Harbin–Manzhouli railway

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Binzhou Railway
Manzhouli Gate 01.jpg
Sino-Russian border crossing at Manzhouli.
Overview
Native name滨北铁路 (Bīnběi Tiělù)
TypeHeavy rail,
Regional rail
StatusOperational
LocaleHeilongjiang, Inner Mongolia
TerminiHarbin
Manzhouli
Operation
Opened14 January 1902
OwnerChinese Eastern Railway (1902–1932)
North Manchuria Railway (1932–1935)
Manchukuo National Railway (1935–1945)
China Changchun Railway (1945–1955)
China Railway (since 1955)
Technical
Line length935 km (581 mi)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Old gauge1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) Russian gauge
Route map

0
Harbin
xx
Songnan
old bridge abandoned 4/2014
5
Songbei
10
Miaotaizi
xx
Wandong
xx
Harbin North
xx
Dagengjia
20
Wanle
31
Duiqingshan
42
Limudian
52
Jiangjia
63
Zhaodong
74
Shangjia
84
Wulimu
96
Song
116
Yangcao
127
Anda
137
Wolitun
148
Daqing East
159
Daqing
170
Daqing West
180
Lamadian
190
Qijia
201
Gaojia
(Closed)
212
Taikang
221
Qianhoudai
238
Yantongtun
252
Houwujia
261
Hongqiying
Left arrow Pingqi Railway (zh)
270
Ang'angxi
Nen River
277
Wufu
284
Fularji
293
Hurhula
303
Heigang
314
Baishanxiang
323
Longjiang
333
Laodao
(Closed)
344
Luhe
355
Nianzishan
365
Jixinhe
376
Fengrong
(Closed)
384
Genghis Khan
395
Gulijin
406
Gaotaizi
416
Zhalantun
425
Woniuhe
435
Sandaoqiao pax only
446
Halasu
456
Nanmu
467
Fulin pax only
478
Balin
488
Lamashan
498
Zigou pax only
510
Yalu
520
Qishan pax only
527
Goukou
531
Jixiangfeng
(Closed)
539
Boketu
546
Shali pax only
547
Upper Shali
556
Xinnangou pax only
spiral Xing'anling Tunnel (3100 m)
564
Xing'anling
574
Yiliekede
582
Xilingkou pax only
592
Halagou pax only
604
Wunur
609
Sangenhe
(Closed)
614
Wuchuan
(Closed)
623
Beitouhe pax only
634
Mianduhe
645
Xiaobei
656
Zhuoshan
667
Yakeshi
674
Haiman
685
Dayan
694
Zhaluomude
699
Shunhe
(Closed)
721
Hake
730
Xiha
(Closed)
736
Hongyuan
(Closed)
742
Hailar East
749
Hailar
760
Anyi
(Closed)
771
Daliang pax only
780
Wugunor
789
Wulanqiu pax only
801
Donggong pax only
811
Wangong
822
Doulun flag stop
833
Lingqiu flag stop
844
Haerhongde
855
Huangde flag stop
866
Haomen flag stop
874
Cuogang
885
Aergong
(Closed)
896
Hubei flag stop
906
Jalainur
912
Jalainur West
919
Donghao flag stop
927
Lubin pax only
935
Manzhouli
ChinaRussia border
939
Zabaikalsk

Harbin–Manzhouli railway, abbreviated as the Binzhou Railway (simplified Chinese: 滨洲铁路; traditional Chinese: 濱洲鐵路; pinyin: bīnzhōu tiělù), is a double-track electrified trunk railway in Northeast China between Harbin and Manzhouli on the Russian border, where it connects to the Trans-Siberian Railway via Zabaikalsk, Russia.

