Haplogroup T-M184

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This article is about the Y-chromosome haplogroup T-M184. For the unrelated mtDNA Haplogroup, see Haplogroup T (mtDNA).
Haplogroup T-M184
Distribution Haplogroup T Y-DNA II.svg
Possible time of origin 39,300-45,100 years BP[1]
Possible place of origin between Western and Southwest Eurasian Plate[2][3]
Ancestor LT-L298
Descendants T1-L206
Defining mutations M184/PAGES34/USP9Y+3178, M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, L445
Highest frequencies Dir (clan), Kurru, Bauris, Armenian Sasuntzis, Chians, Rural Saccensi, Aquilanis, Darod Clan, Fulbe, Eivissencs, Mirandeses, Northeastern Portuguese Jews, Cretans from Lasithi, Rajus, Mahli, Zoroastrians in Kerman, Bakhtiaris, Southern Egyptians

Haplogroup T-M184, also known as haplogroup T, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. The unique-event polymorphism (UEP) that defines this clade is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) known as M184. Other SNPs – M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, and L445 – are considered to be phylogenetically equivalent to M184.

T-M184 is an immediate descendant of haplogroup LT, whose parent clade is haplogroup K. From 2002 to 2008, T-M184 was known as haplogroup K2.[4] This clade name has since been reassigned to a different subclade of haplogroup K.


Haplogroup T is unusual in that it is both relatively rare and geographically widespread. The clade probably originated around 40,000 years ago somewhere between Germania and Himalayas,[2][3][5] despite of that some of their highest frequencies have been found in East African and East Indian populations, probably due to recent migration waves according to the available and most updated data. T2-PH110, the most basally splitted branch of T-M184, has been found in three very separate geographical regions: Germania, Caucasus and Bhutan.[2][3][6] None of these three regions belong to any of those regions with high frequencies of this linage. According to the Genographic Project the T-M184 frequencies in Germany goes from 3% to 24%, several studies give frequencies in Caucasus from 0% to 12% and the frequency in Bhutan is less than 5%.[2][7][8][8][9][10]

Mendez et al. point to a very ancient origin for T1a-M70 in Europe, the subclade probably arrived with the very first farmers.[4] This is supported by the recent findings of Haak et al. who discovered several T1a1-CTS880 members in a 7000 years old settlement in Karsdorf, Germany.[11][12] Autosomal analysis of these skeletal remains show an unusual relationship with modern Southwest Asian populations, reaching close to 10%. The T1a1 skeletal remains from this settlement were also found to belong to the H mtdna haplogroup, this settlement have the highest frequency of this mtDNA haplogroup 30.4% (7/23) that have been found in any early Neolithic Europe population until now.[11]

Origins[edit]

Initial research on the T1a-M70

K2-M70 is believed to have originated in Asia after the emergence of the K-M9 polymorphism (45–30 ky) (Underhill et al. 2001a). As deduced from the collective data (Underhill et al. 2000; Cruciani et al. 2002; Semino et al. 2002; present study), K2-M70 individuals, at some later point, proceeded south to Africa. While these chromosomes are seen in relatively high frequencies in Egypt, Oman, Tanzania, Ethiopia, they are especially prominent in the Fulbe 18%( [Scozzari et al. 1997, 1999])

J. R. Luis et al. 2004, [13]
The main T subclades in Europe

The occurrence in Europe of lineages belonging to both T1a1 (old T1a) and T1a2 (old T1b) subclades probably reflects multiple episodes of gene flow. T1a1* haplogroups in Europe likely reflect older gene flow

Mendez et al. 2011, [4]

Ancient DNA[edit]

Settlement from Karsdorf, Germany, 7100 ybp[edit]

T1a in the ancient Europe around 7000 YBP; this map show the Y-DNA lineages in Europe on the early Neolithic.
The 7000-year-old "Goseck circle", a pagan cult structure in Goseck, Burgenlandkreis, Saxony-Anhalt
The spread of different groups without close social or biological kinship

Building on both the evidence previously available for the LBK and the evidence presented here, we suggest that the repeated occurrence of almost indiscriminate massacres, the possible abduction of selected members, and the patterns of torture, mutilation, and careless disposal all fit into the concept of prehistoric warfare as currently understood within anthropology. Particular LBK groups were singled out for as yet unknown reasons, attacked with brute force, and annihilated by others, probably close neighbors and very likely other LBK groups of the wider region. As has been shown, even within the overall quite homogenous-appearing LBK, recognizable boundaries did exist in many places. These borders most probably were a result of the spread of different groups without close social or biological kinship ties to one another who came in to close contact as a consequence of the LBK colonization pattern. In fact, because the LBK was the first complete Neolithic culture in Central Europe, today all farmers of this time and region are classified as members of the LBK by default, regardless of how these people defined themselves and how they differentiated themselves from their contemporaries.

(Meyer et al., 2015)
The location of the Karsdorf municipality in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
The individual known as KAR6 (I0795)

This individual belonged to haplogroup T1a (PF5604:7890461C→T, M70:21893881A→C). This is the first instance of this haplogroup in an ancient individual that we are aware of and strengthens the case for the early Neolithic origin of this lineage in modern Europeans, rather than a more recent introduction from the Near East where it is more abundant today.

(Haak et al., 2015)
The source of the Early European Neolithic

The fact that our samples are from northwestern Anatolia should not be taken to imply that the Neolithic must have entered Europe from that direction.

(Mathieson et al., 2015)

Haplogroup T1a (PF5604) has been found in two out of two 7500–6800 ybp individuals from Karsdorf, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany. Both T1a skeletal remains belong to the Linienbandkeramische Kultur. T1a from Karsdorf constitutes 22.2% of all ancient samples between 7500 and 6800 ybp in Germany. The remainder belong to other clades: 22.2% are H2 carriers from Derenburg, and the remaining 55.6% are G2a bearers from Halberstadt and Derenburg. These ancient specimens' mtDNA haplogroups have been found to be H1*/H1au1b and H46b. Their autosomal ancestral components also consist of around 70% Western European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) and 30% Basal Eurasian.[11]

The Karsdorf site is located in the valley of Unstrut, Burgenlandkreis, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The slope on which Karsdorf sits is characterized by alluvial loess. The place itself was settled intensively since the earliest phase of the LBK in the region. The settlement area is at least 50 acres in size and nearly 30 houses have been excavated. So-called ‘settlement burials’ were regularly found in pits in the center of the settlement area, of which individual KAR6/I0795 (feature 170, 5207-5070 calBCE, MAMS 22823) was sampled for this study.[11][14]

The LBK settlement of Karsdorf (Burgenlandkreis, Saxony-Anhalt) is located approximately 100 km south of Derenburg and Halberstadt, on the river Unstrut, and was occupied between 5240 and 5000 BC (Behnke, 2007). The Neolithic buildings (n=24) of three settlement stages are dated to the early and middle LBK (after Meier-Arendt 1966). Except for four graves, all of the 30 burials are associated in groups next to houses in the centre of the settlement, similar to the site of Halberstadt. The individuals are buried in house-flanking pit graves at the western side of the houses and mostly arranged in north-east or north-west orientation. Grave goods are sparse; few graves contained more than one pot or a shell or horn pendant. Associated with every house group we[who?] can identify a person with outstanding grave inventory, who may represent a founding generation.|Oelze et al.[15]

Special features of the LBK site of Karsdorf are graves in association with particular houses, which can therefore be regarded as settlement burials. Most of the individuals were buried in a flexed position, oriented to the north-east or north-west. Six individuals were inhumed in supine and four in prone position, of which only three showed a fully stretched body.

The LBK in Karsdorf is represented by 24 longhouses oriented north-west–south-east. The assemblage is composed of 20 adults (55% males and 35% females), one juvenile (15–18 years), four as infants of 7–14 years and six infants of 0–6 years. The maximum age at death of males ranged between 40 and 59 years and of females 40–49 years respectively. The oldest individual is a woman with 65–75 years. In association with the house S and H, women, men, and children were buried together, in some cases even in the same pit. The furnishing of the graves at Karsdorf can be regarded as rather sparse. Only 9 out of 34 burials contained grave goods, such as an axe in a man’s grave and a shell buried with a woman, imply sex-specific grave furnishings.

The large variability and the sparse indications for maternal kinship suggest a dynamic and mobile group of which several members were buried elsewhere and/or which integrated individuals who originated from other communities. These integrated individuals could be mostly females due to the high indications for paternal kinship among the analysed individuals. According to Sr isotope ratios, there are two distinct groups of individuals in Karsdorf but none of both are specially 'Exotic'. So, there is no indication of individuals who grew up in geologically distinct uplands or further north in central Germany.

The first group, composed of the majority of the males, could grew up in households that cultivated plots on calcareous soils, very probably in the Unstrut valley in the near vicinity of the settlement. The second group, composed of most of the females, could grew up in households that predominantly cultivated plots on loess, possibly beyond the landmarks of the Unstrut River or about 80m above the site on the Querfurt plateau 1–2 km away. Sex-specific tendencies, the combination of the Sr isotope data with the results of previous carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and the similarity of the Sr isotope data of the youngest child with the majority of the males may be evaluated as being in agreement with the predominance of patrilocal residential rules.

The Karsdorf population diet consisted of plant crops consumption quite similar to other LBK sites but ate slightly higher quantities of animal protein. Despite of this, there is one female individual that could be classified as a vegan because her results show that she fell in the range of those of the domestic and wild fauna from Karsdorf, indicating she might have lived on the similar herbivore diet for unknown reasons.
The consumption of unfermented dairy products is unlikely as there is direct palaeogenetic evidence of lactose intolerance for the site Derenburg. Children in these LBK cultures may have been weaned around the age of three and apparently ate the similar diet as adults after weaning. The highest isotopic value for stable isotopes of nitrogen is found in the youngest Karsdorf individual likely due to breastfeeding effects. In the Karsdorf population the highest Animal Protein consumption signal is found in a 15–18 years old individual belonging to mtDNA H. In addition, the lowest Plant Crop consumption signal is found in the youngest Karsdorf individual and secondarily in two out of three 21–24 years old individuals belonging to mtDNA U5a and H.[16]

In 2015 a published study by Mathieson et al. test several individuals from two Neolithic sites in northwest Anatolia, the results showed that Haplogroup T1a-M70, previously found in LBK sites from Germany, was not present in Barcin nor Mentese Neolithic settlements. This fact together with the absence of the mtDNA lineages carried by both of the T1a individuals from Karsdorf and the occurrence of G2a and the mtDNA lineages carried by all of these G2a individuals, could mean that the Early European Neolithic T1a-M70 had a different migration pattern and, therefore, a different geographical origin.

