|Possible time of origin||19,000-30,000 years BP|
|Possible place of origin||West Asia|
|Defining mutations||M184/PAGES34/USP9Y+3178, M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, L445|
|Highest frequencies||Somalis, Kurru, Bauris, Armenian Sasuntzis, Chians, Saccensi/Sicilians, Fulbe, Eivissencs, Northeastern Portuguese Jews, Rajus, Mahli, Zoroastrians in Kerman, Bakhtiaris/Lurs, Southern Egyptians|
Haplogroup T-M184, often known as Haplogroup T, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. The unique-event polymorphism (UEP) which defines this clade is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) known as M184. Other SNPs – M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, and L445 – are considered to be phylogenetically equivalent to M184.
T-M184 is an immediate descendant of Haplogroup LT, which is an immediate descendant of Haplogroup K. From 2002 to 2008, T-M184 was known as Haplogroup K2 (a name that has since been reassigned to a quite different subclade of Haplogroup K).
Haplogroup T is unusual in that it is both relatively rare and geographically widespread. While it probably originated, about 20,000 years ago, on the Arabian Peninsula, T-M184 is most common in males native to West Asia (especially Iraq), the Horn of Africa, and many other parts of Eurasia and North Africa (albeit seldom at levels above 10%). It has also been detected in southern and eastern India, at levels of about 4.0%, and on the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) in about 2.0% of the male population. It is possible that European examples represent relatively recent immigration from North Africa, but they could also have reached Europe during the Neolithic, with the peoples who introduced agriculture from West Asia.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Ancient DNA from Karsdorf, Germany
- 4 Elite endurance runners
- 5 Notable haplogroup members
- 6 Subclades
- 7 Phylogenetic history
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Haplogroup T is a fairly rare lineage in Europe, high in the middle and eastern sides of the Arabian peninsula and Arab States of the Persian Gulf, Out of 867 reported in FTDNA haplogroup T-(former K2)project - 284 (32%) are from this area, almost 50% of those from east of Saudi Arabia  . It account for 10% of the people living in the Persian Gulf countries. It makes up only 1% of the population on most of the European continent, except in Greece, Macedonia and Italy where it exceeds 4%, and in Iberia where it reaches 2.5%, peaking at 10% in Cadiz and over 15% in Ibiza. The maximal worldwide frequency for haplogroup T is observed in East Africa (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania) and in the Middle East (especially the South Caucasus, southern Iraq, south-west Iran, Oman and southern Egypt), where it accounts for approximately 5 to 15% of the male lineages. Besides these regions and Europe, T is found in isolated pockets as far as Central Asia, India, Cameroon, Zambia and South Africa. Its highest density is actually found among the Fulani people of Cameroon (18% of the population). Haplogroup T-M184 (M193, M272, L206, PAGES129) is found in a majority of Kurru,[who?] Bauris & Lodha in South Asia; and in a significant minority of Rajus and Mahli in South Asia; Somalis, southern Egyptians and Fulbe in north Cameroon; Chian Greeks, Saccensi/Sicilians, Eivissencs / Ibizans and Northeastern Portuguese Jews in Europe and Zoroastrians, Bakhtiaris/Lurs in the Middle East. Haplogroup T is common in northern Somalia and in the Somalis of Ethiopia. The distribution of this haplogroup has been suggested to be associated with mtdna haplogroup M1 as the two tend to be common in the same regions.[incomplete short citation]
Haplogroup T-M184 is not associated with the R1, G and J lineages that entered Africa from Eurasia relatively recently. Luis et al. (2004) suggest that the presence of the clade on the African continent may, like R1* representatives, point to an older introduction from Asia. The Levant rather than the Arabian Peninsula appears to have been the main route of entry, as the Egyptian and Turkish haplotypes are considerably older in age (13,700 ybp and 9,000 ybp, respectively) than those found in Oman (only 1,600 ybp). According to the authors, the spotty modern distribution pattern of haplogroup T-M184 within Africa may therefore represent the traces of a more widespread early local presence of the clade. Later expansions of populations carrying the E1b1b, E1b1a, G and J NRY lineages may have overwhelmed the T-M184 clade-bearers in certain localities.
