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Coccolithus pelagicus.jpg
Coccolithophore (Coccolithus pelagicus)
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Chromalveolata
Division: Haptophyta
Hibberd 1972 ex Edvardsen & Eikrem in Edvardsen et al. 2000
Classes & Orders

Class Pavlovophyceae


Class Prymnesiophyceae s.s. (= Haptophyceae s.s.)

  • Prymnesiophyta Green & Jordan, 1994
  • Prymnesiophyceae s.l. Casper, 1972, ex Hibberd, 1976
  • Haptophyceae s.l. Christensen, 1962 ex Silva, 1980

The haptophytes, classified either as the Prymnesiophyta (named for Prymnesium) or Haptophyta, are a division of algae.

The names Haptophyceae or Prymnesiophyceae are sometimes used instead.[1][2][3] This ending implies classification at the class rank rather than as a division. Although the phylogenetics of this group has become much better understood in recent years, there remains some dispute over which rank is most appropriate.


Cell scheme. 1-haptonema, 2-flagella, 3-mitochondrion, 4-Golgi apparatus, 5-nucleus, 6-scales, 7-crysolaminaran vacuole, 8-plastid, 9-ribosomes, 10-stigma, 11-endoplasmic reticulum, 12-chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum, 13-pyrenoid, 14-thylakoids.

The chloroplasts are pigmented similarly to those of the heterokonts,[4] but the structure of the rest of the cell is different, so it may be that they are a separate line whose chloroplasts are derived from similar red algal endosymbionts.

The cells typically have two slightly unequal flagella, both of which are smooth, and a unique organelle called a haptonema, which is superficially similar to a flagellum but differs in the arrangement of microtubules and in its use. The name comes from the Greek hapsis, touch, and nema, thread. The mitochondria have tubular cristae.

Economic importance[edit]

Haptophytes are economically important as Pavlova lutheri and Isochrysis sp. are widely used in the aquaculture industries.

Examples and classification[edit]

Further information: Wikispecies:Haptophyta

The haptophytes were first placed in the class Chrysophyceae (golden algae) but ultrastructural data have provided evidence to classify them separately.[5] The best-known haptophytes are coccolithophores, which have an exoskeleton of calcareous plates called coccoliths. Coccolithophores are some of the most abundant marine phytoplankton, especially in the open ocean and are extremely abundant as microfossils. Other planktonic haptophytes of note include Chrysochromulina and Prymnesium, which periodically form toxic marine algal blooms, and Phaeocystis blooms of which can produce unpleasant foam which often accumulates on beaches. Both molecular and morphological evidence supports their division into five orders; coccolithophores make up the Isochrysidales and Coccolithales. Very small (2-3μm) uncultured pico-prymnesiophytes are ecologically important[6]

Haptophytes was discussed to be closely related to cryptomonads.[7]

Haptophytes are closely related to the SAR clade.[8]


  1. ^ "www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov". 
  2. ^ Satoh M, Iwamoto K, Suzuki I, Shiraiwa Y (2009). "Cold stress stimulates intracellular calcification by the coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae) under phosphate-deficient conditions". Mar. Biotechnol. 11 (3): 327–33. doi:10.1007/s10126-008-9147-0. PMID 18830665. 
  3. ^ "ITIS Standard Report". Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  4. ^ R.A. Anderson. American Journal of Botany 91(10): 1508-1522. 2004. Biology and Systematics of Heterokont and Haptophyte Algae.
  5. ^ http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-7091-6542-3_11
  6. ^ Cuvelier, M.; Allen, A.; Monier, A.; McCrow, J.; Messié, M.; Tringe, S.; Woyke, T.; Welsh, R.; Ishoey, T.; Lee, J. -H.; Binder, B. J.; Dupont, C. L.; Latasa, M.; Guigand, C.; Buck, K. R.; Hilton, J.; Thiagarajan, M.; Caler, E.; Read, B.; Lasken, R. S.; Chavez, F. P.; Worden, A. Z. (2010). "Targeted metagenomics and ecology of globally important uncultured eukaryotic phytoplankton". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (33): 14679–14684. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10714679C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1001665107. PMC 2930470. PMID 20668244. 
  7. ^ Reeb VC, Peglar MT, Yoon HS, et al. (April 2009). "Interrelationships of chromalveolates within a broadly sampled tree of photosynthetic protists". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 53 (1): 202–11. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.04.012. PMID 19398025. 
  8. ^ Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Katz, Laura A. (2011-08-16). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (33): 13624–13629. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110633108. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3158185. PMID 21810989. 

External links[edit]