardless of how these people defined themselves and how they differentiated themselves from their contemporaries.

(Meyer et al., 2015)
The location of the Karsdorf municipality in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
The individual known as KAR6 (I0795)

This individual belonged to haplogroup T1a (PF5604:7890461C→T, M70:21893881A→C). This is the first instance of this haplogroup in an ancient individual that we are aware of and strengthens the case for the early Neolithic origin of this lineage in modern Europeans, rather than a more recent introduction from the Near East where it is more abundant today.

(Haak et al., 2015)
The source of the Early European Neolithic

The fact that our samples are from northwestern Anatolia should not be taken to imply that the Neolithic must have entered Europe from that direction.

(Mathieson et al., 2015)

Haplogroup T1a (PF5604) has been found in two out of two 7500-6800ybp individuals from Karsdorf, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany. Both T1a skeletal remains belongs to the Linienbandkeramische Kultur. T1a from Karsdorf reach 22.2% of all samples between 7500 and 6800 ybp in Germany, being 22.2% belonging to H2 from Derenburg and the remaining 55.6% to G2a from Halberstadt and Derenburg. Their mtDNA have been found to be H1*/H1au1b and H46b, and their autosomal ancestral components has been point to be around 70% Western European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) and 30% Basal Eurasian but If the WHG Loschbour is admixed with a Basal Eurasian group then the percentages for KAR6a should be around 34% WHG and 66% Basal Eurasian.

The Karsdorf site is located in the valley of Unstrut, Burgenlandkreis, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The slope on which Karsdorf is located is characterized by alluvial loess. The place itself was settled intensively since the earliest phase of the LBK in the region. The settlement area is at least 50 acres in size and nearly 30 houses have been excavated. So-called ‘settlement burials’ were regularly found in pits in the center of the settlement area, of which individual KAR6/I0795 (feature 170, 5207-5070 calBCE, MAMS 22823) was sampled for this study.[203][204]

The LBK settlement of Karsdorf (Burgenlandkreis, Saxony-Anhalt) is located approximately 100 km south of Derenburg and Halberstadt, on the river Unstrut, and was occupied between 5240 and 5000 BC (Behnke, 2007). The Neolithic buildings(n=24) of three settlement stages are dated to the early and middle LBK (after Meier-Arendt 1966). Except for four graves, all of the 30 burials are associated in groups next to houses in the centre of the settlement, similar to the site of Halberstadt. The individuals are buried in house-flanking pit graves at the western side of the houses and mostly arranged in north-east or north-west orientation. Grave goods are sparse; few graves contained more than one pot or a shell or horn pendant. Associated with every house group we can identify a person with outstanding grave inventory, who may represent a founding generation.|Oelze et al.[205]

Special features of the LBK site of Karsdorf are graves in association with particular houses, which can therefore be regarded as settlement burials. Most of the individuals were buried in a flexed position, oriented to the north-east or north-west. Six individuals were inhumed in supine and four in prone position, of which only three showed a fully stretched body.

The LBK in Karsdorf is represented by 24 longhouses oriented north-west–south-east. The assemblage is composed of 20 adults (55% males and 35% females), one juvenile (15–18 years), four as infants of 7–14 years and six infants of 0–6 years. The maximum age at death of males ranged between 40 and 59 years and of females from 40–49 years respectively. The oldest individual is a woman with 65–75 years. In association with the house S and H, women, men, and children were buried together, in some cases even in the same pit. The furnishing of the graves at Karsdorf can be regarded as rather sparse. Only 9 out of 34 burials contained grave goods, such as an axe in a man’s grave and a shell buried with a woman, imply sex-specific grave furnishings.

The sparse indications for maternal kinship suggest a dynamic and mobile group of which several members were buried elsewhere and/or which integrated individuals who originated from other communities. According to Sr isotope ratios, there are two distinct groups of individuals in Karsdorf but none of both are specially 'Exotic'. So, there is no indication of individuals who grew up in geologically distinct uplands or further north in central Germany.

