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Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Diaphoretickes
(unranked): Haptista

Haptista is a proposed group of protists made up of centrohelids and haptophytes. Phylogenomic studies indicate that Haptista forms a sister clade to the SAR supergroup.[1][2]


Based on studies done by Cavalier-Smith, Chao & Lewis 2015[3] and Ruggiero et al. 2015.[4]

  • Subphylum Alveidia Cavalier-Smith 2018
  • Subphylum Centroheliozoa Cushman & Jarvis 1929 sensu Durrschmidt & Patterson 1987 [Heliozoa Haeckel 1862 stat. n. Margulis 1974 em. Cavalier-Smith 2003]
    • Class Centrohelea Kuhn 1926 stat. n. Cavalier-Smith 1993 [Centroplastiales; Centrohelina Hartmann 1913; Centroplasthelida Febvre-Chevalier 1984]
  • Subphylum Haptophytina Cavalier-Smith 2015 (Haptophyta Hibberd 1976 sensu Ruggerio et al. 2015)
    • Clade Rappemonada Kim et al. 2011
    • Clade Haptomonada (Margulis & Schwartz 1998) [Haptophyta Hibberd 1976 emend. Edvardsen & Eikrem 2000; Prymnesiophyta Green & Jordan, 1994; Prymnesiomonada; Prymnesiida Hibberd 1976; Haptophyceae Christensen 1962 ex Silva 1980; Haptomonadida; Patelliferea Cavalier-Smith 1993]
      • Class Pavlovophyceae (Cavalier-Smith 1986) Green & Medlin 2000
      • Class Prymnesiophyceae Christensen 1962 emend. Cavalier-Smith 1996 [Haptophyceae s.s.; Prymnesiophycidae Cavalier-Smith 1986; Coccolithophyceae Casper 1972 ex Rothmaler 1951]


  1. ^ Burki F,; Kaplan M,; Tikhonenkov DV,; Zlatogursky V,; Minh BQ,; Radaykina LV,; Smirnov A,; Mylnikov AP,; Keeling PJ (2016), "Untangling the early diversification of eukaryotes: a phylogenomic study of the evolutionary origins of Centrohelida, Haptophyta and Cryptista.", Proc Biol Sci, 283 (1823): 20152802, doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.2802, PMC 4795036, PMID 26817772
  2. ^ Burki, F; Inagaki, Y; Bråte, J; Archibald, J.; Keeling, P.; Cavalier-Smith, T; Sakaguchi, M; Hashimoto, T; Horak, A; Kumar, S; Klaveness, D; Jakobsen, K.S; Pawlowski, J; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K (2009). "Large-scale phylogenomic analyses reveal that two enigmatic protist lineages, Telonemia and Centroheliozoa, are related to photosynthetic chromalveolates". Genome Biology and Evolution. 1: 231–8. doi:10.1093/gbe/evp022. PMC 2817417. PMID 20333193. Archived from the original (Free full text) on 2012-07-10.
  3. ^ Cavalier-Smith; Chao; Lewis (2015), "Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: New cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista", Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 93: 331–362, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.07.004, PMID 26234272
  4. ^ Ruggiero; et al. (2015), "Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms", PLoS ONE, 10 (4): e0119248, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119248, PMC 4418965, PMID 25923521
  5. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T.; Chao, E. E.; Lewis, R. (17 April 2018), "Multigene phylogeny and cell evolution of chromist infrakingdom Rhizaria: contrasting cell organisation of sister phyla Cercozoa and Retaria", Protoplasma: 1–58

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