The Binzhou railway begins in the west at Manzhouli and runs eastward across the Hulunbuir grasslands, through the forests of the Greater Khingan range, the oilfields of Daqing, and the rich farmland of the Songhua River valley to Harbin.[1][2] Major cities and towns along route include Manzhouli, Jalainur, Hailar, Dayan, Yakeshi, and Zhalantun in Inner Mongolia, as well as Qiqihar, Daqing, Anda, Zhaodong, and Harbin in Heilongjiang.[3]

This line has the only station in all of China whose name is a single character: Song station, which makes it a popular location amongst Chinese railfans.[4]

History[edit]

Twenty-two years after the First Sino-Japanese War of 1896, the Qing government's special envoy Li Hongzhang went to Russia to congratulate Tsar Nicholas II on his coronation, and signed the Sino–Russian Secret Treaty; amongst other things, this treaty gave Russia the right to build a railway through northeast China - the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER). Harbin was selected to be the hub of the new railway system, with three Russian-gauge lines 1,520 mm (5 ft 0 in) envisioned heading east, west, and south from Harbin. Work on the western branch from Harbin to the Russian border at Manzhouli, then named the Haman Railway, commenced at both ends in June 1898, and was completed in 1902.[1] The eastern branch of the CER ran from Harbin to Suifenhe. The entire CER served as an alternative route to the Trans-Siberian Railway.[5]

The CER was a joint project of China and Russia, and after the Russo-Japanese War, the Japanese took over the southern portion of the CER, forming the South Manchuria Railway, with the northern portions remaining under Sino-Russian control. Following the October Revolution, the railway was controlled by White Russians for a time during the Russian Civil War, but from 1917 the government of the Republic of China began taking more control of the railway to itself, until in 1922 the CER was made officially a Sino-Soviet joint enterprise. However, in 1929 the Chinese seized complete control of the CER, storming the Soviet consulate in Harbin and arresting the officials of the CER. This led to the Sino-Soviet conflict of 1929, in which the Soviets quickly defeated the Chinese army and forced the Chinese to once again accept joint control of the railway. After the Mukden Incident, the Soviets retained control over the railway despite the Japanese occupation of northeastern China; after the establishment of Manchukuo in 1932, the CER became a joint Soviet-Manchukuo enterprise called the "North Manchuria Railway". In March 1935, the government of Manchukuo bought the Soviet share of the NMR for 140 million yen, and the entire network was taken over by the Manchukuo National Railway.[1]

After the Manchukuo National took over the NMR network, it changed the name of the Harbin–Manzhouli railway from Haman Railway to Binzhou Line, and on 1 August 1936, conversion of the line from Russian broad gauge to standard gauge was completed, increasing the operating speed to 60 km/h (37 mph).

After the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and the subsequent collapse of Manchukuo, the Soviets once again took control of the region's railways, and converted the Binzhou Line back to Russian gauge; in 1946, the Northeast Democratic Coalition seized control of the line, and once again regauged it. After the creation of the People's Republic of China, the railways in the territory of the former Manchukuo were taken over by a new Sino-Soviet joint enterprise, called the China Changchun Railway. Full control of the China Changchun Railway was to be turned over to the PRC on 31 December 1952, but due to the Korean War this was delayed until 1955.[6] The Harbin–Manzhouli line became part of China Railway at that time, and once again renamed, becoming the Binzhou Railway.

The Harbin-Manzhouli line has undergone substantial upgrades over the years.[1] Double-tracking began in 1983, with the Harbin–Anda section being the first section to be completed, in 1985; the entire line was completed in 2007, when the Manzhouli–Hailar section was completed,[7] increasing the line's capacity sixfold.[7] In 1990, semi-automatic train control was introduced, with DFH3-class diesel locomotives on passenger trains, and DF4B-class diesels and Renmin-class steam locomotives on freight trains. Operating speed on the line was raised to 100 km/h (62 mph).