Karsdorf T1a tribe Karsdorf-SI Karsdorf-HI
ID I0795 KAR6 Feature 170 Musm.no. 2006:14423a I0797 KAR16a Feature 611 Musm.no. 2004:26374a
Y DNA T1a1-CTS880 (xT1a1a1b1a-Y13381, T1a1a1a2a-Y18474, T1a1a1a1b2-Y15724, T1a1a1a1b1a2a-Y10911, T1a1a1a1a2a-Y18145, T1a1a1a1a1-CTS8512, T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77) T1a-M70 (xT1a1-Y3789, T1a2a1a-Z19909, T1a2a2-Y7391, T1a3a-Y9217)
Population Early EN Early EN
Language Paleo-European Paleo-European
Culture LBK LBK
Date (YBP) 7076 ± 90 7087 ± 725
House / Location S / Karsdorf H / Karsdorf
Members / Sample Size 1/2 1/2
Percentage 50% 50%
mtDNA H1* or H1au1b H46b
Isotope Sr Native to Unstruttal Native to Unstruttal
Eye color Likely gray or blue eyes Likely gray or blue eyes
Hair color Likely non-dark hair Likely non-red hair
Skin pigmentation Rs1042602 (C;C)
ABO Blood Group Likely O or B Rs8176719 (T;T)
Diet (d13C%0 / d15N%0) -20.0 / 9.0 (higher Animal Protein) -20.2 / 9.1 (higher Animal Protein)
FADS activity rs174554 (A;A) rs174574 (A;A)
Lactase Persistence Likely lactose-intolerant
Oase-1 Shared DNA 34.06% 18.06%
Ostuni1 Shared DNA 12.49% 2.43%
Neanderthal Vi33.26 Shared DNA 3.81% 1.08%
Neanderthal Vi33.25 Shared DNA 2.13% 1.79%
Neanderthal Vi33.16 Shared DNA 1.71% 0%
Ancestral Component (AC) Neolithic Anatolia/Southeast Europe: 70.56%, Caucasus Hunter / Early European Farmer: 19.86%, Scandinavian / West European Hunter: 9.34%, Paleolithic Levant (Natufians): 0.24% Neolithic Anatolia/Southeast Europe: 56.23%, Paleolithic Levant (Natufians): 16.56%, Caucasus Hunter / Early European Farmer: 14.19%, Scandinavian / West European Hunter: 9.64%, Neolithic Iran: 2.54%
puntDNAL K12 Ancient 59% Anatolia Neolithic Farmer + 24% Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer + 10% European Hunter-Gatherer + 7% Near Eastern 60% Anatolia Neolithic Farmer + 27% European Hunter-Gatherer + 9% Near Eastern + 2% Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer + 2% Sub-Saharan
Dodecad [dv3] 69.1% Mediterranean + 21% West European + 10% Southwest Asian 64.2% Mediterranean + 17.4% West European + 10.5% Southwest Asian + 4.2% West Asian + 3.7% Northwest African
Eurogenes [K=36] 56.9% Italian + 31.9% West Mediterranean + 6.3% Iberian + 2.1% Basque + 1.3% North African + 0.9 East Balkan + 0.3% East Mediterranean + 0.3% Arabian 37.1% Italian + 21% West Mediterranean + 16.9% Iberian + 11.8 East Balkan + 7.7% Armenian + 5.5% East Mediterranean + 0.05% North African
Dodecad [Globe13] 67.4% Mediterranean + 16.5% Southwest Asian + 16% North European 61% Mediterranean + 19.7% Southwest Asian + 19.2% North European
Genetic Distance 98.6cM in chr 8 98.6cM in chr 8
Parental Consanguinity MRCA = 1.1 generations MRCA = 1.1 generations
Age at Death 45-60 24-26
Death Position Flexed Left Stretched Dorsal
SNPs 107.480 95.833
Read Pairs 5.279.657 7.128.606
Sample Tooth / Rib Tooth / Rib
Source [12][16][17] [12][16][17]
Notes Goseck circle Goseck circle
Comparison of the T1a1 individuals from Karsdorf with other Early Neolithic groups
Shared DNA with Upper Paleolithics Non-Neanderthals and Neanderthals

The autosomal data of I0797 show the lowest frequency of Anatolian Neolithic component and the highest frequency of an unknown ancient human population for any studied LBK individual. This reinforces the hypothesis of a possible different geographical origin for this T1a tribe instead of the Greco-Anatolian origin of other human groups found in the LBK like G2a. By his side, I0795 show higher autosomal admixture frequencies of surrounding populations like Hunter Gatherer Europeans I2a (West Hunter Gatherers) and Aegean-Anatolian Neolithics G2a and H2. However, I0795 have the highest frequency of shared DNA with Upper Paleolithic Neanderthals from Central Europe found in any Early Neolithic population. Further comparisons show that I0795 has similar frequencies like Oase-1 when compared with Vindija Neanderthals. When I0795 and I0797 are compared to Oase-1, they both share a very high percentage of DNA 34% and 18% respectively and I0795 12% with Ostuni1. This could mean that this T1a1 tribe from Karsdorf was closest to Upper Paleolithic Hunter-Gatherers than to Mesolithic HG.

Why this Early Neolithic settlement was once abandoned, is still unclear.

Settlement from Ain Ghazal, Jordan 9573 ybp[edit]

The 9th millennium Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) period in the Levant represents a major transformation in prehistoric lifeways from small bands of mobile hunter–gatherers to large settled farming and herding villages in the Mediterranean zone, the process having been initiated some 2–3 millennia earlier.

'Ain Ghazal (" Spring of the Gazelles") is situated in a relatively rich environmental setting immediately adjacent to the Wadi Zarqa, the longest drainage system in highland Jordan. It is located at an elevation of about 720m within the ecotone between the oak-park woodland to the west and the open steppe-desert to the east.

Evidence recovered from the excavations suggests that much of the surrounding countryside was forested and offered the inhabitants a wide variety of economic resources. Arable land is plentifull within the site's immediate environs. These variables are atypical of many major neolithic sites in the Near East, several of which are located in marginal environments. Yet despite its apparent richness, the area of 'Ain Ghazal is climatically and environmentally sensitive because of its proximity throughout the Holocene to the fluctuating steppe-forest border.

The Ain Ghazal settlement first appear in the MPPNB and is splitted in 2 MPPNB phases. Phase 1 starts 10300 yBP and ends 9950 yBP, phase 2 ends 9550 yBP.

The estimated population of the MPPNB site from ‘Ain Ghazal is of 259-1349 individuals with an area of 3.01-4.7 ha. Is argued that at its founding at the commencement of the MPPNB ‘Ain Ghazal was likely 2 ha in size and grew to 5 ha by the end of the MPPNB. At this point in time their estimated population was 600-750 people or 125-150 people per hectare.

The diet of the occupants of PPNB 'Ain Ghazal was remarkably varied. Domesticated plants included wheat and barley species, but legumes (primarily lentils and peas) appear to have been preferred cultigens. A wide suite of wild plants also were consumed. The determination of domesticated animals, sensu stricto, is a topic of much debate. At PPNB 'Ain Ghazal goats were a major species, and they were used in a domestic sense, although they may not have been morphologically domestic. Many of the phalanges recovered exhibit pathologies that are suggestive of tethering. An impressive range of wild animal species also were consumed at the site. Over 50 taxa have been identified, including gazelle, Bos, Sus sp., Lepus, and Vulpes.[18]

Considerable evidence for mortuary practices during the PPNB period have been described in recent years. Post-mortem skull removal, commonly restricted to the cranium, but on occasion including the mandible, and apparently following preliminary primary interments of the complete corpse. Such treatment has commonly been interpreted as representing rituals connected with veneration of the dead or some form of ‘‘ancestor worship’’[19]

‘Ain Ghazal was in an area that was suitable for agriculture and then grew as a result of the same dynamic. Archaeologists think that throughout the mid east much of the land was exhausted after some 700 years of planting and so became unsuitable for agriculture. The people from those small villages abandoned their unproductive fields and migrated, with their domestic animals, to places with better ecological conditions, like ‘Ain Ghazal that could support larger populations. As opposed to other sites as new people migrated to ‘Ain Ghazal, probably with few possessions and possibly starving, class distinctions began to develop. The influx of new people placed stresses on the social fabric – new diseases, more people to feed from what was planted and more animals that needed grazing. There is evidence of class in the way the dead are treated. Some people are buried in the floors of their houses as they would be at other Neolithic sites. After the flesh had wasted away some of the skulls were disinterred and decorated. This was either a form of respect or so that they could impart their power to the house and the people in it. However, unlike other Neolithic sites, some people were thrown on trash heaps and their bodies remain intact. Scholars have estimated that a third of adult burials were found in trash pits with their heads intact. They may have seen the new comers as a lower class.

In the earlier levels at ‘Ain Ghazhal there are small ceramic figures that seem to have been used as personal or familial ritual figures. There are figurines of both animals and people. The animal figures are of horned animals and the front part of the animal is the most clearly modeled. They all give the impression of dynamic force. Some of the animal figures have been stabbed in their vital parts these figures have then been buried in the houses. Other figurines were burned and then discarded with the rest of the fire. They built ritual building and used large figurines or statues. The actual building of them is also a way for an elite group to demonstrate and reify its authority over those who owe the community or the elite labor as service and to bond laborers together as part of a new community. In addition to the monumental statues small, clay and stone tokens, some with incised with geometric or naturalistic shapes were found at ‘Ain Ghazal.[20][21] The 195 figurines (40 human and 155 animal) he recovered were from MPPNB contexts The 81% of the figurines have been found to belong to the MPPNB while only 19% belonging to the LPPNB and PPNC. The vast majority of figurines are of cattle. A species that makes up only 8% of the overall number of identified specimens (NISP) count. The importance of hunted cattle to the domestic ritual sphere of ‘Ain Ghazal is telling. it was seemingly of importance for individual households to have members who participated both the hunting of cattle – likely a group activity – and the subsequent feasting on the remains.

There are evidences of mining activities as part of a production sequence conducted by craftspersons at the site of ‘Ain Ghazal, these potential part-time specialists in some way controlled access to such raw materials.

Haplogroup T is found among the Late MPPNB inhabitants from 'Ain Ghazal but was not found among the early and middle MPPNB populations. Is thought that the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B population is mostly composed of two different populations, the Natufians which trace their origins to the Earlier Natufian and a second population coming through a northerly influx from the region of northeastern Anatolia. Natufians have been found to belong mostly to the E1b1b1b2 lineage, which is found among 60% of the whole PPNB population and 75% of the 'Ain Ghazal population, being present in all three MPPNB stages. The complete absence of T-PF7466 among Natufians and the earlier MPPNB stages could mean that haplogroup T arrived later with the northerly influx.

As previously found in the early Neolithic settlement from Karsdorf, a mtDNA R0 descendant have been found together with Y-DNA T.

Ain Ghazal T Ghazal-I
ID I1707 AG83_5 Poz-81097
Y DNA T1-PF5610 (xT1a1-Z526, T1a1a-CTS9163, T1a1a-CTS2607, T1a2-S11611, T1a2-Y6031, T1a2a1-P322, T1a3a-Y9189)
Population Neolithic Farmers
Language
Culture Late Middle PPNB
Date (YBP) 9573 ± 39
House / Location Ain Ghazal
Members / Sample Size 1/2
Percentage 50%
mtDNA R0a
Isotope Sr
Eye Color Likely non-Dark
Hair Color Likely non-Dark
Skin Pigmentation Light
ABO Blood Group Likely O or B
Diet (d13C%0 / d15N%0)
FADS activity rs174551 (T), rs174553 (G), rs174576 (A)
Lactase Persistence Likely lactose-intolerant
Oase-1 Shared DNA 14.2%
Ostuni1 Shared DNA 6.7%
Neanderthal Vi33.26 Shared DNA 0.93%
Neanderthal Vi33.25 Shared DNA 1.2%
Neanderthal Vi33.16 Shared DNA 0.3%
Ancestral Components (AC) Neolithic Anatolia/Southeast Europe: 56.82%, Paleolithic Levant (Natufians): 24.09%, Caucasus Hunter / Early European Farmer: 12.51%, Scandinavian / West European Hunter: 4.16%, Sub Saharan: 2.04%, East European Hunter: 0.37%
puntDNAL K12 Ancient
Dodecad [dv3]
Eurogenes [K=36]
Dodecad [Globe13]
Genetic Distance
Parental Consanguinity
Age at Death
Death Position
SNPs 152.234
Read Pairs
Sample
Source [22]
Notes Evidence of a northerly origin for this population, possibly indicating an influx from the region of northeastern Anatolia.