The distribution of haplogroup T-M184 in most parts of Europe is patchy or regionalized; for example, haplogroup T-M184 was found in 1.7% (10/591) of a pool of six samples of males from southwestern Russia, but it was completely absent from a pool of eight samples totalling 637 individuals from the northern half of European Russia. The Russians from the southwest were from the following cities: Roslavl, Livny, Pristen, Repyevka, and Belgorod; and Kuban Cossacks from the Republic of Adygea.
|Ossetian Irons||Iron (Scythian)||South Ossetia||1/21||4.8%|||
|Cherkessians||Besleney (Northwest Caucasian)||Circassia||2/126||1.6%|||
|Bizkaians||Bizkaiera (Isolate language)||Bizkaia||1/72||1.4%|||
|Pityusics||Eivissenc (Romance)||Eivissa||9/54||16.7%||||L454+. All individuals were interviewed in order to assess the birthplace of their paternal grandfathers. All of them carrying typical Eivissan surnames|
|Nentsi||Nenets||Nenetsia and Western Siberia||27/54||50%||||K(xL, NOP). In Karafet et al. 2008, Forest Nentsi and Tundra Nentsi were found to be 0% K(xL, NOP).|
|Kazakhs||Kazakh||Kosh-Agachski Raion||19/49||38.8%||||K(xL, NOP). According to Dulik 2011 only T fit.|
|Tuvinians||Tuvan||Kyzyl and Ubsunur Hollow||10/102||9.8%||||In Kharkov et al. 2013 were sampled 296 Tuvinians from Kyzyl and were found to be 0% T.|
With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 14% (3/23) of Russians in Yaroslavl, 12.5% (3/24) of Italians in Matera, 10.3% (3/29) of Italians in Avezzano, 10% (3/30) of Tyroleans in Nonstal, 10% (2/20) of Italians in Pescara, 8.7% (4/46) of Italians in Benavento, 7.8% (4/51) of Italians in South Latium, 7.4% (2/27) of Italians in Paola, 7.3% (11/150) of Italians in Central-South Italy, 7.1% (8/113) of Serbs in Serbia, 7% (6/86) of Sardinians in Tempio, 4.7% (2/42) of Aromanians in Romania, 3.7% (3/82) of Italians in Biella, 3.7% (1/27) of Andalusians in Córdoba, 3.3% (2/60) of Leoneses in León|, 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Postua, 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Cavaglià, 3.1% (3/97) of Calabrians in Reggio Calabria, 2.8% (1/36) of Russians in Ryazan Oblast, 2.8% (2/72) of Italians in South Apulia, 2.7% (1/37) of Calabrians in Cosenza, 2.6% (3/114) of Serbs in Belgrade, 2.5% (1/40) of Russians in Pskov, 2.4% (1/42) of Russians in Kaluga, 2.2% (2/89) of Transylvanians in Miercurea Ciuc, 2.2% (2/92) of Italians in Trino Vercellese, 1.9% (2/104) of Italians in Brescia, 1.9% (2/104) of Romanians in Romania, 1.7% (4/237) of Serbs and Montenegrins in Serbia and Montenegro, 1.7% (1/59) of Italians in Marche, 1.7% (1/59) of Calabrians in Catanzaro, 1.6% (3/183) of Greeks in Northern Greece, 1.3% (2/150) of Swiss Germans in Zürich Area, 1.3% (1/79) of Italians in South Tuscany and North Latium, 1.1% (1/92) of Dutch in Leiden, 0.8% (1/132) of "Andalusians" in Northwest Tunisia, 0.5% (1/185) of Serbs in Novi Sad (Vojvodina), 0.5% (1/186) of Polish in Podlasie and 0.4% (1/234) of Germans in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt.