The first group, composed of the majority of the males, could grew up in households that cultivated plots on calcareous soils, very probably in the Unstrut valley in the near vicinity of the settlement. The second group, composed of most of the females, could grew up in households that predominantly cultivated plots on loess, possibly beyond the landmarks of the Unstrut River or about 80m above the site on the Querfurt plateau 1–2 km away. Sex-specific tendencies, the combination of the Sr isotope data with the results of previous carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and the similarity of the Sr isotope data of the youngest child with the majority of the males may be evaluated as being in agreement with the predominance of patrilocal residential rules.

The Karsdorf population diet consisted of plant crops consumption quite similar to other LBK sites but ate slightly higher quantities of animal protein. Despite of this, there is one female individual that could be classified as a Vegan because her results show that she fall in the range of those of the domestic and wild fauna from Karsdorf, indicating she might has lived on the similar herbivore diet for unknown reasons.
The consumption of unfermented dairy products is unlikely as there is direct palaeogenetic evidence of lactose intolerance for the site Derenburg.
Children in these LBK cultures may have been weaned around the age of three and apparently ate the similar diet as adults after weaning. The highest isotopic value for stable isotopes of nitrogen is found in the youngest Karsdorf individual likely due to breastfeeding effects. In the Karsdorf population the highest Animal Protein consumption signal is found in a 15–18 years old individual belonging to mtDNA H. In addition, the lowest Plant Crop consumption signal is found in the youngest Karsdorf individual and secondarily in two out of three 21–24 years old individuals belonging to mtDNA U5a and H.[206]

In 2015 a published study by Mathieson et al. test several individuals from two Neolithic sites in northwest Anatolia, the results showed that Haplogroup T1a-M70, previously found in LBK sites from Germany, was not present in Barcin nor Mentese Neolithic settlements. This fact together with the absence of the mtDNA lineages carried by both of the T1a individuals from Karsdorf and the occurrence of G2a and the mtDNA lineages carried by all of these G2a individuals, could mean that the Early European Neolithic T1a-M70 had a different migration pattern and, therefore, a different geographical origin.

Karsdorf T1a Tribe Karsdorf-SI Karsdorf-HI
ID I0795 KAR6 Feature 170 Musm.no. 2006:14423a I0797 KAR16a Feature 611 Musm.no. 2004:26374a
Y DNA T1a1-CTS880 (xT1a1a1b1a-Y13381, T1a1a1a2a-Y18474, T1a1a1a1b2-Y15724, T1a1a1a1b1a2a-Y10911, T1a1a1a1a2a-Y18145, T1a1a1a1a1-CTS8512, T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77) T1a-M70 (xT1a1-Y3789, T1a2a1a-Z19909, T1a2a2-Y7391, T1a3a-Y9217)
Population Early EN Early EN
Language Paleo-European Paleo-European
Culture LBK LBK
Date (YBP) 7222 - 7085 7515 - 6790
House / Location S / Karsdorf H / Karsdorf
Members / Sample Size 1/2 1/2
Percentage 50% 50%
mtDNA H1* or H1au1b H46b
Isotope Sr Native to Unstruttal Native to Unstruttal
Eye Color Likely Gray or Blue eyes Likely Gray or Blue eyes
Hair Color Likely non-Dark hair Likely non-Red hair
Skin Pigmentation Rs1042602 (C;C)
ABO Blood Group Likely O or B Rs8176719 (T;T)
Diet (d13C%0 / d15N%0) -20.0 / 9.0 (higher Animal Protein) -20.2 / 9.1 (higher Animal Protein)
FADS activity rs174554 (A;A) rs174574 (A;A)
Lactase Persistence Likely Lactose Intolerant
Ancestral Component 93% (WHG-like + B.EurAs.) + 7.1% WHG 84% (WHG-like + B.EurAs.) + 10.1% swAsian like + 5.4% WHG
Age at Death 45-60 24-26
Death Position Flexed Left Stretched Dorsal
SNPs 107.480 95.833
Read Pairs 5.279.657 7.128.606
Sample Tooth / Rib Tooth / Rib
Source [206][207][208] [206][207][208]
Notes Goseck circle Goseck circle