LPPNB populations in the Southern Levant were already witnessing severe changes in climate that would have been exacerbated by large population demands on local resources. Beginning at 8.9 cal ka BP we see a significant decrease in population in highland Jordan, ultimately leading to the complete abandonment of almost all central settlements in this region.[23]

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup T-M184 (M193, M272, L206, PAGES129) is rare almost everywhere in Europe. It makes up to 4% of the population on Central Italy, Western Sicily, Northwest Corsica, Northwestern Iberian Peninsula, Western Andalucia, Western Alps, Eastern Crete, and Macedonia, frequencies up to 10% in Ibiza, Miranda l Douro, Eastern Oviedo, Cádiz, Badajoz, Balagna, Norma and Ragusa, peaking up to 20% in Sciacca, L'Aquila and some German regions. In Caucasus and Anatolia it makes up to 4% of the population on Southeast and Northwest Caucasus as well as in Southeastern and Western Anatolia, peaking up to 20% in Armenians from Sasun. In Middle East it makes up to 4% of the population around the Zagros Mountains and the Persian Gulf as well as around the Taurus Mountains and the Levant basin, peaking up to 10% in Zoroastrians from Kerman, Bakhtiaris, Assyrians from Azerbaijan, Abudhabians, Armenians from Historical Southwestern Armenia and Druzes from Galilee. In Eastern Africa it makes up to 4% of the population on Upper Egypt and Somalia, peaking up to 10% in Luxor, Jijiga and Dire Dawa. The maximal worldwide frequency for haplogroup T is observed in the Dir Clan of Somaliland, Djibouti and Somali Region, where it accounts for approximately 70 to 90% of the male lineages.[24] Besides these regions, T is found in isolated pockets as far as Central Asia, Northeast and Eastern India, Northern Asia, Central Africa, and South Africa. Haplogroup T is found in a majority of Dirs in East Africa, Kurru,[who?] Bauris & Lodha in South Asia; and in a significant minority of Rajus and Mahli in South Asia; Somalis, southern Egyptians and Fulbe in north Cameroon; Chian Greeks, Aquilanis, Saccensis, Eivissencs / Ibizans and Mirandeses in Europe and Zoroastrians, Bakhtiaris in the Middle East.[citation needed]

Luis et al. (2004) suggest that the presence of T on the African continent may, like R1* representatives, point to an older introduction from Asia. The Levant rather than the Arabian Peninsula appears to have been the main route of entry, as the Egyptian and Turkish haplotypes are considerably older in age (13,700 ybp and 9,000 ybp, respectively) than those found in Oman (only 1,600 ybp). According to the authors, the spotty modern distribution pattern of haplogroup T-M184 within Africa may therefore represent the traces of a more widespread early local presence of the clade. Later expansions of populations carrying the E1b1b, E1b1a, G and J NRY lineages may have overwhelmed the T-M184 clade-bearers in certain localities.[13]

The distribution of haplogroup T-M184 in most parts of Europe is patchy or regionalized; for example, haplogroup T-M184 was found in 1.7% (10/591) of a pool of six samples of males from southwestern Russia, but it was completely absent from a pool of eight samples totalling 637 individuals from the northern half of European Russia.[25] The Russians from the southwest were from the following cities: Roslavl, Livny, Pristen, Repyevka, and Belgorod; and Kuban Cossacks from the Republic of Adygea.

Germany

The paternal haplogroup T-M70 varies between 3% and 24% of male lineages in Germany.

The Genographic Project 2.0, 2012
Armenians from Sasun

Interestingly, haplogroup T-M184, which is relatively rare in other Near Eastern populations, as well as in three of the Armenian collections tested here, represents the most prominent descent in Sasun, comprising 20.1% of the samples. The presence of this haplogroup in Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van, by contrast, is more limited, composing only 3.6%, 6.3% and 3.9%, respectively, of the individuals from those collections.[...]Sasun, however, exhibits statistically significant divergence from the remaining Armenian populations, most likely as the result of the prominence in Sasun of lineages (T-M184 and R2a-M124) found at substantially lower frequencies in Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van.

Kristian J Herrera, 2012

T-M184 (xM70)[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Leoneses Astur-Leonese (Romance) Leon 1/13 7.7% [6][26]
Ossetian Irons Iron (Scythian) South Ossetia 1/21 4.8% [6][27]
Bhutaneses Unknown (Tibeto-Burman language) Bhutan 1/21 4.8% [2] T2-PH110
Cordobeses Andalusian (Romance) Córdoba 1/27 3.7% [6][28]
Leoneses Astur-Leonese (Romance) Leon 2/60 3.3% [6][28]
Tharus Tharu (Indo-Aryan) Morang 1/37 2.7% [29] K-M9 (xT1a-M70, L-M20, NO-M214, P-M74)
Cherkessians Besleney (Northwest Caucasian) Circassia 2/126 1.6% [6][27]
Bizkaians Bizkaiera (Isolate language) Bizkaia 1/72 1.4% [6][28]
Europeans English (Germanic) Australia 1/1078 0.9% [30]

T1-L206 (xM70)[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Syrians Unspecified Syria 1/95 1.1% [4]
Macedonians Macedonian (Balto-Slavic) Macedonia 1/201 0.5% [31]

T1a1-L162 (xL208)[edit]

This is an extreme rare T1a1 branch that only have been found in Eivissan islanders and Pontic Greeks from Giresun. Pontic Greeks from Giresun descend from Sinope colonists and Sinope was colonised by Ionians from Miletus. Is interesting to note that there exist an Ionian colony known as Pityussa just like the known Greek name for Eivissa Pityuses. In Eivissa, where is found the famous bust of Demeter that have been confused with the punic Tanit for decades, is known the cult to Demeter. The bust belonging to Demeter have been analysed and is found to contains black particles of volcanic sand origin from the Etna, is thought to be made in Sicily with red clays typical of the eastern Trinacria, which was colonized by the Ionians. The Ionians could be arrived to Eivissa c.2700 YBP. This lineage could be an Ionian marker.

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Pityusics Eivissenc (Romance) Eivissa 9/54 16.7% [32][33] L454+. All individuals were interviewed in order to assess the birthplace of their paternal grandfathers. All of them carrying typical Eivissan surnames
Pityusics Eivissenc (Romance) Eivissa 7/96 7.3% [34] L454+
Pityusics Eivissenc (Romance) Eivissa 3/45 6.7% [35] L454+
The Pityusic Islanders. One out of the three genetically different populations in the Balearic Islands

The population of the Pityusic Islands does present a clear genetic divergence in relation to the Mallorcan and Menorcan populations. Neither shows a confluence with the Catalan and Valencian populations like do the Mallorcan and Menorcan. With the comparison of the data provided by the Pityusic population with other circumediterranean populations surprises that practically there is no convergence with any of these populations, not even with the North African populations. The Pityusic case is paradigmatic: for some markers shows affinities with Oriental populations (some mtDNA variables), but diverges from these populations when considering other markers. Is a separate case, a island, not in the geographical sense but genetical.

Misericòrdia Ramon Juanpere et al., 1998-2004

T1a1a1a1b1a1-Y3782[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Sardinians Campidanese (Romance languages) Casteddu 1/187 0.5% [36]

T1a1a1a1b1a1a-Y3836[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Panamanians Panamian Castilian (Romance languages) Los Santos Province 1/30 3.3% [37]
Colombians Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Caldas 2/75 2.7% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Panamanians Panamian Castilian (Romance languages) Panama Province 1/43 2.3% [37]
Northwest Argentinians Argentinian Castilian (Romance languages) Mountainous region of Jujuy 1/50 2% [38] YHRD Admixed population
Puerto Ricans Puerto Rican Castilian (Romance languages) Southeast Puerto Rico 2/110 1.8% [39]
Native Mirandese speakers Mirandese Astur-leonese (Romance) Miranda de l Douro 1/58 1.7% [40][41]
Dominicans Dominican Castilian (Romance languages) Dominican Republic 4/261 1.5% [42]
Panamanians Panamian Castilian (Romance languages) Chiriquí Province 1/92 1.1% [37]
Mecklenburgers East Low Saxon (West Germanic) Rostock 2/200 1% [43]
Colombians Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Bogotá 2/195 1% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Colombians Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Valle del Cauca 1/103 1% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Venezuelans Venezuelan Castilian (Romance languages) Maracaibo 1/111 0.9% [44]
Venezuelans Venezuelan Castilian (Romance languages) Central Region 1/115 0.9% [45]
Europeans Brazilian Portuguese (Romance languages) São Paulo 1/120 0.8 YHRD European descents
Ecuadorians Ecuadorian Castilian (Romance languages) Quito 1/120 0.8% [46]
Colombians Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Antioquia 6/777 0.7% [47]
Mexicans Mexican Castilian (Romance languages) Tuxtla Gutiérrez 1/154 0.7 YHRD Mestizo individuals
Mexicans Mexican Castilian (Romance languages) Mérida 1/159 0.6% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Eastern Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Granada 1/180 0.6% [48]
Colombians Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Santander 1/193 0.5% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Chileans Chilean Castilian (Romance languages) Concepción 1/198 0.5% YHRD
Mexicans Mexican Spanish (Romance languages) Guadalajara 1/246 0.4% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Europeans Brazilian Portuguese (Romance languages) Rio Grande do Sul 1/255 0.4% [49]

Geographical distribution[edit]

Northern Asia[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Nentsi Nenets Nenetsia and Western Siberia 27/54 50% [50] K(xL, NOP). In Karafet et al. 2008, Forest Nentsi and Tundra Nentsi were found to be 0% K(xL, NOP).
Kazakhs Kazakh Kosh-Agachski Raion 19/49 38.8% [51] K(xL, NOP). According to Dulik 2011 only T fit.
Tuvinians Tuvan Kyzyl and Ubsunur Hollow 10/102 9.8% [51] In Kharkov et al. 2013 were sampled 296 Tuvinians from Kyzyl and were found to be 0% T.
Kazakhs Kazakh Southwestern Altai 1/30 3.3% [52]
Khakass Khakas Abakan 3/176 1.7% .[51]