Other parts that have been found to contain a significant proportion of haplogroup T-M184 individuals include Trentino (2/67 or 3%), Mariña Lucense (1/34 or 2.9%), Heraklion (3/104 or 2.9%), Roslavl (3/107 or 2.8%), Ourense (1/37 or 2.7%), Livny (3/110 or 2.7%), Biella (3/114 or 2.6%), Entre Douro (6/228 or 2.6%), Porto (3/118 or 2.5%), Urbino (1/40 or 2.5%), Iberian Peninsula (16/629 or 2.5%), Blekinge/Kristianstad (1/41 or 2.4%), Belarus (1/41 or 2.4%), Modena (3/130 or 2.3%), Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (1/45 or 2.2%), Pristen (1/45 or 2.2%), Cáceres (2/91 or 2.2%), Brac (1/47 or 2.1%), Satakunta (1/48 or 2.1%), Western Croatia (2/101 or 2%), Ukrainia (1/50 or 2%), Greifswald (2/104 or 1.9%), Moldavians in Sofia (1/54 or 1.9%), Uppsala (1/55 or 1.8%), Lublin (2/112 or 1.8%), Pias in Beja (1/54 or 1.8%), Macedonian Greeks (1/57 or 1.8%), Nea Nikomedeia (1/57 or 1.8%), Sesklo/Dimini (1/57 or 1.8%), Lerna/Franchthi (1/57 or 1.8%), Açores (2/121 or 1.7%), Viana do Castelo (1/59 or 1.7%), Toulouse (1/67 or 1.5%), Belgorod (2/143 or 1.4%), Sardinia (1/77 or 1.3%). According to data from commercial testing, 3.9% of Italian males belonging to this haplogroup. Approximately 3% of Sephardi Jews and 2% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup T.
Middle East and Caucasus
Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 28% (7/25) of Lezginians in Dagestan, 21.7% (5/23) of Ossetians in Zamankul, 14% (7/50) of Iranians in Isfahan, 13% (3/23) of Ossetians in Zil'ga, 12.6% (11/87) of Kurmanji Kurds in Eastern Turkey, 11.8% (2/17) of Palestinian Arabs in Palestine, 8.3% (1/12) of Iranians in Shiraz, 8.3% (2/24) of Ossetians in Alagir, 8% (2/25) of Kurmanji Kurds in Georgia, 7.5% (6/80) of Iranians in Tehran, 7.4% (10/135) of Palestinian Arabs in Israeli Village, 7% (10/143) of Palestinian Arabs in Israel and Palestine, 5% (1/19) of Chechens in Chechenia, 4.2% (3/72) of Azerbaijanians in Azerbaijan, 4.1% (2/48) of Iranians in Isfahan, 4% (4/100) of Armenians in Armenia, 4% (1/24) of Bedouins in Israel and 2.6% (1/39) of Turks in Ankara.
Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 9.7% (3/31) of Datogs in Tanzania, 5.8% (4/69) of Kordofanians in Kurdufan, 5.6% (1/18) of Tuaregs in Gorom-Gorom, 4.8% (5/105) of Tunisians in Sfax, 4.8% (3/63) of Libyans in Tripoli Area, 2.6% (1/39) of Hutus in Rwanda 2.1% (1/47) of Berbers in Sejenane, 1.9% (1/53) of Ovimbundo in Angola, and 1.5% (1/68) of Mozabites in Ghardaia,
Haplogroup T-M184 has been detected in:
|Kurru||Yerukala (Dravidian)||Andhra Pradesh||10/18||55.6%|||
|Bauris||Bengali (Indo-Aryan)||West Bengal||10/19||52.6%||||K* is found at 6/19, if M70- but M184+, then could be 84.2%. Bauris are thought to be descendants of a native tribe of the Central Highlands before the Aryan invasion, then as Bauris have not been well assimilated and have not participated satisfactorily in the new Aryan society, the Bauris ended up being seen as "low caste". They are at "halfway" between the old Bauri tribal and the new Aryan society lifestyle.|
|Lodha||Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda)||West Bengal||2/4||50%|||
|Rajus||Telugu (Dravidian)||Andhra Pradesh||3/19||15.9%|||
|Maheli||Mahali (Kherwari Munda)||West Bengal||2/13||15.3%|||
|Chenchus||Chenchu (Dravidian)||Andhra Pradesh||3/20||15%||||K* is found at 7/20, if M70- but M184+, then could be 50%|
|Kare Vokkal||Kannada (Dravidian)||Uttara Kannada||4/30||13.3%||||K* is found at 3/30, if M70- but M184+, then could be 23.3%|
|Banjaras||Lambadi (Indo-Aryan)||Andhra Pradesh||2/18||11.1%|||
|Gonds||Gondi (Dravidian)||South Uttar Pradesh||4/38||10.6%|||
|Gonds||Gondi (Dravidian)||Madhya Pradesh||10/139||7.2%|||
|Indians||languages of India||South India||18/305||5.9%|||
|Maheli||Mahali (Kherwari Munda)||Jamshedpur from Jharkhand; Purulia, Midnapore & other location from West Bengal||2/38||5.3%||||Two samples from different studies grouped together|