The autosomal data of I0797 show the lowest frequency of Anatolian Neolithic component and the highest frequency of an unknown ancient human population for any studied LBK individual. This reinforce the hipothesis of a possible different geographical origin for this T1a tribe instead of the Greco-Anatolian origin of other human groups found in the LBK like G2a. By his side, I0795 could be some generations younger than I0797 because he show higher autosomal admixture frequencies of surrounding populations like Hunter Gatherer Europeans I2a (West Hunter Gatherers) and Aegean-Anatolian Neolithics G2a and H2.

Elite endurance runners[edit]

Possible patterns between Y-chromosome and elite endurance runners were studied in an attempt to find a genetic explanation to the Ethiopian endurance running success. Given the superiority of East African athletes in international distance running over the past four decades, it has been speculated that they are genetically advantaged. Elite marathon runners from Ethiopia were analysed for K*(xP) which according to the previously published Ethiopian studies is attributable to the haplogroup T[209] and specifically to the T1a1a* (old T1a*) subclade, according to further studies.[1] T1a1a* was found to be proportionately more frequent in the elite marathon runners sample than in the control samples than any other haplogroup, therefore this y-chromosome could play a significant role in determining Ethiopian endurance running success. Haplogroup T1a1a* was found in 14% of the elite marathon runners sample of whom 43% of this sample are from Arsi province. In addition, haplogroup T1a1a* was found in only 4% of the Ethiopian control sample and only 1% of the Arsi province control sample. T1a1a* is positively associated with aspects of endurance running, whereas E1b1b1 (old E3b1) is negatively associated.[210]

Notable haplogroup members[edit]

A notable member of the T-M184 haplogroup is American President Thomas Jefferson. The Y-chromosomal complement of the Jefferson male line was studied in 1998 in an attempt to resolve the controversy over whether he had fathered the mixed-race children of his slave Sally Hemings. A 1998 DNA study of the Y chromosome in the Jefferson male line found that it matched that of a descendant of Eston Hemings, Sally Hemings' youngest son. This confirmed the body of historical evidence, and most historians believe that Jefferson had a long-term intimate liaison with Hemings for 38 years, and fathered her six children of record, four of whom lived to adulthood. In addition, the testing conclusively disproved any connection between the Hemings descendant and the Carr male line. Jefferson grandchildren had asserted in the 19th century that a Carr nephew had been the father of Hemings' children, and this had been the basis of historians' denial for 180 years. Jefferson's paternal family traced back Wales, where T is incredibly rare, as it is throughout Britain. A couple of British males with the Jefferson surname have been found with the third president's type of T, reinforcing the idea that his immediate paternal ancestry was British. But Jefferson's T type is also closely related to Egyptian and Iberian T branches of the haplogroup.

Thomas Jefferson

Phylogenetic network analysis of its Y-STR (short tandem repeat) haplotype shows that it is most closely related to an Egyptian K2 haplotype, but the presence of scattered and diverse European haplotypes within the network is nonetheless consistent with Jefferson’s patrilineage belonging to an ancient and rare indigenous European type. This is supported by the observation that two of 85 unrelated British men sharing the surname Jefferson also share the President’s Y-STR haplotype within haplogroup K2.

Turi E. King et al., [211]
Thomas Jefferson

The affiliation of the Jefferson haplotype to T1a* and the absence of closely related haplotypes (zero to two step mutations away) in the network supports the hypothesis that this haplotype belongs to an ancient rare European Y-chromosome lineage rather than to lineages that recently migrated to Europe from the Near East.