Europe[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Arquata del Tronto and Apiro 2/2 100% [53]
Cretans and southern Aegeans Southeastern Greek Crete and southern Aegean 2/6 33.3% [54]
Rural Saccensi Sicilian (Romance) Sciacca 6/20 30% [55]
Chians Southeastern Greek Khíos 4/16 25% [56]
German Stilfser/Tyrolese Southern Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) Stilfs 4/17 23.5% [57]
Sephardic Levites Not Specified Not Specified 7/31 22.6% [58] Among Ashkenazi Levites found at 3.3% but different haplotype.
Venetians Venetian (Romance) Vigasio and Povegliano Veronese 2/9 22.2% [59]
Abruzzesi Neapolitan language (Romance) L'Aquila 6/30 20% [60] macro-haplogroup LT is 30% in L'Aquila population. This was the land of Samnium inhabited by the Caraceni
Cretans Cretan Greek Lasithi 9/50 18% [61] According to Martinez2007 only can belong to T1a-M70
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Sciacca 5/28 17.9% [62]
Urban Ragusani Sicilian (Romance) Ragusa 3/19 15.8% [55]
Northeastern Portuguese Jews Judaeo-Portuguese (Romance) Bragança 9/57 15.7% [63] T have been found to be the second largest lineage in the Mirandês speaking population of Miranda do Douro too. Haplogroup T was not found in a sample of Belmonte Jews.
Albanians Albanian Brescia (Lombardia) 12/83 14.5% [64] The haplogroup tested is K*(xNOP), is assumed as LT and most probably are members of T
Rural Normensi Italian (Romance) Norma 1/7 14.3% [55]
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Balagne (region of Corsica suprana) 3/24 12.5% [65]
Rural Piazzesi Sicilian (Romance) Piazza Armerina 3/24 12.5% [55]
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 2/18 11.1% [66] All individuals were interviewed in order to assess the geographical origin of their grandparents and their speaking dialect.
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Matelica 1/9 11.1% [53]
Gaditanos Andalusian (Romance) Cádiz 3/28 10.7% [67]
Native Mirandese speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Miranda de l Douro 6/58 10.4% [40][41]
Pacenses Astur-Leonese (Romance) Badajoz 3/29 10.3% [26]
Asturianos Astur-Leonese (Romance) Eastern Uviéu 1/10 10% [68]
Murcianos Murcian (Romance) Murcia 1/10 10% [69]
Rural Alcamesi Sicilian (Romance) Alcamo 2/22 9.1% [55]
Cretans Cretan Greek Lasithi 2/23 8.7% [70]
Ligurians and Tuscans Ligurian (Romance) La Spezia / Massa 2/24 8.3% [60]
Lugueses Galician language (Romance) Lugo 1/12 8.3% [26]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) West Campania 7/84 8.3% [71]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) Cilento 4/48 8.3% [61]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Alcamo 2/24 8.3% [62]
Lebaniegos Astur-Leonese (Romance) Liébana 3/37 8.1% [72]
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Corte (region of Corsica suprana) 5/62 8.1% [65]
Segovianos Castilian language (Romance) Segovia 2/25 8% [26]
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Offida 3/38 7.9% [73]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) East Sicily 9/114 7.9% [62]
Northern Portugueses Portuguese (Romance) Vila Real 3/39 7.7% [74]
Materanis Neapolitan language (Romance) Matera 4/52 7.7% [75]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) Campania 8/108 7.4% [76]
Cretans Cretan Greek Oropedio Lasithiou 3/41 7.3% [70]
Latinensis Neapolitan language (Romance) (Romance) Latina 3/42 7.3% [75]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Ragusa 2/28 7.1% [62]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Piazza Armerina 2/28 7.1% [62]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Trapani 3/43 7% [65]
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) La Spezia 3/43 7% [75]
Leccesis Salentino language (Romance) Lecce 3/46 6.5% [75]
Walloons Walloon (Romance) Wallonia 3/47 6.4% [77]
Ascolanis Marchigiano (Romance) Ascoli Piceno 3/47 6.4% [75]
Asturianos Eonavian (Romance) Navia-Eo 2/31 6.5% [68]
Gagauzes Gagauz (Turkic) Kongaz 3/48 6.3%
Solàndris Solànder (Rhaeto-Romance) Val de Sól 4/65 6.2% [78]
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Aveiro 4/66 6.1%
Western Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Huelva 10/167 6% [48]
Aragonese Aragonese and Castilian (Romance) Aragón 2/34 5.9%
Corsicans Corsican Corsica 2/34 5.9%
Panteschis Sicilian with Siculo-Arabic influences (Romance) Pantelleria 1/17 5.9% [79]
Extremadurans Astur-Leonese and Castilian (Romance) Extremadura 3/52 5.8%
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Unspecified Bulgarian region 4/69 5.8% [80]
Tuscans Tuscan (Romance) Tuscany 3/53 5.7% [81]
Dutch Hollandic (West Germanic) North Holland 1/18 5.6%
Lombardians Lombard and Italian (Romance) Lombardia 1/18 5.6% [65]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Mazara del Vallo 1/18 5.6%
Southern Italians Italian (Romance) South Apulia 4/71 5.6%
Asturians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Asturies 4/74 5.4% [82]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) South Sicily 3/55 5.4%
Lombardians Lombard and Italian (Romance) Lombardia 7/131 5.3%
Hutterites Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) South Tyrol 4/75 5.3% [83]
Peloponnesians Southern Greek Peloponnese 1/19 5.3% [54]
Gutes Gutnish (North Germanic) Gotland 2/40 5%
Alsatians Alsatian (Upper German) Strossburi 4/80 5%
Asturians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Asturies 1/20 5%
Italian speakers Italian (Romance) Bozen 3/59 5%
Ladin Stilfser/Tyrolese Ladin (Romance) Stelvio 1/20 5%
Gaditanos Andalusian language (Romance) Cadiz 1/20 5% [26]
Malacitanos Andalusian language (Romance) Málaga 1/20 5% [26]
Macedonians and Thracians Northern Greek East Macedonia and Thrace 1/21 4.8% [54]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Razgrad 1/21 4.8% [80]
Northeastern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Trás os Montes 3/64 4.7%
Corsicans Gallurese (Romance languages) Tempiu 4/86 4.7% [36]
Sardinians Sassarese (Romance) Sassari 2/43 4.7% [65]
Aretuseis Sicilian (Romance) Buccheri 1/22 4.6% [75]
Casteddammaresis Sicilian (Romance) Casteddammari 1/22 4.6% [75]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) East Sicily 4/87 4.6%
Western Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Huelva 1/22 4.5% [67]
West Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Sevilla 7/155 4.5% [67]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Santiago 2/46 4.4%
Palentinos Castilian language (Romance) Palencia 1/23 4.4% [26]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Aragó 1/23 4.4% [84]
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) Central Liguria 2/45 4.4% [73]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Penedès 7/164 4.3% [84]
Greeks Greek Athens 4/92 4.3%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese Beira Litoral 5/116 4.3%
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) La Spezia 2/46 4.3% [85]
South Italians Salentino (Romance) North Apulia 2/46 4.3%
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 3/70 4.3% [67]
Cimbrians Cimbrian (West Germanic languages) Lessinia 1/24 4.2% [78]
Pincianos Castilian language (Romance) Valladolid 1/24 4.2% [26]
Macedonians Northern Greek Central Macedonia 1/25 4% [54]
Madrileños Castilian language (Romance) Madrid 2/50 4% [26]
Germans German (West Germanic) Berlin 4/103 3.9%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Braga 2/51 3.9%
Beneventanis Neapolitan language (Romance) Benevento 1/26 3.9% [75]
Tuscans Tuscan (Romance) South Tuscany 3/79 3.8%
Riojans Riojan and Castilian (Romance) La Rioja 2/54 3.7% [66]
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Apennines Marche 1/27 3.7%
Calabrians Southern Italian (Romance) West Calabria 1/27 3.7% [73]
Urban Biellesi Piedmontese (Romance) Bièla 3/81 3.7% [55]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Kharkiv Oblast 2/55 3.6% [86]
Native Sayaguese speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Sayago 1/28 3.6% [40]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Montes Baixo Miño 1/28 3.6%
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Ajaccio (region of Corsica sutana) 1/28 3.6% [65]
Sardinians Sardinian (Romance) Sassari and Orgosolo 2/56 3.6% [87]
Southern Portugueses Portuguese (Romance) Évora 1/29 3.5%
Cretans Cretan Greek Khania 1/29 3.5% [61]
Canarians Canarian Spanish (Romance) La Palma 3/85 3.5%
Scanians Scanian dialects (South Scandinavian) Malmö 1/29 3.4%
Occitans Auvergnat (Romance) Clermont-Ferrand 3/89 3.4%
Azoreans Portuguese (Romance) Eastern Azores 3/87 3.4% [88]
Asturians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Uviéu 6/182 3.3% [82]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Lugo 2/61 3.3%
Albanians Albanian dialects Albania 1/30 3.3%
Northeastern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Bragança 1/30 3.3% [63]
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Viseu 1/30 3.3%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Guarda 1/30 3.3%
Catanzaresis southern Calabrese (Romance) Catanzaro 1/30 3.3% [75]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) West Sicily 4/122 3.3%
Leoneses Astur-leonese language (Romance) Leon 7/221 3.2% [26]
Lithuanians Aukštaitian (Baltic) West Aukstaiciai 1/31 3.2%
Euboeans Thessalian (Hellenic) Euboea 3/93 3.2% [75]
Greeks Northern Greek Western Greece 1/31 3.2% [54]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) San Giorgio La Molara 1/31 3.2% [73]
Valencians Catalan and Castilian (Romance) Valencia 1/31 3.2% [67]
Southern Tyroleans Southern Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) Lower Vinschgau 1/32 3.1%
Rhinelanders Ripuarian (Central Franconian) Köln 3/96 3.1%
Swedes Swedish dialects (East Scandinavian) Örebro 1/32 3.1%
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 3/98 3.1% [89]
Albaceteño Castilian language (Romance) Albacete 1/32 3.1% [26]
Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Madeira 4/129 3.1%
Asturianos Astur-Leonese language (Romance) Asturias 1/33 3% [26]
Lentinesi Sicilian (Romance) Lentini 1/33 3% [75]
Shetlanders with Aboriginal surnames Scots language and Norn Language (Germanic) Shetland 1/35 2.9% Shetland Project
Aretuseis Sicilian (Romance) Siracusa 4/138 2.9% [75]
Baslers Basel German (West Germanic) Basel-Stadt 18/643 2.8% [82]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Smolensk Oblast 3/107 2.8% [86]
Gienenses Castilian language (Romance) Jaen 1/36 2.8% [26]
Native Alistano speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Aliste 1/36 2.8% [40]
Germans German (Germanic) Germany 1/37 2.7% Karafet15
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Oryol Oblast 3/110 2.7% [86]
Macedonians Macedonian (Balto-Slavic) Macedonia 4/150 2.7% [90]
Azoreans Portuguese (Romance) Central Azores 2/76 2.6% [88]
Augustanis Sicilian (Romance) Augusta 1/38 2.6% [75]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Vysocina 1/40 2.5% [91]
Fiemmeses Fiamazzo (Romance) Val de Fiem 1/41 2.4% [78]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Turnhout 1/42 2.4% [92] ‘1675’ data set
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Oryol Oblast 1/42 2.4%
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Haskovo 1/41 2.4% [80]
Genoese Tabarkini Ligurian (Romance languages) U Pàize 1/41 2.4% [93]
Genoese Tabarkini Ligurian (Romance languages) U Pàize 1/48 2.1% [94]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Tongeren 1/43 2.3% [95] T1a1a-L208
Sardinians Sardinian, Corsican (Romance) Sardinia 28/1204 2.3% [96]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Kursk Oblast 1/45 2.2% [86]
Sardinians Gallurese (Romance) Gaddùra 1/46 2.2% [65]
Sardinians Sardinian (Romance) Sardinia 27/1204 2.2% [97]
Belvederesi Neapolitan language (Romance) Belvedere Marittimo 1/45 2.2% [75]
Fascians Fascian (Rhaeto-Romance) Fascia 1/47 2.1% [78]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Lipetsk Oblast 1/47 2.1%
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Chernihiv Raion 2/96 2.1% [86]
Sardinians Campidanese (Romance) Trexenta 1/47 2.1% [65]
Sardinians Logudorese (Romance languages) Benetuti 1/48 2.1% [94]
Lithuanians Aukštaitian (Baltic) western Aukštaitija 1/50 2% [86]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Sumy Oblast 2/101 2% [86]
Zamoranos Castilian (Romance) Campos - Pan 1/50 2% [40]
Southwestern Almerians Andalusian (Romance) Alpujarra Almeriense and Poniente Almeriense 1/50 2% [98]
Alpujarreños Andalusian (Romance) Alpujarra de la Sierra 1/50 2%
Corinthians Ionian-Peloponesian and Albanian (Hellenic) Corinthia 2/104 1.9% [75]
Macedonians Macedonian (Balto-Slavic) Macedonia 4/211 1.9% [99]
Sardinians Campidanese (Romance languages) Sòrgono 2/103 1.9% [36]
Catalonians Catalan language (Romance language) Camp de Tarragona 4/214 1.9% [84]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Cherkasy Raion 2/101 1.8% [86]
Adigeses Italian (Romance) Val d'Adige 1/56 1.8% [78]
Bosch surname members Catalan language (Romance language) Països Catalans 1/56 1.8% [100]
Basques Gipuzkoan (Isolate language) Southwestern Gipuzkoa 1/57 1.8% [66]
Basques Gipuzkoan (Isolate language) Gipuzkoa 1/58 1.7% [101]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Noord-Brabant 2/119 1.7% [92] ‘1775’ data set
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Sofia 1/59 1.7% [80]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Lovech 1/62 1.6% [80]
Balearics Majorcan (Romance) Majorca 2/129 1.6% [84]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Plzen 1/62 1.6% [91]
Mecklenburgers East Low Saxon (West Germanic) Rostock 3/200 1.5% [43]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Oryol Oblast 2/143 1.4% [86]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Castelló 2/146 1.4% [84]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Plovdiv 2/159 1.3% [80]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Montana, Bulgaria 1/80 1.3% [80]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Central Catalonia 3/230 1.3% [84]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Barcelona 3/231 1.3% [84]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Barcelona Periphery 3/235 1.3% [84]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Usti nad Labem 1/86 1.2% [91]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Penza Oblast 1/81 1.2%
Faroese Faroese (Germanic) Faroe Islands 1/89 1.1% [102] Grandfathers originated from various Faroese islands.
Sardinians Campidanese (Romance languages) Casteddu 2/187 1.1% [36]
Southwestern Almerians Andalusian (Romance) Laujar de Andarax, Ohanes, Berja and Adra 1/90 1.1% [103]
Eastern Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Granada 2/180 1.1% [48]
Moravian Valachs Romanian language (Romance languages) Moravian Wallachia 1/94 1.1% [104]
Estonians Estonian (Uralic) Estonia 2/209 1% [105]
Austrian Germans Southern Bavarian (Germanic) Salzburg (state) 2/200 1% [106]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Lviv Oblast 1/101 1% [86]
Aragonese Aragonese and Castilian (Romance) Aragón 2/200 1% [82]
Castellonenses Catalan language (Romance) Castelló 5/515 1% [26]
Bavarians Bavarian (Germanic) Bavaria 2/218 0.9% [107] T1a1a1a1b1-PF7445
Austrian Germans Southern Bavarian (Germanic) Upper Austria 2/225 0.9% [106]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) South Moravia 2/216 0.9% [91]
Croatians Croatian (West Slavic) Zagreb 1/114 0.9%
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) Girona 2/219 0.9% [84]
Mecklenburger Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch (Germanic) Mecklenburg 1/138 0.8% [107] T1a2b-L446(xCTS11984) DYS437=15
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Sofia Province 2/257 0.8% [80]
Romanians Romanian (Romance) Romania 1/178 0.6% [105]
Catalonians Catalan (Romance) València 1/173 0.6% [84]
Slovaks Slovak (West Slavic) Slovakia 1/164 0.6% [107]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Prague 3/595 0.5% [91]
Germans German (West Germanic) area of Halle 1/234 0.4% [108]
Individuals living in Catalonia Catalan language (Romance) Barcelona metropolitan area 1/247 0.4% [109]
Slovaks Slovak (West Slavic) Slovakia 1/473 0.2% [110]