|Chenchus||Chenchu (Dravidian)||Andhra Pradesh||3/61||4.9%||||Samples from Trivedi et al. and Kivisild et al.|
|Banjaras||Lambadi (Indo-Aryan)||Andhra Pradesh||2/53||3.8%||||Two samples from different studies grouped together|
|Indians||languages of India||East India||14/367||3.8%|||
|Lodha||Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda)||Midnapore & other location from West Bengal||2/71||2.8%||||Three samples from different studies grouped together|
|Sahariyas||Saharia (Munda)||Madhya Pradesh||2/73||2.7%|||
With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 56.6% (30/53) of Kunabhis in Uttar Kannada, 32.5% (13/40) of Kammas in Andhra Pradesh, 26.8% (11/41) of Brahmins in Visakhapatnam, 25% (1/4) of Kattunaiken in South India, 22.4% (11/49) of Telugus in Andhra Pradesh, 20% (1/5) of Ansari in South Asia, (2/20) of Poroja in Andhra Pradesh, 9.8% (5/51) of Kashmiri Pandits in Kashmir, 8.2% (4/49) of Gujars in Kashmir, 7.7% (1/13) of Siddis (migrants from Ethiopia) in Andhra Pradesh, 5.5% (3/55) of Adi in Northeast India, 5.5% (7/128) of Pardhans in Adilabad, 5.3% (2/38) of Brahmins in Bihar, 4.3% (1/23) of Bagata in Andhra Pradesh, 4.2% (1/24) of Valmiki in Andhra Pradesh, (1/32) of Brahmins in Maharashtra, 3.1% (2/64) of Brahmins in Gujarat, 2.9% (1/35) of Rajput in Uttar Pradesh, 2.3% (1/44) of Brahmins in Peruru, and 1.7% (1/59) of Manghi in Maharashtra.
|Bajo sea Nomads||Bajaw (Malayo-Polynesian)||Sulawesi||2/27||7.4%||||T1a-M70|
|Uyghur||Uyghur (Turkic)||Xinjiang||1/48 (1/4 samples)||2.1%|||
|Mongolians||Mongolian (Mongolic)||Inner Mongolia||1/100||1%|||
Ancient DNA from Karsdorf, Germany
Haplogroup T1a (PF5604) has been found in two out of two 7500-6800ybp individuals from Karsdorf, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany. Both T1a skeletal remains belongs to the Linienbandkeramische Kultur. T1a from Karsdorf reach 22.2% of all samples between 7500 and 6800 ybp in Germany, being 22.2% belonging to H2 from Derenburg and the remaining 55.6% to G2a from Halberstadt and Derenburg. Their mtDNA have been found to be H1*/H1au1b and H46b, and their autosomal ancestral components has been point to be around 70% Western European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) and 30% Basal Eurasian but If the WHG Loschbour is admixed with a Basal Eurasian group then the percentages for KAR6a should be around 34% WHG and 66% Basal Eurasian.
The Karsdorf site is located in the valley of Unstrut, Burgenlandkreis, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The slope on which Karsdorf is located is characterized by alluvial loess. The place itself was settled intensively since the earliest phase of the LBK in the region. The settlement area is at least 50 acres in size and nearly 30 houses have been excavated. So-called ‘settlement burials’ were regularly found in pits in the center of the settlement area, of which individual KAR6/I0795 (feature 170, 5207-5070 calBCE, MAMS 22823) was sampled for this study.
The LBK settlement of Karsdorf (Burgenlandkreis, Saxony-Anhalt) is located approximately 100 km south of Derenburg and Halberstadt, on the river Unstrut, and was occupied between 5240 and 5000 BC (Behnke, 2007). The Neolithic buildings(n=24) of three settlement stages are dated to the early and middle LBK (after Meier-Arendt 1966). Except for four graves, all of the 30 burials are associated in groups next to houses in the centre of the settlement, similar to the site of Halberstadt. The individuals are buried in house-flanking pit graves at the western side of the houses and mostly arranged in north-east or north-west orientation. Grave goods are sparse; few graves contained more than one pot or a shell or horn pendant. Associated with every house group we can identify a person with outstanding grave inventory, who may represent a founding generation.|Oelze et al.
