Haplogynae

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Haplogynae
Temporal range: Middle Jurassic - Holocene, 164–0 Ma
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Suborder: Opisthothelae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Clade: Haplogynae
Families

See text.

The Haplogynae are a clade of araneomorph spiders, one of the two main groups into which the araneomorphs are divided.

Unlike the Entelegynae, they lack hardened (sclerotized) female genitalia (epigynes).

Most of the species within this group have six eyes, as opposed to most other spiders. Spiders in the genus Tetrablemma (Tetrablemmidae) have only four eyes, as do some members of the family Caponiidae; caponiids may even have only two eyes. However, spiders in the family Plectreuridae hve the normal eight eyes.[citation needed]

Phylogeny[edit]

The Haplogynae are one of the two major groups into which the araneomorph spiders are divided, the other being the Entelegynae. In 2005 Coddington summarized the relationships of these groups as suggested by morphological phylogenetic studies:[1]

Araneomorphae
Paleocribellatae

Hypochilidae


Neocribellatae

Austrochiloidea


Araneoclada

Haplogynae



Entelegynae





Subsequent molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed the monophyly of some of the groups suggested by morphological studies, while rejecting many others.[2] The Austrochiloidea have been placed between the Haplogynae and the Entelegynae, rather than outside them both, rejecting Araneoclada as clade combining the Haplogynae and the Entelegynae:[3][4]



Haplogynae




Austrochiloidea



Entelegynae




A study published in 2015 suggests that two families formerly placed in the Haplogynae do not belong there. Filistatidae groups with Hypochilididae at the base of the Haplogynae; Leptonetidae is basal to the Entelegynae (Austrochiloidea was not included in this study).[5] The similarity of some morphological features of Leptonetidae to those of entelegynes had already been noted.[6]

Araneomorphae



 Hypochilidae



 Filistatidae 




 remaining Haplogynae 





 Leptonetidae 



 Entelegynae




Haplogynae sensu Coddington (2005)

One hypothesis for the internal phylogeny of the Haplogynae is shown below. It is based on Coddington's 2005 cladogram, with the addition of the new family Trogloraptoridae.[7] Shading shows the families that were excluded in the 2015 phylogeny given above. Not all of the families shown below were included in that study, but the position of those that were is generally consistent with Coddington's (2005) cladogram.[5]

Haplogynae

Filistatidae





Caponiidae




Tetrablemmidae




Trogloraptoridae




Segestriidae




Dysderidae




Orsolobidae



Oonopidae











Pholcidae




Diguetidae



Plectreuridae







Ochyroceratidae




Leptonetidae



Telemidae






Sicariidae




Drymusidae




Scytodidae



Periegopidae









References[edit]

  1. ^ Coddington, Jonathan A. (2005). "Phylogeny and classification of spiders" (PDF). In Ubick, D.; Paquin, P.; Cushing, P.E. & Roth, V. Spiders of North America: an identification manual. American Arachnological Society. pp. 18–24. Retrieved 2015-09-24. 
  2. ^ Agnarsson, Ingi; Coddington, Jonathan A. & Kuntner, Matjaž (2013). "Systematics : Progress in the study of spider diversity and evolution". In Penney, David. Spider research in the 21st century: trends & perspectives. Manchester, UK: Siri Scientific Press. ISBN 978-0-9574530-1-2.  pp. 82–83.
  3. ^ Griswold, C.E.; Ramirez, M.J.; Coddington, J.A. & Platnick, N.I. (2005). "Atlas of phylogenetic data for entelegyne spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae: Entelegynae) with comments on their phylogeny" (PDF). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 56 (Suppl. 2): 1–324. Retrieved 2015-10-11. 
  4. ^ Blackledge, Todd A.; Scharff, Nikolaj; Coddington, Jonathan A.; Szüts, Tamas; Wenzel, John W.; Hayashi, Cheryl Y. & Agnarsson, Ingi (2009). "Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (13): 5229–5234. doi:10.1073/pnas.0901377106. PMID 19289848. 
  5. ^ a b Garrison, Nicole L.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Agnarsson, Ingi; Coddington, Jonathan A.; Griswold, Charles E.; Hamilton, Christopher A.; Hedin, Marshal; Kocot, Kevin M.; Ledford, Joel M. & Bond, Jason E. (2015). "Spider phylogenomics: untangling the Spider Tree of Life". PeerJ PrePrints 3: e1852. doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.1482v1. 
  6. ^ Ledford, Joel M. & Griswold, Charles E. (2010), "A study of the subfamily Archoleptonetinae (Araneae, Leptonetidae) with a review of the morphology and relationships for the Leptonetidae" (PDF), Zootaxa 2391: 1–32, retrieved 2016-01-09 
  7. ^ Nentwig, Wolfgang, ed. (2013). "Appendix : Spider Phylogeny" (PDF). Spider Ecophysiology. Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-33988-2. Retrieved 2015-11-03.