With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 14% (3/23) of Russians in Yaroslavl,[111] 12.5% (3/24) of Italians in Matera,[61] 10.3% (3/29) of Italians in Avezzano,[61] 10% (3/30) of Tyroleans in Nonstal,[61] 10% (2/20) of Italians in Pescara,[61] 8.7% (4/46) of Italians in Benevento,[61] 7.8% (4/51) of Italians in South Latium,[71] 7.4% (2/27) of Italians in Paola,[61] 7.3% (11/150) of Italians in Central-South Italy,[112] 7.1% (8/113) of Serbs in Serbia,[113] 4.7% (2/42) of Aromanians in Romania,[114] 3.7% (3/82) of Italians in Biella,[115] 3.7% (1/27) of Andalusians in Córdoba,[67] 3.3% (2/60) of Leoneses in León,[67] 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Postua,[115] 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Cavaglià,[115] 3.1% (3/97) of Calabrians in Reggio Calabria,[116] 2.8% (1/36) of Russians in Ryazan Oblast,[117] 2.8% (2/72) of Italians in South Apulia,[118] 2.7% (1/37) of Calabrians in Cosenza,[116] 2.6% (3/114) of Serbs in Belgrade,[119] 2.5% (1/40) of Russians in Pskov,[111] 2.4% (1/42) of Russians in Kaluga,[111] 2.2% (2/89) of Transylvanians in Miercurea Ciuc,[120] 2.2% (2/92) of Italians in Trino Vercellese,[115] 1.9% (2/104) of Italians in Brescia,[121] 1.9% (2/104) of Romanians in Romania,[122] 1.7% (4/237) of Serbs and Montenegrins in Serbia and Montenegro,[123] 1.7% (1/59) of Italians in Marche,[118] 1.7% (1/59) of Calabrians in Catanzaro,[116] 1.6% (3/183) of Greeks in Northern Greece,[124] 1.3% (2/150) of Swiss Germans in Zürich Area,[125] 1.3% (1/79) of Italians in South Tuscany and North Latium,[118] 1.1% (1/92) of Dutch in Leiden,[126] 0.5% (1/185) of Serbs in Novi Sad (Vojvodina),[127] 0.5% (1/186) of Polish in Podlasie[128]

Other parts that have been found to contain a significant proportion of haplogroup T-M184 individuals include Trentino (2/67 or 3%), Mariña Lucense (1/34 or 2.9%), Heraklion (3/104 or 2.9%), Roslavl (3/107 or 2.8%), Ourense (1/37 or 2.7%), Livny (3/110 or 2.7%), Biella (3/114 or 2.6%), Entre Douro (6/228 or 2.6%), Porto (3/118 or 2.5%), Urbino (1/40 or 2.5%), Iberian Peninsula (16/629 or 2.5%), Blekinge/Kristianstad (1/41 or 2.4%), Belarus (1/41 or 2.4%), Modena (3/130 or 2.3%), Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (1/45 or 2.2%), Pristen (1/45 or 2.2%), Cáceres (2/91 or 2.2%), Brac (1/47 or 2.1%), Satakunta (1/48 or 2.1%), Western Croatia (2/101 or 2%), Ukrainia (1/50 or 2%), Greifswald (2/104 or 1.9%), Moldavians in Sofia (1/54 or 1.9%), Uppsala (1/55 or 1.8%), Lublin (2/112 or 1.8%), Pias in Beja (1/54 or 1.8%), Macedonian Greeks (1/57 or 1.8%), Nea Nikomedeia (1/57 or 1.8%), Sesklo/Dimini (1/57 or 1.8%), Lerna/Franchthi (1/57 or 1.8%), Açores (2/121 or 1.7%), Viana do Castelo (1/59 or 1.7%), Toulouse (1/67 or 1.5%), Belgorod (2/143 or 1.4%), Sardinia (1/77 or 1.3%).[129][130][131][132][133][134][71][135][74][136][102][137][138][139][140][141][142][143][144][145][146][147][148][135][149][150][151][53][98][152][153][154] According to data from commercial testing, 3.9% of Italian males belonging to this haplogroup.[155] Approximately 3% of Sephardi Jews and 2% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup T.[156]

Middle East and Caucasus[edit]

Haplogroup T has some significant frequencies in Southeast and Eastern Anatolia, the Zagors Mountains and some parts around the Persian Gulf on both sides. Out of 867 reported in FTDNA haplogroup T-(former K2)project - 284 (32%) are from this area, almost 50% of those from eastern Saudi Arabia [1].