Special features of the LBK site of Karsdorf are graves in association with particular houses, which can therefore be regarded as settlement burials. Most of the individuals were buried in a flexed position, oriented to the north-east or north-west. Six individuals were inhumed in supine and four in prone position, of which only three showed a fully stretched body.
The LBK in Karsdorf is represented by 24 longhouses oriented north-west–south-east. The assemblage is composed of 20 adults (55% males and 35% females), one juvenile (15–18 years), four as infants of 7–14 years and six infants of 0–6 years. The maximum age at death of males ranged between 40 and 59 years and of females from 40–49 years respectively. The oldest individual is a woman with 65–75 years. In association with the house S and H, women, men, and children were buried together, in some cases even in the same pit. The furnishing of the graves at Karsdorf can be regarded as rather sparse. Only 9 out of 34 burials contained grave goods, such as an axe in a man’s grave and a shell buried with a woman, imply sex-specific grave furnishings.
The sparse indications for maternal kinship suggest a dynamic and mobile group of which several members were buried elsewhere and/or which integrated individuals who originated from other communities. According to Sr isotope ratios, there are two distinct groups of individuals in Karsdorf but none of both are specially 'Exotic'. So, there is no indication of individuals who grew up in geologically distinct uplands or further north in central Germany.
The first group, composed of the majority of the males, could grew up in households that cultivated plots on calcareous soils, very probably in the Unstrut valley in the near vicinity of the settlement. The second group, composed of most of the females, could grew up in households that predominantly cultivated plots on loess, possibly beyond the landmarks of the Unstrut River or about 80m above the site on the Querfurt plateau 1–2 km away. Sex-specific tendencies, the combination of the Sr isotope data with the results of previous carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and the similarity of the Sr isotope data of the youngest child with the majority of the males may be evaluated as being in agreement with the predominance of patrilocal residential rules.
The Karsdorf population diet consisted of plant crops consumption quite similar to other LBK sites but ate slightly higher quantities of animal protein. Despite of this, there is one female individual that could be classified as a Vegan because her results show that she fall in the range of those of the domestic and wild fauna from Karsdorf, indicating she might has lived on the similar herbivore diet for unknown reasons.
The consumption of unfermented dairy products is unlikely as there is direct palaeogenetic evidence of lactose intolerance for the site Derenburg.
Children in these LBK cultures may have been weaned around the age of three and apparently ate the similar diet as adults after weaning. The highest isotopic value for stable isotopes of nitrogen is found in the youngest Karsdorf individual likely due to breastfeeding effects. In the Karsdorf population the highest Animal Protein consumption signal is found in a 15–18 years old individual belonging to mtDNA H. In addition, the lowest Plant Crop consumption signal is found in the youngest Karsdorf individual and secondarily in two out of three 21–24 years old individuals belonging to mtDNA U5a and H.
In 2015 a published study by Mathieson et al. test several individuals from two Neolithic sites in northwest Anatolia, the results showed that Haplogroup T1a-M70, previously found in LBK sites from Germany, was not present in Barcin nor Mentese Neolithic settlements. This fact together with the absence of the mtDNA lineages carried by both of the T1a individuals from Karsdorf and the occurrence of G2a and the mtDNA lineages carried by all of these G2a individuals, could mean that the Early European Neolithic T1a-M70 had a different migration pattern and, therefore, a different geographical origin.