Mendez, 2011



Phylogenetic Tree of the Eurasian Haplogroup T-M184 and their closest macro-lineages
Latest 2015 tree (ISOGG 2015)
Branching of T-M184
 (xM184, M20) 

 All cases without M184 or M20


 All cases without L206 or PH110




 All cases without L162, L131 or Y11151


 Pityusic Islanders, Pontic Greeks from Giresun, Germany and Balkars.

 (xCTS11451, Y16897) 

 All cases without CTS11451 or Y16897

 (xY4119, Y6671) 

 All cases without Y4119 or Y6671


 All cases without CTS2214














 Ossetian Irons, Leoneses, Germans and Bhutaneses


 West Asia, Europe, Central and South Asia.


 Widely widespread in Europe, where is found the highest diversity of this lineage.

Macro-Haplogroup LT

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the 2012 ISOGG Tree.

  • T (L445, L452, L455/PF5670, PR4091, L810, M184/Page34/USP9Y+3178, M272/PF5667, Page129) Found in Germania, Armenia, Iberian Peninsula and Bhutan. Also found in a South Australia European sample and a Palestinian individual.
    • T1 (L206, L490) Found in Syria.
      • T1a (M70/Page46/PF5662, PAGES78) Found in Early Neolithic skeleton found in Karsdorf, Germany, 7200 years old. Also in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Ossetia, England, Italy and Portugal.
        • T1a1 (L162/Page21, L299, L453/PF5617, L454) Found in Eivissa, northern Anatolia and Germany.
          • T1a1a (L208/Page2, L905) Mostly found in Upper Egypt, Horn of Africa, western Europe, eastern Anatolia, Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Some spots in western Morocco, Sahrawis and Canarias.
            • T1a1a1 (P77) Mostly found in Middle East, western Europe and Ashkenazi Jews.
            • T1a1a2 (P321) Found in Syria and Ashkenazi Jews.
              • T1a1a2a (P317) Found in Syria, Italian Jews and Ashkenazi Jews.
        • T1a2 (L131) Mostly found in northern Europe, eastern Europe, southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Also found in Xinjiang, Lemba, Tunisia, south and east Iberian Peninsula.
          • T1a2a (P322, P328) Found in Scandinavia, Denmark, Germany and Netherlands. Some spots in Yemenite Jews and Palestine(P327).
          • T1a2b (L446) Found in Northwest Europe and eastern Alps.
        • T1a3 (L1255) Found in Kuwait.

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012 ISOGG 2013
T-M184 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu16 H5 F K* K T T K2 K2 T T T T T T
K-M70/T-M70 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu15 H5 F K2 K2 T T1 K2 K2 T T T T1 T1a T1a
T-P77 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu15 H5 F K2 K2 T2 T1a2 K2 K2 T2 T2 T2a1 T1a1b T1a1a1 T1a1a1

Original research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

α Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 and Kaladjieva 2001

β Underhill 2000

γ Hammer 2001

δ Karafet 2001

ε Semino 2000

ζ Su 1999

η Capelli 2001

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1[χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
I J LT [χ 5]  K2
L T NO [χ 6] K2b [χ 7]   K2c K2d K2e [χ 8]
N O K2b1 [χ 9]    P
M S [χ 10] Q R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similiar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  10. ^ Haplogroup S (S-M230) was previously known as Haplogroup K5.


Original research[edit]

  1. ^ W. Goodwin et al., " Department of Forensic and Investigative Science ," "www.yhrd.org/" (2012),
  2. ^ Carsten Hohoff and Bernd Brinkmann "Institut für Rechtsmedizin"," 'Universität Münster <http://www.yhrd.org>
  3. ^ Uta D. Immel et al., "Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Martin-Luther Universität Haale/Saale," "www.yhrd.org/" (1999),
  4. ^ Laura Valverde Potes et al., "Grupo BIOMICs / BIOMICs Research Group," "www.yhrd.org/" (2011),

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