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Tajiks Darî (Southwestern Iranian) Logar Province 2/4 50% [157]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Khashuri 1/3 33.3% [158]
Iraqi Jews Judeo-Iraqi Arabic (Central Semitic) Iraq 7/32 21.9% [4] 12.5% T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77 and 9.4% T1a3-Y11151
Armenian Sasuntzis Western Armenian dialect, Kurmanji and Dimli (Northwestern Iranian) languages Sasun 21/104 20.2% [7] T1a1 and T1a2 subclades
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Sighnaghi and Gurjaani 2/10 20% [158]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Kharagauli 1/5 20% [158]
Kumyks Kumyk (Turkic) Daghestani lowlands 2/10 20% [159] Reported as K* but according to Karafet16 and Yunusbayev12 only T fits.
Kurdish Jews Judeo-Aramaic (Central Semitic) Kurdistan 19/99 19.2% [160]
Kurdish Jews Judeo-Aramaic (Central Semitic) Kurdistan 9/50 18% [4] 10% T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77 and 8% T1a1-L162
Druzes Palestinian Arabic (Central Semitic) Galilee 7/40 17.5% [161]
Assyrians Aramaic (Central Semitic) refugees in Armenia 16/106 15.1% [162] Their homeland in the areas around Urmia.
Assyrians Aramaic (Central Semitic) Unknown 4/28 14.3% [8]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Dusheti 1/7 14.3% [158]
Iranian Jews Judeo-Iranian (Southwestern Iranian) Iran 3/22 13.6% [4] 4.5% T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77 and 9.1% T1a3-Y11151
Zoroastrians Persian Kerman 5/37 13.5% [163]
Iraqi Jews Judeo-Iraqi Arabic (Central Semitic) Iraq 13/99 13.1% [164]
Bakhtiaris Bakhtiari (Southwestern Iranian (Perside)) Izeh 13/103 12.6% [9][165]
Mountain Jews Judeo-Tat (Southwestern Iranian) Derbentsky District 2/17 11.8% [8] All belong to T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77
Armenians Western Armenian dialect Historical Southwestern Armenia 11/96 11.5% [166]
Abudhabians Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Abu Dhabi 21/191 11% [Research 1]
Assyrians Assyrian (Central Semitic) West Azerbaijan Province 4/39 10.3% [10]
Iranian Jews Judeo-Iranian (Southwestern Iranian) Iran 5/49 10.2% [164]
Persian Muslims Persian Shiraz 5/51 9.8% [163]
Persian Muslims Persian Kerman 6/66 9.1% [163]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Al-Qadisiyah 6/69 8.7% [167]
Armenians Armenian Armenia 35/413 8.5% [105]
Kurds Sorani (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdestan 5/59 8.5% [10]
Omani Arabs Omani Arabic (Semitic) Oman 10/121 8.3% [13]
Kurds Sorani (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdestan 2/25 8% [168]
Azeris Azeri (Oghuz) West Azerbaijan Province 5/63 7.9% [10]
Mazanderanis Mazanderan (Western Iranian) Mazandaran 1/13 7.7% [168]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Cyprus 3/41 7.3% [110]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Iraq 10/139 7.2% [169]
Kuwaitis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 3/42 7.1% [136]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Iraq 3/43 7% [170]
Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 10/143 7% [171]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Fars 3/44 6.8% [10]
Christian Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 3/44 6.8% [172]
Western Armenians Armenian Eastern Turkey 6/90 6.7% [173]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Yazd 3/46 6.5% [10]
Armenians Armenian Gardman 6/96 6.3% [7]
Tajiks Tajik (Southwestern Iranian) Samangan Province 1/16 6.3% [168]
Yezidis Kurmanji (Northwestern Iranian) refugees in Armenia 12/196 6.1% [162] Their homeland in the areas around Laliş.
Muslim Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 7/119 5.9% [172]
Not specified not specified Zahedan 6/103 5.8% [174]
Northern Armenians Armenian Northern Armenia, southern Georgia (Bolnisi, Akhalkalaki and Akhaltsikhe) and northwestern Azerbaijan (around Gyanja) 10/189 5.3% [173]
Armenians Armenian Tehran 2/38 5.3% [163]
Eastern Armenians Armenian Karabakh 11/215 5.1% [173]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Khorasan 3/59 5.1% [10]
Saudi Arabians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Saudi Arabia 8/157 5.1% [175]
Armenians Armenian Syunik 7/140 5% [173]
Emiratis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) United Arab Emirates 8/164 4.9%
Lebanese Muslims Lebanese Arabic (Semitic) Lebanon 28/568 4.9% [176]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Lemesos 6/126 4.8% [177]
Kumyks Kumyk (Turkic) Khasavyurtovsky District 1/21 4.8% [8]
Avars Avar (Northeast Caucasian) southeastern Dagestan 2/42 4.8% [27]
Kurds Kurmanji (Northwestern Iranian) Anatolia 12/251 4.8% [178]
Kurds Kurdish dialects (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdistan 6/126 4.8% [Research 2]
Anizes Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 1/21 4.7% [179]
Lebaneses Levantine Arabic (Semitic) Lebanon 43/914 4.7%
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Cyprus 3/65 4.6%
Maronites Lebanese Arabic and Syriac (Semitic) Lebanon 24/518 4.6% [176]
Armenians Armenian Ararat 2/44 4.6% [173]
Muslim Kurds Kurdish dialects (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdistan 4/95 4.2% [160]
Qeshmis Qishmi (southwestern Iranian) Qeshm 2/49 4.1% [10]
Lurs Luri (Southwestern Iranian) Lorestan 2/50 4% [10]
Sadats Languages of Iran Different cities of Iran 2/50 4% [180]
Persians Persian Eastern Iran 3/77 3.9% [181]
Armenians Armenian Lake Van 4/103 3.9% [7]
Saudi Arabians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Saudi Arabia 4/106 3.8% [110]
Not Specified Not Specified Birjand 1/27 3.7% [174] All T1a3-Y12871
Armenians Armenian Ararat Valley 4/110 3.6% [7]
Tajiks Tajik (Southwestern Iranian) Afghanistan 2/56 3.6% [157]
Armenians Armenian Armenia 2/57 3.5% [27]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Omalo 1/29 3.5% [158]
Iranians Languages of Iran South Iran 4/117 3.4% [130]
Ionians Greek Phokaia 1/31 3.2% [182]
Bandaris Bandari (Southwestern Iranian) Bandar Abbas 4/131 3.1% [10]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Larnaka 2/67 3% [177]
Alans Karachay-Baksan-Chegem (Turkic) Kabardino-Balkaria 1/69 2.9% [27]
Tajiks Darî (Southwestern Iranian) Ferghana 1/35 2.9% [183]
Tajiks Tajik (Southwestern Iranian) Takhar Province 1/35 2.9% [168]
Jordanians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Jordania 8/273 2.9%
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Ammochostos 3/122 2.5% [177]
Lezghins Lezgian (Northeast Caucasian) Southern Dagestan 2/81 2.5% [184]
Turks Turkish Turkey 13/523 2.5%
Persians Persian (Southwestern Iranian) Esfahan 1/13 2.4% [168]
Iranians Languages of Iran Iran 7/324 2.2% [176]
Azerbaijani Muslims Azerbaijani (Turkic) Uromia 2/91 2.2% [163]
Yemenite Jews Hebrew and Arabic Yemen 2/94 2.1% [164]
Andis Andi (Northeast Caucasian) western Dagestan 1/49 2% [27]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Paphos 2/105 1.9% [177]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Nicosia 3/161 1.9% [177]
Pashtuns Pashto (Eastern Iranian) Kunduz Province 1/53 1.9% [168]
Assyrians Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (Semitic) Uromia and Tehran 1/55 1.8% [163]
Abkhazians Abkhaz (Northwest Caucasian) Abkhazia 1/58 1.7% [184]
Kuwaitis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 2/117 1.7% [185]
Greek Orthodox Koine Greek Lebanon 2/116 1.7% [176]
Not specified not specified Mashhad 2/129 1.6% [174] 0.8% T1a3-Y11151 (xY8614)
Aeolians Greek Smyrna 1/68 1.5% [182]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Georgia 1/66 1.5% [105]
Turkmens Turkmen (Oghuz) Golestan 1/68 1.5% [10]
Kumyks Kumyk (Turkic) Northern Dagestan 1/73 1.4% [27]
Kuban Nogays Nogai (Turkic) north of Sea of Azov around Prymorsk 1/87 1.2% [27]
Ossetian Digors Digorian (Scythian) North Ossetia 1/127 0.8% [184]
Yemeni Arabs Sanaani Arabic (Semitic) Sana'a 1/129 0.8% [Research 3]
Syrians Syrian Arabic (Semitic) Syria 4/518 0.8% [176]
Kabardins Kabardian (Northwest Caucasian) Kabardino-Balkaria 1/140 0.7% [27]
Circassians Adyghe (Northwest Caucasian) Republic of Adygea 1/142 0.7% [184]
Pashtuns Pashto (Eastern Iranian) mainly living in the Southern Afghanistan province of Kandahar 1/141 0.7% [186]
Abkhazians Abkhaz (Northwest Caucasian) Abkhazia 1/162 0.6% [27]

Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 28% (7/25) of Lezginians in Dagestan,[9] 21.7% (5/23) of Ossetians in Zamankul,[187] 14% (7/50) of Iranians in Isfahan,[9] 13% (3/23) of Ossetians in Zil'ga,[187] 12.6% (11/87) of Kurmanji Kurds in Eastern Turkey,[188] 11.8% (2/17) of Palestinian Arabs in Palestine,[189] 8.3% (1/12) of Iranians in Shiraz,[190] 8.3% (2/24) of Ossetians in Alagir,[187] 8% (2/25) of Kurmanji Kurds in Georgia,[188] 7.5% (6/80) of Iranians in Tehran,[9][191] 7.4% (10/135) of Palestinian Arabs in Israeli Village,[189] 7% (10/143) of Palestinian Arabs in Israel and Palestine,[189] 5% (1/19) of Chechens in Chechenia,[9][191] 4.2% (3/72) of Azerbaijanians in Azerbaijan,[9][191] 4.1% (2/48) of Iranians in Isfahan,[191] 4% (4/100) of Armenians in Armenia,[9][191] 4% (1/24) of Bedouins in Israel[189] and 2.6% (1/39) of Turks in Ankara.[191]

Africa[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Northern Dir tribes Northern Somali (East Cushitic) Dire Dawa 14/17 82.4% [24] Dir sub-clans of Dire Dawa are Issa, Gurgura and Gadabuursi.
Issas and/or Gadabuursi Northern Somali (East Cushitic) Djibouti 30/40 75% [192] This sample is only 25% E-M215. According to Plaster et al. only have been found two very different lineages, T-M184 and E-M215, among northern Dirs.
Anteony Antemoro (Plateau Malagasy) old Antemoro Kingdom 22/37 59.5% [193] The Anteony are the descendants of aristocrats, from whom the Antemoro king is chosen. Can be grouped into the Silamo, because they have the right to undertake the ritual slaughter of animals (Sombily)
Aushi Aushi Zambia 1/2 50% [194]
Akie Akie people (Nilotic) Tanzania 3/13 23.1% [Hirbo et al.] Akie people have remnants of a Cushitic language
Somalis Darood Somali (East Cushitic) Jijiga (Ogaden) 19/83 22.9% [24] Jijiga is mostly inhabited by Darod subclans like Bartire, Geeri Koombe and Ogaden.
Arabs from Somalia Benaadir (Cushitic) immigrants in Yemen 7/33 21.2% [195]
Lemba Venda and Shona (Bantu) South Africa 6/34 17.6% [4] Exclusively belong to T1a2* (old T1b*). Possible recent founder effect. Low frequency of T1a2 has been observed in Bulgarian Jews and Turks but is not found in other Jewish communities. Y-str Haplotypes close to some T1a2 Armenians.
Fulbe Fula northern Cameroon 3/17 17.6% [196]
Rangi Rangi Language (Bantu) Tanzania 5/32 15.6% [Hirbo et al.]
Multiple ethnicity - Somalia 15/105 14.3% [197][198]
Iraqw Iraqw language (Cushitic) Tanzania 6/47 12.8% [Hirbo et al.]
Wachagga Kichagga (Niger-Congo) Dār as-Salām 3/24 12.5% [161] Mixed with Rift Southern Cushites.
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Norway 12/104 11.5% [199]
Bench Bench(northern Omotic) Bench Maji Zone 14/126 11.4% [24]
Kores (Cushitic) SNNP 2/18 11.1% [24]
Oromo Afaan Oromo language (Cushitic) Oromiyaa 1/9 11.1% [200]
Gorowa Gorowa language (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/19 10.5% [Hirbo et al.]
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Denmark 21/201 10.4% [201]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Luxor Governorate 3/29 10.3% [32][202]
Kontas Konta language (Omotic) Konta special woreda 11/107 10.3% [24]
Rendille Rendille language (Cushitic) Marsabit County 3/31 9.7% [Hirbo et al.]
Datogs Rendille language (Cushitic) Tanzania 3/31 9.7% [203]
Gewadas Gewada language (east Cushitic) SNNP 11/116 9.5% [24]
Antalaotra Antemoro (Plateau Malagasy) old Antemoro Kingdom 4/43 9.3% [193] The Antalaotra are in charge of the magical and religious domains; they have the ability to read and write Sorabe. Can be grouped into the Silamo, because they have the right to undertake the ritual slaughter of animals (Sombily)
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Aswan Governorate 1/11 9.1% [204]
Subiya Subiya/Kuhane (Bantu) Zambia 1/11 9% [194]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Assiut Governorate 6/70 8.6% [204]
Konsos (Semitic) Konso special woreda 2/24 8.3% [24]
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Sweden 12/147 8.2% [205]
Arabs and Berbers Egyptian Arabic and Siwi Lower Egypt 12/147 8.2% [13]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Sohag Governorate 4/52 7.7% [204]
Egyptians Erythraic (Cushitic) Egypt 7/92 7.6% [198][200] If the K* sample is M184+ then 8.7%
Oromo (Semitic) SNNP 2/28 7.1% [194]
Tigray-Tigrinyas Tigrinya (South Semitic) SNNP 2/30 6.7% [24]
Dirashas Dirasha (east Cushitic) Dirashe special woreda 5/79 6.3% [24]
Canarians Canarian Spanish Tenerife 11/178 6.2%
Omo Valley Omotic languages Ethiopia 6/98 6.1% [194]
Kordofanians Kordofanian Kurdufan 4/69 5.8% [189]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Qena Governorate 3/52 5.8% [204]
Tuaregs Tuareg (Berber) Gorom-Gorom 1/18 5.6% [206]
Afars Afar (East Cushitic) Afar Region 6/111 5.4% [24]
Ethiopians Ethiopian languages Ethiopia 4/74 5.4% [170]
Mashiles Mashile language (Cushitic) SNNP 7/130 5.4% [24]
Gurages Gurage languages (South Semitic) SNNP 6/118 5.1% [24]
Canarians Canarian Spanish Gran Canaria 4/78 5.1% [194]
Oromo Afaan Oromo language (Cushitic) Oromiyaa 4/78 5.1% [194]
Oromo Afaan Oromo language (Cushitic) Adis Abeba 2/40 5% [194]
Turu Nyaturu (Bantu) Tanzania 1/20 5% [203]
Moroccan Jews Haketia (Romance) Israel 1/20 5% [207]
Gedeos Gedeo (east Cushitic) SNNP 6/122 4.9% [24]
Wairak Iraqw (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/41 4.9% [13]
Western Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Tripoli region 7/142 4.9% [208]