|Karsdorf T1a Tribe||Karsdorf-SI||Karsdorf-HI|
|ID||I0795 KAR6 Feature 170 Musm.no. 2006:14423a||I0797 KAR16a Feature 611 Musm.no. 2004:26374a|
|Y DNA||T1a1-CTS880 (xT1a1a1b1a-Y13381, T1a1a1a2a-Y18474, T1a1a1a1b2-Y15724, T1a1a1a1b1a2a-Y10911, T1a1a1a1a2a-Y18145, T1a1a1a1a1-CTS8512, T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77)||T1a-M70 (xT1a1-Y3789, T1a2a1a-Z19909, T1a2a2-Y7391, T1a3a-Y9217)|
|Population||Early EN||Early EN|
|Date (YBP)||7222 - 7085||7515 - 6790|
|House / Location||S / Karsdorf||H / Karsdorf|
|Members / Sample Size||1/2||1/2|
|mtDNA||H1* or H1au1b||H46b|
|Isotope Sr||Native to Unstruttal||Native to Unstruttal|
|Eye Color||Likely Gray or Blue eyes||Likely Gray or Blue eyes|
|Hair Color||Likely non-Dark hair||Likely non-Red hair|
|Skin Pigmentation||Rs1042602 (C;C)|
|ABO Blood Group||Likely O or B||Rs8176719 (T;T)|
|Diet (d13C%0 / d15N%0)||-20.0 / 9.0 (higher Animal Protein)||-20.2 / 9.1 (higher Animal Protein)|
|FADS activity||rs174554 (A;A)||rs174574 (A;A)|
|Lactase Persistence||Likely Lactose Intolerant|
|Ancestral Component||93% (WHG-like + B.EurAs.) + 7.1% WHG||84% (WHG-like + B.EurAs.) + 10.1% swAsian like + 5.4% WHG|
|Age at Death||45-60||24-26|
|Death Position||Flexed Left||Stretched Dorsal|
|Sample||Tooth / Rib||Tooth / Rib|
|Notes||Goseck circle||Goseck circle|
The autosomal data of I0797 show the lowest frequency of Anatolian Neolithic component and the highest frequency of an unknown ancient human population for any studied LBK individual. This reinforce the hipothesis of a possible different geographical origin for this T1a tribe instead of the Greco-Anatolian origin of other human groups found in the LBK like G2a. By his side, I0795 could be some generations younger than I0797 because he show higher autosomal admixture frequencies of surrounding populations like Hunter Gatherer Europeans I2a (West Hunter Gatherers) and Aegean-Anatolian Neolithics G2a and H2.
Elite endurance runners
Possible patterns between Y-chromosome and elite endurance runners were studied in an attempt to find a genetic explanation to the Ethiopian endurance running success. Given the superiority of East African athletes in international distance running over the past four decades, it has been speculated that they are genetically advantaged. Elite marathon runners from Ethiopia were analysed for K*(xP) which according to the previously published Ethiopian studies is attributable to the haplogroup T and specifically to the T1a1a* (old T1a*) subclade, according to further studies. T1a1a* was found to be proportionately more frequent in the elite marathon runners sample than in the control samples than any other haplogroup, therefore this y-chromosome could play a significant role in determining Ethiopian endurance running success. Haplogroup T1a1a* was found in 14% of the elite marathon runners sample of whom 43% of this sample are from Arsi province. In addition, haplogroup T1a1a* was found in only 4% of the Ethiopian control sample and only 1% of the Arsi province control sample. T1a1a* is positively associated with aspects of endurance running, whereas E1b1b1 (old E3b1) is negatively associated.
Notable haplogroup members
A notable member of the T-M184 haplogroup is American President Thomas Jefferson. The Y-chromosomal complement of the Jefferson male line was studied in 1998 in an attempt to resolve the controversy over whether he had fathered the mixed-race children of his slave Sally Hemings. A 1998 DNA study of the Y chromosome in the Jefferson male line found that it matched that of a descendant of Eston Hemings, Sally Hemings' youngest son. This confirmed the body of historical evidence, and most historians believe that Jefferson had a long-term intimate liaison with Hemings for 38 years, and fathered her six children of record, four of whom lived to adulthood. In addition, the testing conclusively disproved any connection between the Hemings descendant and the Carr male line. Jefferson grandchildren had asserted in the 19th century that a Carr nephew had been the father of Hemings' children, and this had been the basis of historians' denial for 180 years. Jefferson's paternal family traced back Wales, where T is incredibly rare, as it is throughout Britain. A couple of British males with the Jefferson surname have been found with the third president's type of T, reinforcing the idea that his immediate paternal ancestry was British. But Jefferson's T type is also closely related to Egyptian and Iberian T branches of the haplogroup.
|Latest 2015 tree (ISOGG 2015)|
This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the 2012 ISOGG Tree.
