|Y-12 IV in flight, showing the revised wingtips|
|Role||Twin-engine turboprop utility aircraft|
|Manufacturer||Harbin Aircraft Industry Group|
|Designer||Harbin Aircraft Industry Group|
|First flight||14 July 1982|
|Primary user||People's Liberation Army Air Force|
|Produced||1985 - present|
|Developed from||Harbin Y-11|
Design and development
The Y-12 is a copy of The Twin Otter, designed by de Havilland Canada, formerly owned by a UK company of the same name and The Twin Otter went out of production in 1988. In China the current variation of the Y-12 started life as a development of the Harbin Y-11 airframe. It was first called Y-11T in 1980. The design featured numerous improvements including a redesigned wing with a new low drag section, a larger fuselage and bonded rather than riveted construction.
The first prototype, followed by about 30 production Y-12 (I) aircraft before a revised version was produced. This was designated the Y-12 (II), which featured more powerful engines and removal of leading edge slats, first flying on 16 August 1984 and receiving Chinese certification in December of the following year. The power plants are two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprops with Hartzell propellers. The Y-12 has a maximum take-off weight of 5,700 kg (12,600 lb) with seating for 17 passengers and two crew. The aircraft is operated as a light commuter and transport aircraft.
The latest development is Y-12F, which is almost a new design with many improvements: new wings, new landing gears, new fuselage, with more powerful engines from Pratt & Whitney Canada and extended payload and range. The Y-12F made its maiden flight on December 29, 2010, received the CAAC type certification on December 10, 2015, and the FAA type certification on February 22, 2016.
- Y-12 (I) : Twin-engined STOL utility transport aircraft, powered by two 500-shp (373-kW) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-11 turboprop engines. Prototype version.
- Y-12 (II) : Fitted with more powerful PT6A-27 engines.
- Y-12 (III) : Planned version to be fitted with WJ-9 turboprop. Evolved to Y-12C because of IV's success when WJ-9 development was completed.
- Y-12 (IV) : Improved version. Revised wingtips (span increased to 19.2 m (63 ft)) and increased take off weight. 19 passenger seats. This version is the first aircraft in the series certified by the FAA in 1995.
- Y-12C : Basically a (IV) version with WJ-9 turboprop, now used by PLAAF for aerial survey.
- Y-12E : Variant with 18 passenger seats. PT6A-135A engines of equal horsepower but increased torque driving four-bladed propellers. This version was certified by the FAA in 2006.
- Y-12F : The latest development with almost everything redesigned: wider fuselage, new wings, retractable landing gear and more powerful engines. The turbine engines are more powerful PT6A-65B. Due to all the improvement, Y-12F has high cruise speed and long range, it can accommodate 19 passenger or carry cargo in 3 LD3 containers. The design started at April 2005 and maiden flight on December 29, 2010. It received the CAAC type certification on December 10, 2015, and the FAA type certification on February 22, 2016. It has been also demonstrated during the 2012 Zhuhai Airshow.
- Turbo Panda : Export name for (II) version, marketed by England and Japanese companies. No real order due to airworthiness certification.
- Twin Panda : Originally (II) version for export. Later a modified Y-12 (IV) powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 turboprop engines and fitted with uprated undercarriage, upgraded avionics and interior. Thirty-five orders reportedly received by 2000 but production not proceeded with.
- China Flying Dragon Aviation
- China Heilongjiang Longken General Aviation
- Donghua General Aviation
- Jiangnan General Aviation
- Ordos General Aviation Co. Ltd.
- Shuangyang General Aviation
- Xinjiang General Aviation
- YingAn Airlines
- Zhong Fei General Aviation Company
- SATENA (2, 1 on order)
- Trans Air Congo (10 on order)
- MIAT Mongolian Airlines- After 2 planes crashing remaining 3 planes returned to the manufacturer.
- PADC (10 on order)
- Uganda Air Cargo (2)
- Air Vanuatu (3)
Accidents and incidents
- On 13 December 1993, a Lao Aviation Y-12-II, registration RDPL-34117, clipped trees in fog and crashed at Phonesavanh, Laos, killing all 18 on board.
- On 4 April 1995, a TANS Y-12-II, registration 333/OB-1498, crashed shortly after takeoff from Iquitos Airport, Peru, killing all three on board.
- On 21 June 1996, a China Flying Dragon Aviation Y-12-II, registration B-3822, crashed into a 100 m (330 ft) mountain near Changhai Airport after the crew began the final approach too early and deviated from the intended course, killing two of 12 on board.
- On 20 January 1997, a Sri Lanka Air Force Y-12-II, CR851, crashed off Palali Air Base while on a surveillance mission, killing all four on board.
