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Babylonia at the time of Hammurabi, ca. 1792-1750 BC

Coordinates: 34°26′00″N 41°36′00″E / 34.433333°N 41.600000°E / 34.433333; 41.600000 Haradum (modern Khirbit ed-Diniye, Iraq) was an ancient Near East city on the middle Euphrates about 90 kilometers southeast of Mari.


While the site of Haradum was occupied earlier, being mentioned in texts from Mari, [1] it did not grow into a proper town until the 18th century BC under the control of the First Dynasty of Babylon. The earliest dated record is from the 26th year of King Samsu-iluna of Babylon. Tablets from the reign of Abi-eshuh, Ammi-ditana, Ammi-saduqa, and Samsu-Ditana have also been found at Haradum. The town of Haradum was destroyed during the reign of Samsu-Ditana.

Haradum is noted for being one of the earliest examples of a planned city, with a square layout and straight streets.[2]


The site of Haradum is small, about 1.5 hectares in area. It was excavated for six seasons in the 1980s by a team from the Délégation Archéologique Française en Iraq led by Christine Kepinski-Lecomte. The work was a salvage operation in response to dam construction.[3][4][5][6]


  1. ^ Wolfgang Heimpel, Letters to the King of Mari, EISENBRAUNS, 2003,ISBN 1-57506-080-9
  2. ^ C.Kepinski-Lecomte, Spatial occupation of a new town Haradum, in Houses and Households in ancient Mesopotamia. K.R. Veenhof (ed.); Leiden: Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Istanbul, pp. 191-96, 1996
  3. ^ Christine Kepinski and Olivier Lecomte, Mari et Haradum, Mari Annales de Recherches Interdisciplinaires, vol. 4, pp. 615-621, 1985
  4. ^ Christine Kepinski and Olivier Lecomte, Haradum/Harada, une forteresse sur l'Euphrate, Archeologia, vol. 205, pp. 46-55, 1985
  5. ^ F. Joannes, C. Kepinski, and O.Lecomte, Présence babylonienne dans le pays de Suhu au XVIIe siècle av. J.-C: L'exemple de Kherbet ed Diniye, Iraq, Revue d'assyriologie d'archéologie orientale, vol. 77, pp. 119-142, 1983
  6. ^ F. Joannes, Haradum et le pays de Suhum, Archeologia, vol. 205, pp. 56-59, 2005

See also[edit]


  • Christine Kepinski-Lecompte, Haradum I: Une ville nouvelle sur le Moyen-Euphrate, Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations, 1992, ISBN 2-86538-229-X
  • F. Joannes, C. Kepinski-Lecompte, Gudrun Colbow, Haradum II. Les Textes de la Periode Paleo-Babylonienne (Samsu-iluna - Ammi-saduqa), ERC, 2006, ISBN 2-86538-311-3
  • C. Kepinski, Material Culture of a Babylonian Outpost on the Iraqi Middle Euphrates: the Case of Haradum during the Middle Bronze Age, Akkadica, vol. 126, pp. 121–131, 2005
  • [1] Mark W. Chavalas, Terqa and Haradum: A Comparative Analysis of Old Babylonian Period Houses Along the Euphrates

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