[209]

Tunisians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) Sfax 5/105 4.8% [210]
Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Tripoli area 3/63 4.8% [211]
Kanuri Kanuri Cameroon 1/21 4.8% [Hirbo et al.]
Iraqw[212] Iraqw (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/43 4.7%
Yems Yemsa (Omotic) SNNP 5/107 4.7% [24]
Gobeze Cushitic SNNP 5/113 4.4% [24]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Minya Governorate 1/23 4.3% [204]
Konsos Konso language (East Cushitic) Konso special woreda 4/94 4.3% [24]
Amhara Amharic (Semitic) Ethiopia 2/48 4.2% [194]
Kembaatas East Cushitic Kembata Tembaro Zone 4/102 3.9% [24]
Maasai Maasai (Eastern Nilotic) Kenya 3/79 3.8% [194]
Hutus Rwanda-Rundi (Niger-Congo) Rwanda 1/39 2.6% [213]
Bantus Bantu (Niger-Congo) Botswana 1/40 2.5% [214]
Lower Egyptians Egyptian Arabic (Semitic) Mansoura 1/44 2.2% [32][202]
Berbers Siwi (Berber) Siwa Oasis 2/93 2.2% [215][216]
Berbers Siwi (Berber) Sejenane 1/47 2.1% [217]
Meru Meru (Northeast Bantu) Tanzania 2/99 2% [218]
Itam Ibibio Obong Itam (Southeast Nigeria) 1/50 2% [219][220]
Ovimbundo Umbundu and Portuguese Angola 1/53 1.9% [221]
Berbers Shilha (Berber) Asni 1/54 1.9% [215][216]
Eastern Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Benghazi 4/214 1.9% [222]
Algerians Algerian Arabic (Semitic) Algeria 3/164 1.8% [189]
Baribas Baatonum (Niger–Congo) Benin 1/57 1.8% [223] T1a-M70(xT1a2-L131)
Bokoras Karamojong (Eastern Nilotic) Karamoja region 1/59 1.7% [209]
Lower Egyptians Egyptian Arabic (Semitic) Cairo 1/63 1.6% [224]
Tumbuka Tumbuka (Niger-Congo) northern Malawi 1/61 1.6% [220]
Mozabites Mozabite (Berber) Ghardaia 1/68 1.5% [225]
Tunisians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) South Tunisia 3/200 1.5% [226]
Soussians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) Sousse 3/220 1.4% [227]
Chewa Chewa (Niger-Congo) Malawi 1/92 1.1% [220]
Bantu Narrow Bantu (Niger-Congo) Pretoria 1/98 1% [220]
Nilotes Ateker (Eastern Nilotic) Karamoja region 1/118 0.8% [209]
Andalusians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) Testour, El Alia, Gualaat-El-Andalous, Slouguia 1/132 0.8% [228] Refugees from Al-Andalus following the capitulation of the Islamic kingdoms in Valencia and Granada
Bantus Bantu Botswana, Namibia and Zambia 1/140 0.7% [229] Father and paternal grandfather belonged to the same ethnolinguistic group
Basothos Sesotho (Niger-Congo) Lesotho 1/181 0.6% [230]
Khoisans Khoisan Botswana, Namibia and Zambia 1/371 0.3% [229] Father and paternal grandfather belonged to the same ethnolinguistic group

South Asia[edit]

Haplogroup T1a-M70 in India has been considered to be of West Eurasian origin.[231]

Haplogroup T-M184 has been detected in:

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Kurru Yerukala (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 10/18 55.6% [135]
Bauris Bengali (Indo-Aryan) West Bengal 10/19 52.6% [135] K* is found at 6/19, if M70- but M184+, then could be 84.2%. Bauris are thought to be descendants of a native tribe of the Central Highlands before the Aryan invasion, then as Bauris have not been well assimilated and have not participated satisfactorily in the new Aryan society, the Bauris ended up being seen as "low caste". They are at "halfway" between the old Bauri tribal and the new Aryan society lifestyle.
Lodha Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda) West Bengal 2/4 50% [135]
Rajus Telugu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/19 15.9% [135]
Maheli Mahali (Kherwari Munda) West Bengal 2/13 15.3% [135]
Chenchus Chenchu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/20 15% [135] K* is found at 7/20, if M70- but M184+, then could be 50%
Kare Vokkal Kannada (Dravidian) Uttara Kannada 4/30 13.3% [232] K* is found at 3/30, if M70- but M184+, then could be 23.3%
Banjaras Lambadi (Indo-Aryan) Andhra Pradesh 2/18 11.1% [135]
Gonds Gondi (Dravidian) South Uttar Pradesh 4/38 10.6% [233]
Gonds Gondi (Dravidian) Madhya Pradesh 10/139 7.2% [233]
Indians languages of India South India 18/305 5.9% [135]
Maheli Mahali (Kherwari Munda) Jamshedpur from Jharkhand; Purulia, Midnapore & other location from West Bengal 2/38 5.3% [135][234] Two samples from different studies grouped together
Chenchus Chenchu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/61 4.9% [135][235] Samples from Trivedi et al. and Kivisild et al.
Banjaras Lambadi (Indo-Aryan) Andhra Pradesh 2/53 3.8% [135][235] Two samples from different studies grouped together
Indians languages of India East India 14/367 3.8% [135]
Gujaratis Gujarati (Indo-Aryan) Gujarat 1/29 3.4% [235]
Lodha Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda) Midnapore & other location from West Bengal 2/71 2.8% [135][234][236] Three samples from different studies grouped together
Sahariyas Saharia (Munda) Madhya Pradesh 2/73 2.7% [237]
Tamtas (Indo-Aryan) Bageshwar 1/34 2.9% [231]
Kshatriyas (Indo-Aryan) Pithoragarh 2/79 2.5% [231]
Aryas Arya (Indo-Aryan) Nainital 1/46 2.2% [231]
Laotians Lao (Tai-Kadai) Laos 1/53 1.9% [161]
Garos Garo (Sino-Tibetan) Tangail 1/120 0.8% [238] Likely P77+

With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 56.6% (30/53) of Kunabhis in Uttar Kannada,[239] 32.5% (13/40) of Kammas in Andhra Pradesh,[240] 26.8% (11/41) of Brahmins in Visakhapatnam,[240] 25% (1/4) of Kattunaiken in South India,[241] 22.4% (11/49) of Telugus in Andhra Pradesh,[242] 20% (1/5) of Ansari in South Asia, (2/20) of Poroja in Andhra Pradesh,[240] 9.8% (5/51) of Kashmiri Pandits in Kashmir,[233] 8.2% (4/49) of Gujars in Kashmir,[233] 7.7% (1/13) of Siddis (migrants from Ethiopia) in Andhra Pradesh,[240] 5.5% (3/55) of Adi in Northeast India,[243] 5.5% (7/128) of Pardhans in Adilabad,[242] 5.3% (2/38) of Brahmins in Bihar,[233] 4.3% (1/23) of Bagata in Andhra Pradesh,[240] 4.2% (1/24) of Valmiki in Andhra Pradesh,[240] (1/32) of Brahmins in Maharashtra,[233] 3.1% (2/64) of Brahmins in Gujarat,[233] 2.9% (1/35) of Rajput in Uttar Pradesh,[244] 2.3% (1/44) of Brahmins in Peruru,[240] and 1.7% (1/59) of Manghi in Maharashtra.[242]

Also in Desasth-Brahmins in Maharashtra (1/19 or 5.3%) and Chitpavan-Brahmins in Konkan (1/21 or 4.8%), Chitpavan-Brahmins in Konkan (2/66 or 3%).

Central Asia and East Asia[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Xibes Xibe (Tungusic) Xinjiang 1/8 12.5% [245][246]
Xibes Xibe (Tungusic) Xinjiang 3/32 9.4% [247]
Bajo sea Nomads Bajaw (Malayo-Polynesian) Sulawesi 2/27 7.4% [248] T1a-M70
Khampas Khams Tibetan (Sino-Tibetan) Markham 1/18 5.6% [249] T-M272
Adis Adi (Sino-Tibetan) Arunachal Pradesh 3/55 5.5% [250]
Uzbeks Uzbek (Turkic) Sar-e Pol Province 1/28 3.6% [168]
Tibetans Dbus (Sino-Tibetan) Dromo 1/39 2.6% [249] T-M272
Uyghur Uyghur (Turkic) Xinjiang 1/48 (1/4 samples) 2.1% [251]
Uyghur Uyghur (Turkic) Xinjiang 3/284 1.1% [252]
Uzbeks Uzbek (Turkic) Jawzjan Province 1/94 1.1% [168]
Mongolians Mongolian (Mongolic) Inner Mongolia 1/100 1% [252]
Uyghur Uyghur (Turkic) Hotan Prefecture 3/478 0.6% [253]
Tibetans Dbus (Sino-Tibetan) Qüxü 1/203 0.5% [249] T-M272
Hans Mandarin (Sino-Tibetan) Jilin 1/196 0.5% [254]

Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 4.9% (2/41) of Xibe in Xinjiang,[255] 2% (4/204) of Hui in Liaoning province,[256] and 0.9% (1/113) of Bidayuh in Sarawak.[257]