- On 10 June 1997, a MIAT Mongolian Airlines Y-12-II, registration JU-1020, crashed at Mandalgobi Airport due to windshear, killing seven of 12 on board.
- On 26 May 1998, a MIAT Mongolian Airlines Y-12-II, registration JU-1017, crashed into a 10,800 ft (3,300 m) mountain near Galt Som in heavy icing condition, Mongolia en route to Tosontsengel due to heavy icing, wing de-ice system fault and overloading, killing all 28 on board; this crash is the worst ever accident involving the Y-12.
- On 19 October 2000, a Lao Aviation (now Lao Airlines) Y-12-II, registration RDPL-34130 and operating as Flight 703, crashed in a mountainous area in bad weather while on approach to Sam Neua, killing eight of 15 passengers; both pilots survived.
- On 18 May 2005, a Zambia Air Force Y-12-II, AF-216, crashed shortly after takeoff from Mongu Airport, killing all 13 on board.
- On 10 April 2006, a Kenya Air Force (KAF) Y-12-II, 132, struck the side of Mount Marsabit, killing 14 of 17 on board.
- On 15 June 2008, a China Flying Dragon Aviation Y-12-II, registration B-3841, struck a small hill during a survey flight for a new aluminum mine, killing three of four on board.
- On 12 July 2012, a Y-12-II of the Mauritanian Air Force crashed while transporting gold, killing all 7 occupants.
- On 12 May 2014, a Y-12-II of the Kenyan Air Force crashed in El Wak, Kenya. The airplane operated on a flight from Mandera to Nairobi with stops at El Wak and Garissa. Preliminary information suggests that one pilot was killed and the remaining eleven occupants were injured.
Specifications (Y-12 (II))
Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000
- Crew: 2
- Capacity: 17 passengers
- Length: 18.86 m (48 ft 9 in)
- Wingspan: 17.24 m (56 ft 6½ in)
- Height: 5.68 m (18 ft 7½ in)
- Wing area: 34.27 m² (368.9 ft²)
- Airfoil: LS(1)-0417
- Empty weight: 2,840 kg (6,621 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 5,300 kg (11,684 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprop, 462 kW (620 hp) each
- Maximum speed: 328 km/h (177 knots, 204 mph) at 3,000m (9,840 ft) (max cruise)
- Cruise speed: 250 km/h (135 knots, 155 mph) at 3,000m (9,840 ft) (econ cruise)
- Range: 1,340 km (723 NM, 832 mi) at econ cruise, 45 min reserves
- Service ceiling: 7,000 m (23,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 8.1 m/s (1,595 ft/min)
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Antonov An-28
- Britten Norman Trislander
- LET L-410
- CASA C-212 Aviocar
- Dornier 228
- DHC-6 Twin Otter
- IAI Arava
- GAF Nomad
- PZL M28
- Shorts SC.7 Skyvan
- Related lists
- 中国运-12运输机. "中国运-12运输机". baike.com.
- JWR Taylor 1988, p.38.
- 霍尼韦尔航空航天 (8 January 2016). "【纪录】运-12F背后的霍尼韦尔力量". CARNOC.com (民航资源网) (in Chinese). Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Ge, Lena (25 February 2016). "China-Made Y12F Turboprop Aircraft Gets FAA Type Certification". China Aviation Daily. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- FAA Y-12 IV and Y-12E Type Certificate retrieved 17 August 2013.
- FAA Y-12 IV and Y-12E Type Certificate retrieved 12 November 2009.
- Francis, Leithen. "Harbin Y-12 turboprop to be bigger" Flight International 20 September 2007 (online version) retrieved 12 November 2009.
- "ok365.com便民导航－最为便捷的上网导航服务". y-12.com.cn. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 47.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 50.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 51.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 52.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 54.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 55.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 56.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 57.
- Jackson 2003, p. 82.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 60.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 61.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 64.
- "Nepal Airlines' first Harbin Y12 arrives in Kathmandu".
- Accident description for RDPL-34117 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
- Accident description for B-3822 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
- Accident description for CR851 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
- Accident description for JU-1020 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
- Accident description for RDPL-34130 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
- Accident description for AF-216 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
- Accident description for 132 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
- Accident description for B-3841 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
- Harro Ranter (12 July 2012). "ASN Aircraft accident Harbin Yunshuji Y-12-II 5T-MAE Nouakchott Airport (NKC)". aviation-safety.net.
- Accident description for registration unknown at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 June 2014.
- Taylor 1999, p.189
- JWR Taylor 1988, p.39.
- Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International. Vol. 182, No. 5321, 11–17 December 2012, pp. 40–64. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, Surry, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
- Taylor, John W R. (ed.). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988-89. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.
- Taylor, Michael J.H. (ed.). Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000. London: Brassey's, 1999. ISBN 1-85753-245-7.
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