The Binzhou Railway Electrification Project was officially started on 25 October 2014. The entire 933 km (580 mi) of the line was wired, and 17 new traction substations were built. The first section, from Harbin to Qiqihar, was completed on 3 November 2016; the first electric-hauled train on the line was K7108, pulled by a HXD3D-class locomotive.[8] The remaining section from Qiqihar to Manzhouli was energised on 11 December 2017.[9]

The Eastern end of the route was quadruple tracked in 2015 with the opening of the Harbin–Qiqihar intercity railway, dedicated to passenger service, increasing the passenger-carrying capacity of this section.[10]

The Binzhou Railway Bridge across the Songhua River in Harbin

The original Binzhou Railway Bridge was built in 1901, and was replaced by a new bridge in 2014. The old bridge is now a historical landmark protected by the city of Harbin.[11]

Route[edit]

Binzhou Railway near Bugt, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia.
Distance Station name
Total; km S2S; km Current name Former name Opened Connections
0 0 Harbin
哈尔滨
Songhuajiang
松花江
1899 Binbei Railway, Jingha Railway, Binsui Railway, Labin Railway, Binbei Railway
Songnan
松南
(service halt)
5 5 Songbei
松北
1899
10 5 Miaotaizi
庙台子
1899 Jiangbei Connecting Line
Wandong
万东
Harbin North
哈尔滨北
2015
Dagengjia
大耿家
20 Wanle
万乐
1899 Wangwan Railway
31 11 Duiqingshan
对青山
1900
42 11 Limudian
里木店
1900
52 10 Jiangjia
姜家
1900
63 11 Zhaodong
肇东
1900 Haqi HSR
74 11 Shangjia
尚家
1900
84 10 Wulimu
五里木
1900
96 12 Song
1900
116 20 Yangcao
羊草
1900
127 11 Anda
安达
1900 Haqi HSR
137 10 Wolitun
卧里屯
1944
148 11 Daqing East
大庆东
Longfeng
龙凤
1960 Haqi HSR
159 11 Daqing
大庆
Saertu
萨尔图
1902
170 11 Daqing West
大庆西
Haqi HSR, Tongrang Railway
180 10 Lamadian
喇嘛甸
1900
190 10 Qijia
齐家
1960 (freight only)
201 11 Gaojia
高家
1949 Closed
212 11 Taikang
泰康
Xiaohaozi (小蒿子)
Малые станции саргассов
1900 Haqi HSR
221 9 Qianhoudai
前后代
1960
238 17 Yantongtun
烟筒屯
1900
252 14 Houwujia
后五家
1960
261 9 Hongqiying
红旗营
1949 Pingqi Railway
270 9 Ang'angxi
昂昂溪
1900 San'ang Connecting Line, Qi'ang Railway
277 7 Wufu
五福
1958
284 7 Fularji
富拉尔基
1900
293 9 Hurhula
虎尔虎拉
1900
303 10 Heigang
黑岗
1947
314 11 Baishanxiang
白山乡
1949
323 9 Longjiang
龙江
1900
333 10 Laodao
老道
1947 Closed
344 11 Luhe
鲁河
1947
355 11 Nianzishan
碾子山
1901
365 10 Jixinhe
吉新河
1950
376 11 Fengrong
丰荣
1947 Closed
384 8 Genghis Khan
成吉思汗
1901
395 11 Gulijin
古里金
1947
406 11 Gaotaizi
高台子
1949
416 10 Zhalantun
扎兰屯
1901 Azha Railway (zh)
425 9 Woniuhe
卧牛河
1901
435 10 Sandaoqiao
三道桥
1901 (passenger only)
446 11 Halasu
哈拉苏
1902
456 10 Nanmu
南木
1901
467 11 Fulin
富林
1901 (passenger only)
478 11 Balin
巴林
1901
488 10 Lamashan
喇嘛山
1901
498 10 Zigou
紫沟
1901 (passenger only)
510 12 Yalu
雅鲁
1901
520 10 Qishan
旗山
1901
527 7 Goukou
沟口
1901
531 4 Jixiangfeng
祥峰
1987 Closed
539 8 Boketu
博克图
Bugt
