Haplogroup V (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup V
Possible time of origin 9800 YBP [1]
Possible place of origin Near East
Ancestor HV0a
Descendants V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, V9
Defining mutations 4580[2]

Haplogroup V is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. The clade is believed to have originated around 9,800 years ago in the Near East.

Origin[edit]

Haplogroup V derives from the HV0a subclade of haplogroup HV. In 1998 it was argued that V spread over Europe from an Ice Age refuge in Iberia.[3] However more recent estimates of the date of V would place it in the Neolithic.[1]

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup V is a relatively rare mtDNA haplogroup, occurring in around 4% of native Europeans.[4] Its highest concentration is among the Saami people of northern Scandinavia (~59%). It has been found at a frequency of approximately 10% among the Maris of the Volga-Ural region, leading to the suggestion that this region might be the source of the V among the Saami.[5] Additionally, haplogroup V has been observed at higher than average levels among Cantabrian people (15%) of northern Iberia,[6] and at a lower percentage among the adjacent Basque (10.4%).[7]

Haplogroup V is also found in parts of Northwest Africa. It is mainly concentrated among the Tuareg inhabiting Burkina Faso (18.42%),[8] Sahrawi in the Western Sahara (17.9%),[9] and Berbers of Matmata, Tunisia (16.3%).[10] The rare V7a subclade occurs among Algerians in Oran (1.08%) and Reguibate Sahrawi (1.85%).[11]

Ancient DNA[edit]

MtDNA haplogroup V has been reported in Neolithic remains of the Linear Pottery culture at Halberstadt, Germany c. 5000 BC[12] and Derenburg Meerenstieg, Germany c. 4910 BC.[13] Haplogroup V7 was found in representative Maykop culture samples in the excavations conducted by Alexei Rezepkin.[14] Haplogroup V has been detected in representatives Trypil'ska and Unetice culture.[15][16]

Haplogroup V has also been found among Iberomaurusian specimens dating from the Epipaleolithic at the Taforalt prehistoric site.[17]

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup V subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • HV0a
    • V
      • V1
        • V1a
          • V1a1
          • V1a2
      • V2
        • V2a
          • V2a1
            • V2a1a
        • V2b
          • V2b1
      • V3
      • V4
      • V5
      • V6
      • V7
        • V7a
      • V8
      • V9
        • V9a

See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M   N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Doron M. Behar et al., A “Copernican” Reassessment of the Human Mitochondrial DNA Tree from its Root, The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 90 (2012), supplement.
  2. ^ a b van Oven M, Kayser M (Feb 2009). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–94. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. 
  3. ^ Antonio Torroni et al., mtDNA Analysis Reveals a Major Late Paleolithic Population Expansion from Southwestern to Northeastern Europe, American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 62 (1998), pp. 1137–1152.
  4. ^ Bryan Sykes (2001). The Seven Daughters of Eve. London; New York: Bantam Press. ISBN 0393020185. 
  5. ^ Max Ingman and Ulf Gyllensten, A recent genetic link between Sami and the Volga-Ural region of Russia, European Journal of Human Genetics vol. 15 (2007), pp. 115–120; Kristiina Tambets, Siiri Rootsi, Toomas Kivisild, Hela Help, Piia Serk et al., The Western and Eastern Roots of the Saami—the Story of Genetic “Outliers” Told by Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosomes, American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 74 (2004), pp. 661–682.
  6. ^ Maca-Meyer N, Sánchez-Velasco P, Flores C, Larruga JM, González AM, Oterino A, Leyva-Cobián F (Jul 2003). "Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA characterization of Pasiegos, a human isolate from Cantabria (Spain)" (PDF). Annals of Human Genetics 67 (Pt 4): 329–39. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00045.x. PMID 12914567. 
  7. ^ Soares, Pedro; Luca Ermini, Noel Thomson, Maru Mormina, Teresa Rito, Arne Röhl, Antonio Salas, Stephen Oppenheimer, Vincent Macaulay and Martin B. Richards, Supplemental Data Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock, The American Society of Human Genetics, vol. 84, no. 6 (Jun 2009), pp. 82–93
  8. ^ Luísa Pereira; Viktor Černý; María Cerezo; Nuno M Silva; Martin Hájek; Alžběta Vašíková; Martina Kujanová; Radim Brdička; Antonio Salas (17 March 2010). "Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel". European Journal of Human Genetics 18: 915–923. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.21. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  9. ^ S. Plaza; F. Calafell; A. Helal; N. Bouzerna; G. Lefranc; J. Bertranpetit; D. Comas (July 2003). "Joining the Pillars of Hercules: mtDNA Sequences Show Multidirectional Gene Flow in the Western Mediterranean". Annals of Human Genetics 67 (Issue 4): 312–328. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00039.x. Retrieved 20 April 2016. 
  10. ^ Fadhlaoui-Zid K, Plaza S, Calafell F, Ben Amor M, Comas D, Bennamar El gaaied A (May 2004). "Mitochondrial DNA heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers". Annals of Human Genetics 68 (Pt 3): 222–33. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00096.x. PMID 15180702. 
  11. ^ Asmahan Bekada; Lara R. Arauna; Tahria Deba; Francesc Calafell; Soraya Benhamamouch; David Comas (September 24, 2015). "Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations". PLoS ONE 10 (9). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138453. Retrieved 8 May 2016. ; S5 Table
  12. ^ W. Haak et al., Ancient DNA from the First European Farmers in 7500-Year-Old Neolithic Sites, Science, vol. 310, no. 5750 (2005), pp. 1016-1018.
  13. ^ W. Haak, et al., Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities, PloS Biology, vol. 8, no.11 (November 2010), e1000536.
  14. ^ A. V. Nedoluzhko, E. S. Boulygina, A. S. Sokolov, S. V. Tsygankova, N. M. Gruzdeva, A. D. Rezepkin, E. B. Prokhortchouk. Analysis of the Mitochondrial Genome of a Novosvobodnaya Culture Representative using Next-Generation Sequencing and Its Relation to the Funnel Beaker Culture
  15. ^ A. G. Nikitin et al. (2010) Comprehensive site chronology and ancient Mitochondrial DNA analysis from Verteba cave – a trypillian culture site of eneolithic Ukraine
  16. ^ Unetice Culture (c. 2300-1600 BCE)
  17. ^ Bernard Secher; Rosa Fregel; José M Larruga; Vicente M Cabrera; Phillip Endicott; José J Pestano; Ana M González. "The history of the North African mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U6 gene flow into the African, Eurasian and American continents". BMC Evolutionary Biology. Retrieved 30 January 2016. 

External links[edit]