Colonial America[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Quechuas Quechua Lima Region 3/11 27.3% [161]
Movimas Movima language (Language isolate) Beni 1/5 20% [258]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Antioquia 9/51 17.6% [259]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Aranzazu, Caldas 23/190 12.1% [259]
Panamians Castilian (Romance languages) Los Santos Province 3/30 10% [37]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) San Luis 3/30 10% [38]
Napu runas Kichwa Ecuadorian Amazon 2/21 9.5% [260]
Bahamians Bahamian English (West Germanic) Long Island 3/43 7% [261]
Panamians Castilian (Romance languages) Panama Province 3/43 7% [37]
Northwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of San Salvador de Jujuy 6/86 7% [262]
Kolla Quechua, Aymara and Argentinian Spanish Mountainous region of Tucumán 2/29 6.9% [263][264]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Tucumán 2/30 6.7% [38]
Tule Kuna (Chibchan languages) Kuna Yala 1/16 6.3% [37] According to Hamilton 2014, around 2% of Tule people in Kuna Yala are Albinos. This is the highest known frequency in the world
Basques Basque (Isolate language) Nevada 1/16 6.3% [Research 4]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Marinilla and its zone of influence 15/241 6.2% [265]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of La Rioja (Capital) 5/87 5.7% [262]
Kolla Quechua, Aymara and Argentinian Spanish Mountainous region of Jujuy 1/18 5.6% [266]
Venezuelans Venezuelan Castilian (Romance languages) Caracas 3/62 4.8% [44]
Northeast Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Corrientes 1/21 4.8% [267]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Cundinamarca 1/22 4.5% [259]
Northwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Jujuy 2/50 4% [38]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Concepción 8/198 4% [268]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of Mendoza (Capital) 3/75 4% [262]
Brazilians Brazilian Portuguese (Romance) Serra, Espírito Santo 1/29 3.5% [269]
Ecuadorians Castilian (Romance languages) Quito 4/120 3.3% [46]
Central Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) La Pampa 1/30 3.3% [38]
Central Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Córdoba 1/31 3.2% [38]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Temuco 6/194 3.1% [268]
Panamians Castilian (Romance languages) Herrera Province 1/36 2.8% [37]
Venezuelans Venezuelan Castilian (Romance languages) Maracaibo 3/111 2.7% [44]
Nicas Nicaraguan Castilian Nicaragua 4/165 2.4% [270] Mestizo individuals
Europeans Brazilian Portuguese (Romance languages) Rio Grande do Sul 5/255 2% [49]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Santiago de Chile 4/196 2% [268]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Buenos Aires 3/150 2% [267]
Quechuas Quechua Bolivia 1/55 1.8% [271]
Bahamians Bahamian English (West Germanic) Eleuthera 1/60 1.7% [261]
Mexicans Mexican Castilian (Romance languages) Querétaro 2/121 1.7% [272] Mestizo individuals
Mexicans Mexican Castilian (Romance languages) Guanajuato 1/63 1.6% [272] Mestizo individuals
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Peque (Antioquia) 1/62 1.6% [259]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Punta Arenas 3/194 1.6% [268]
Salvadorans Castilian (Romance) El Salvador 2/150 1.3% [273]
Jamaicans Jamaican Patois (English creole) Jamaica 2/159 1.3% [274]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Cartagena 2/173 1.2% [275]
Panamians Castilian (Romance languages) Chiriquí Province 1/92 1.1% [37]
Ticos Costa Rican Castilian Costa Rica 1/100 1% [276]
Brazilians Brazilian Portuguese (Romance) Santa Catarina 1/109 0.9% [277]
Virgin islanders Virgin Islands Creole English (Germanic) Saint Thomas (Virgin Islands) 1/134 0.8% [278]
Hondurans Honduran Castilian Honduras 1/128 0.8% [279] Mestizo individuals
Palenques Palenquero (Castilian-Bantu) Palenque de San Basilio 1/150 0.7% [220]
Belizeans Belizean Castilian and Belizean Creole Belize 1/157 0.6% [280]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Iquique 1/207 0.5% [268]
Brazilians Brazilian Portuguese (Romance) Espírito Santo 1/253 0.4% [281]

Elite endurance runners[edit]

Possible patterns between Y-chromosome and elite endurance runners were studied in an attempt to find a genetic explanation to the Ethiopian endurance running success. Given the superiority of East African athletes in international distance running over the past four decades, it has been speculated that they are genetically advantaged. Elite marathon runners from Ethiopia were analysed for K*(xP) which according to the previously published Ethiopian studies is attributable to the haplogroup T[282] and specifically to the T1a1a* (old T1a*) subclade, according to further studies.[4] T1a1a* was found to be proportionately more frequent in the elite marathon runners sample than in the control samples than any other haplogroup, therefore this y-chromosome could play a significant role in determining Ethiopian endurance running success. Haplogroup T1a1a* was found in 14% of the elite marathon runners sample of whom 43% of this sample are from Arsi province. In addition, haplogroup T1a1a* was found in only 4% of the Ethiopian control sample and only 1% of the Arsi province control sample. T1a1a* is positively associated with aspects of endurance running, whereas E1b1b1 (old E3b1) is negatively associated.[283]

Notable haplogroup members[edit]

A notable member of the T-M184 haplogroup is American President Thomas Jefferson. The Y-chromosomal complement of the Jefferson male line was studied in 1998 in an attempt to resolve the controversy over whether he had fathered the mixed-race children of his slave Sally Hemings. A 1998 DNA study of the Y chromosome in the Jefferson male line found that it matched that of a descendant of Eston Hemings, Sally Hemings' youngest son. This confirmed the body of historical evidence, and most historians believe that Jefferson had a long-term intimate liaison with Hemings for 38 years, and fathered her six children of record, four of whom lived to adulthood. In addition, the testing conclusively disproved any connection between the Hemings descendant and the Carr male line. Jefferson grandchildren had asserted in the 19th century that a Carr nephew had been the father of Hemings' children, and this had been the basis of historians' denial for 180 years. Jefferson's paternal family traced back Wales, where T is incredibly rare, as it is throughout Britain. A couple of British males with the Jefferson surname have been found with the third president's type of T, reinforcing the idea that his immediate paternal ancestry was British. But Jefferson's T type is also closely related to Egyptian and Iberian T branches of the haplogroup.

Thomas Jefferson

Phylogenetic network analysis of its Y-STR (short tandem repeat) haplotype shows that it is most closely related to an Egyptian K2 haplotype, but the presence of scattered and diverse European haplotypes within the network is nonetheless consistent with Jefferson’s patrilineage belonging to an ancient and rare indigenous European type. This is supported by the observation that two of 85 unrelated British men sharing the surname Jefferson also share the President’s Y-STR haplotype within haplogroup K2.

Turi E. King et al., [284]
Thomas Jefferson

The affiliation of the Jefferson haplotype to T1a* and the absence of closely related haplotypes (zero to two step mutations away) in the network supports the hypothesis that this haplotype belongs to an ancient rare European Y-chromosome lineage rather than to lineages that recently migrated to Europe from the Near East.

Mendez, 2011

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

Phylogenetic Tree of the Eurasian Haplogroup T-M184 and their closest macro-lineages
Latest 2015 tree (ISOGG 2015)
Branching of T-M184
LT
 L298 
  (43900ybp)  
LT*
 (xM184, M20) 


 All cases without M184 or M20


T
 M184 
  (39,300-45,100ybp)  
T*
 (xL206) 


 All cases without L206 or PH110


 
T1
 L206 
  (26600ybp)  
T1*
 (xM70) 


 Syria


 
T1a
 M70 
  (19,000-30,000ybp)[4]  
T1a*
 (xL162,L131,Y11151) 


 All cases without L162, L131 or Y11151


 
T1a1
 L162 
  (15400ybp)  
T1a1*
 (xL208) 


 Pityusic Islanders, Pontic Greeks from Giresun, Germany and Balkars.


 
T1a1a
 L208 
  (14800ybp)  
T1a1a*
 (xCTS11451, Y16897) 


 All cases without CTS11451 or Y16897


 
T1a1a1
 CTS11451 
  (9500ybp)  
T1a1a1*
 (xY4119, Y6671) 


 All cases without Y4119 or Y6671


 
T1a1a1a
 Y4119 
  (9200ybp)  
T1a1a1a*
 (xCTS2214) 


 All cases without CTS2214


 
T1a1a1a1
 CTS2214 
  (8900ybp)  

{{{1}}}



 
T1a1a1a2
 Y6671 
  (8900ybp)  

 



 
T1a1a1b
 Y6671 
  (9200ybp)  

 



 
T1a1a2
 Y16897 
  (9500ybp)  

 




 
T1a2
 L131 
  (15400ybp)  

 


 
T1a3
 Y11151 
  (15400ybp)  

 




T2
PH110 
  (26600ybp)  


 
 Ossetian Irons, Leoneses, Germans and Bhutaneses



L
M20
L1
M22


 West Asia, Europe, Central and South Asia.


 
L2
L595


 
 Widely widespread in Europe, where is found the highest diversity of this lineage.




Macro-Haplogroup LT

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the 2012 ISOGG Tree.

  • T (L445, L452, L455/PF5670, PR4091, L810, M184/Page34/USP9Y+3178, M272/PF5667, Page129) Found in Germania, Armenia, Iberian Peninsula and Bhutan. Also found in a South Australia European sample and a Palestinian individual.
    • T1 (L206, L490) Found in Syria.
      • T1a (M70/Page46/PF5662, PAGES78) Found in Early Neolithic skeleton found in Karsdorf, Germany, 7200 years old. Also in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Ossetia, England, Italy and Portugal.
        • T1a1 (L162/Page21, L299, L453/PF5617, L454) Found in Eivissa, northern Anatolia and Germany.
          • T1a1a (L208/Page2, L905) Mostly found in Upper Egypt, Horn of Africa, western Europe, eastern Anatolia, Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Some spots in western Morocco, Sahrawis and Canarias.
            • T1a1a1 (P77) Mostly found in Middle East, western Europe and Ashkenazi Jews.
            • T1a1a2 (P321) Found in Syria and Ashkenazi Jews.
              • T1a1a2a (P317) Found in Syria, Italian Jews and Ashkenazi Jews.
        • T1a2 (L131) Mostly found in northern Europe, eastern Europe, southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Also found in Xinjiang, Lemba, Tunisia, south and east Iberian Peninsula.
          • T1a2a (P322, P328) Found in Scandinavia, Denmark, Germany and Netherlands. Some spots in Yemenite Jews and Palestine(P327).
          • T1a2b (L446) Found in Northwest Europe and eastern Alps.
        • T1a3 (L1255) Found in Kuwait.

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012 ISOGG 2013
T-M184 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu16 H5 F K* K T T K2 K2 T T T T T T
K-M70/T-M70 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu15 H5 F K2 K2 T T1 K2 K2 T T T T1 T1a T1a
T-P77 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu15 H5 F K2 K2 T2 T1a2 K2 K2 T2 T2 T2a1 T1a1b T1a1a1 T1a1a1

Original research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

α Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 and Kaladjieva 2001

β Underhill 2000

γ Hammer 2001

δ Karafet 2001

ε Semino 2000

ζ Su 1999

η Capelli 2001

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1[χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1 F2 F3 GHIJK
G HIJK
H IJK
IJ K
I J LT [χ 5]  K2
L T NO [χ 6] K2b [χ 7]   K2c K2d K2e [χ 8]
N O K2b1 [χ 9]    P
M S [χ 10] Q R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  10. ^ Haplogroup S (S-M230) was previously known as Haplogroup K5.

References[edit]

Original research[edit]

  1. ^ W. Goodwin et al., " Department of Forensic and Investigative Science ," "www.yhrd.org/" (2012),
  2. ^ Carsten Hohoff and Bernd Brinkmann "Institut für Rechtsmedizin"," 'Universität Münster <http://www.yhrd.org>
  3. ^ Uta D. Immel et al., "Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Martin-Luther Universität Haale/Saale," "www.yhrd.org/" (1999),
  4. ^ Laura Valverde Potes et al., "Grupo BIOMICs / BIOMICs Research Group," "www.yhrd.org/" (2011),

Other works cited[edit]

  1. ^ YFull YTree v4.02
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  5. ^ PH = Pille Hallast, Ph.D., University of Leicester, Department of Genetics, United Kingdom
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  16. ^ a b c Oelze, Vicky M.; et al. (2010). "Early Neolithic diet and animal husbandry: stable isotope evidence from three Linearbandkeramik (LBK) sites in Central Germany". Journal of Archaeological Science. 38: 270–279. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.08.027. 
  17. ^ a b Brandt, Guido; et al. (2014). "Settlement Burials at the Karsdorf LBK Site, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany". British Academy Scholarship Online. 
  18. ^ Simmons, Alan H.; et al. (2014). "'Ain Ghazal: A Major Neolithic Settlement in Central Jordan". American Association for the Advancement of Science. 
  19. ^ Goren, Yuval; et al. (2001). "The Technology of Skull Modelling in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB): Regional Variability, the Relation of Technology and Iconography and their Archaeological Implications". Journal of Archaeological Science. 
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  25. ^ Balanovsky, Oleg; Rootsi, Siiri; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Kivisild, Toomas; Churnosov, Michail; Evseeva, Irina; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Boldyreva, Margarita; et al. (2008). "Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 82 (1): 236–50. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.019. PMC 2253976free to read. PMID 18179905. 
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