Бугтъ
1901 Bolin Railway (zh)
546 7 Shali
沙力
1987 (passenger only)
547 1 Upper Shali
上沙力
1990 (freight only)
556 9 Xinnangou
新南沟
1901 (passenger only)
564 18 Xing'anling
兴安岭
1901
574 10 Yiliekede
伊列克得
1901 (freight only)
582 8 Xilingkou
西岭口
1901 (passenger only)
592 10 Halagou
哈拉沟
1901 (passenger only)
604 12 Wunur
乌奴耳
1901
609 5 Sangenhe
三根河
1987 Closed
614 5 Wuchuan
乌川
1901 Closed
623 9 Beitouhe
北头河
1901 (passenger only)
634 12 Mianduhe
免渡河
1901
645 11 Xiaobei
小北
1901
656 11 Zhuoshan
卓山
1901 (freight only)
667 11 Yakeshi
牙克石
1901 Yalin Railway (zh)
674 7 Haiman
海满
1901 (freight only)
685 11 Dayan
大雁, ᠳ‍ᠶ‍‍ᠨ
1901
694 9 Zhaluomude
1901
699 5 Shunhe
顺河
1987 Closed
721 22 Hake
哈克
1901
730 9 Xiha
西哈
1901 Closed
736 6 Hongyuan
宏原
1987 Closed
742 6 Hailar East
海拉尔东, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠷ ᠳ‍ᠣ‍‍ᠷ‍ᠨ‍ᠣ‍
1901 Yimin Railway (zh)
(freight only)
749 7 Hailar
海拉尔, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠷ
1903
760 11 Anyi
安邑
1901 Closed
771 11 Daliang
大良
1901 (passenger only)
780 9 Wugunor
乌固诺尔
1901
789 9 Wulanqiu
乌兰丘
1987 (passenger only)
801 12 Donggong
东宫
1987 (passenger only)
811 10 Wangong
完工
1901
822 11 Doulun Halt
都伦乘降所
1901 (passenger only)
833 11 Lingqiu Halt
陵丘乘降所
1901 (passenger only)
844 11 Haerhongde
赫尔洪得
1901
855 11 Huangde Halt
皇德乘降所
1901 (passenger only)
866 11 Haomen Halt
豪门乘降所
1987 (passenger only)
874 8 Cuogang
嵯岗
1901
885 11 Aergong
阿尔公
1901 Closed
896 11 Hubei Halt
湖北乘降所
1901 (passenger only)
906 10 Jalainur
扎赉诺尔, ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠢᠳᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ
1901
912 6 Jalainur West
扎赉诺尔西, ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠢᠳᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠣᠨ‎
1898
919 7 Donghao Halt
东壕乘降所
1898 (passenger only)
927 8 Lubin
胪滨
1898
935 8 Manzhouli
满洲里, ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Manchzhuriya
Маньчжурия
1901
ChinaRussia border
939 4 Zabaikalsk
Забайкальск
1901 Trans-Siberian Railway via Trans-Baikal Railway

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d (Chinese) 滨洲铁路简介 Archived 2013-02-21 at Archive.today Accessed 2011-01-31
  2. ^ Thomas, Bryn (1988). Trans-Siberian Handbook. Brentford: Roger Lascelles. ISBN 0903909693.
  3. ^ Quail Map Company (2008). China Railway Atlas (third ed.). Quail Map Company. ISBN 978-1-898319-82-5.
  4. ^ 在“火车吧”里话别铁道部
  5. ^ Strauss, Robert (1987). Trans-Siberian Rail Guide. Chalfont St Peter: Bradt Publications. ISBN 0946983062.
  6. ^ (Chinese) "哈尔滨铁路的百年历史发展" Tieliu Accessed 2011-01-31
  7. ^ a b (Chinese) 滨洲铁路海拉尔至满洲里段复线全线通车 中国铁路网 2007-12-05
  8. ^ 百年滨洲铁路进入电气化时代
  9. ^ 百年滨洲铁路接触网工程全线成功送电
  10. ^ "Northernmost PDL opens in Heilongjiang". Railway Gazette. Railway Gazette. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  11. ^ (Chinese) "哈尔滨滨洲铁路桥等19处建筑申报全国重点文物保护单位"