- T (L445, L452, L455/PF5670, PR4091, L810, M184/Page34/USP9Y+3178, M272/PF5667, Page129) Found in Germania, Armenia, Iberian Peninsula and Bhutan. Also found in a South Australia European sample and a Palestinian individual.
- T1 (L206, L490) Found in Syria.
- T1a (M70/Page46/PF5662, PAGES78) Found in Early Neolithic skeleton found in Karsdorf, Germany, 7200 years old. Also in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Ossetia, England, Italy and Portugal.
- T1a1 (L162/Page21, L299, L453/PF5617, L454) Found in Eivissa, northern Anatolia and Germany.
- T1a1a (L208/Page2, L905) Mostly found in Upper Egypt, Horn of Africa, western Europe, eastern Anatolia, Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Some spots in western Morocco, Sahrawis and Canarias.
- T1a1a1 (P77) Mostly found in Middle East, western Europe and Ashkenazi Jews.
- T1a1a2 (P321) Found in Syria and Ashkenazi Jews.
- T1a1a2a (P317) Found in Syria, Italian Jews and Ashkenazi Jews.
- T1a1a (L208/Page2, L905) Mostly found in Upper Egypt, Horn of Africa, western Europe, eastern Anatolia, Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Some spots in western Morocco, Sahrawis and Canarias.
- T1a2 (L131) Mostly found in northern Europe, eastern Europe, southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Also found in Xinjiang, Lemba, Tunisia, south and east Iberian Peninsula.
- T1a2a (P322, P328) Found in Scandinavia, Denmark, Germany and Netherlands. Some spots in Yemenite Jews and Palestine(P327).
- T1a2b (L446) Found in Northwest Europe and eastern Alps.
- T1a3 (L1255) Found in Kuwait.
- T1a1 (L162/Page21, L299, L453/PF5617, L454) Found in Eivissa, northern Anatolia and Germany.
- T1a (M70/Page46/PF5662, PAGES78) Found in Early Neolithic skeleton found in Karsdorf, Germany, 7200 years old. Also in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Ossetia, England, Italy and Portugal.
- T1 (L206, L490) Found in Syria.
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.
|YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)||(α)||(β)||(γ)||(δ)||(ε)||(ζ)||(η)||YCC 2002 (Longhand)||YCC 2005 (Longhand)||YCC 2008 (Longhand)||YCC 2010r (Longhand)||ISOGG 2006||ISOGG 2007||ISOGG 2008||ISOGG 2009||ISOGG 2010||ISOGG 2011||ISOGG 2012||ISOGG 2013|
Original research publications
The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.
ζ Su 1999
Y-DNA backbone tree
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2|
|L||T||NO [χ 6]||K2b [χ 7]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 8]|
|N||O||K2b1 [χ 9]||P|
|M||S [χ 10]||Q||R|
- W. Goodwin et al., " Department of Forensic and Investigative Science ," "www.yhrd.org/" (2012),
- Carsten Hohoff and Bernd Brinkmann "Institut für Rechtsmedizin"," 'Universität Münster <http://www.yhrd.org>
- Uta D. Immel et al., "Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Martin-Luther Universität Haale/Saale," "www.yhrd.org/" (1999),
- Laura Valverde Potes et al., "Grupo BIOMICs / BIOMICs Research Group," "www.yhrd.org/" (2011),
Other works cited
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- Zalloua, Pierre A.; Platt, Daniel E.; El Sibai, Mirvat; Khalife, Jade; Makhoul, Nadine; Haber, Marc; Xue, Yali; Izaabel, Hassan; et al. (2008). "Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean". The American Journal of Human Genetics 83 (5): 633–42. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.10.012. PMC 2668035. PMID 18976729.
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- The Y-DNA Haplogroup T Project
- T1a-M70 skeleton, Germany I0795_390K
- T1a-M70 skeleton, Germany I0795_1240K
- T1a-M70 skeleton, Germany I0797_1240K
- Settlement Burials at the Karsdorf LBK Site, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
- Video: Karsdorf's adjacent pagan structure for tribal rituals
- Video: Tribal culture contemporaneous to T1a and their adjacent pagan structure