Hard Rock Cafe
|Industry||Casual dining restaurants, casinos, hotels|
|Founded||London, United Kingdom
(June 14, 1971)
|Headquarters||Orlando, Florida, United States|
|Hamish Dodds, President/CEO
John Galloway, CMO
Tom Gispanski, CFO
Isaac Tigrett and Peter Morton, Founders
|Owner||Seminole Tribe of Florida|
Hard Rock Cafe International, Inc. is a chain of theme restaurants founded in 1971 by Americans Isaac Tigrett and Peter Morton in London. In 1979, the cafe began covering its walls with rock and roll memorabilia, a tradition which expanded to others in the chain. In 2007, Hard Rock was sold to the Seminole Tribe of Florida, and is headquartered in Orlando, Florida. Currently, there are 191 Hard Rock locations in 59 countries including 145 cafes, 21 hotels and 10 casinos.
The first Hard Rock Cafe (HRC) opened on 14 June 1971, in Piccadilly, London, United Kingdom under the ownership of young Americans Peter Morton and Isaac Tigrett. Hard Rock initially had an eclectic decor but it later started to display memorabilia. Hard Rock has amassed one of the largest collections of rock and roll memorabilia in the world. The chain began to expand worldwide in 1982 with locations in (among others) Toronto, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, Paris and Berlin. Hard Rock Cafe locations in the United States vary from smaller, more tourist driven markets (Biloxi, Pigeon Forge, Key West, etc.) to large metropolises (Houston, Philadelphia, New York, Chicago, Boston, Washington DC, etc.). Hard Rock Cafe typically does not franchise cafe locations in the United States. All US cafes are corporate owned and operated, except for cafes in Tampa and Four Winds New Buffalo casino. However, in the transition of the Las Vegas Hard Rock Hotel property originally owned and then later sold to Rank by founder Peter Morton, Peter retained hotel naming rights West of the Mississippi. When Peter Morton sold his Las Vegas Hard Rock Hotel to the Morgans Group, he also sold those naming rights, which then gave rise to two U.S. franchise Hotels (without cafes) in Albuquerque and Tulsa. The Albuquerque hotel no longer pays for the Hard Rock rights and reverted to its former name in June 2013. More hotels franchised off from Morgan's are planned for Sioux City and Vancouver.
In 1990, The Rank Group, a London-based leisure company, acquired Mecca Leisure Group and continued expansion of the concept in its geographic territory. Rank went on to purchase Hard Rock America from Peter Morton as well as Hard Rock Canada from Nick Bitove. After the completion of these acquisitions, Rank gained worldwide control of the brand. In March 2007, the Seminole Tribe of Florida acquired Hard Rock Cafe International, Inc. and other related entities from Rank for US$965 million. In 2008, anonymous members of the wait staff criticized the business because of its practice of paying them less than half the official minimum wage in the UK, with the business allocating tips to staff to bring their salaries within the law. Most customers, it was argued, do not realize that they are subsidizing a low wage when they give the tip.
HRC is known for its collection of rock and roll memorabilia. The cafes solicit donations of music memorabilia but also purchase a number of items at auctions around the world, including autographed guitars, costumes from world tours and rare photographs; these are often to be found mounted on cafe walls. The collection began in 1979 with an un-signed Red Fender Lead II guitar from Eric Clapton, who was a regular at the first restaurant in London. Clapton wanted management to hang the guitar over his regular seat in order to lay claim to that spot, and they obliged. This prompted Pete Townshend of The Who to give one of his guitars, also un-signed with the note "Mine's as good as his! Love, Pete." Hard Rock's archive includes over 77,000 items, and is the largest private collection of Rock and Roll memorabilia in the world. Marquis pieces from the collection were briefly displayed in a Hard Rock museum named "The Vault" in Orlando, Florida from January 2003 until September 2004. After the closure, items were disbursed to various restaurant locations. The London Vault remains open and free to visitors, located in the retail Rock Shop of the original cafe. In 2005, Deep Purple launched its new album Rapture of the Deep in Hard Rock Cafe London. This show at the release party itself was released as a DVD.
The Hard Rock Café is also in possession of a Bedford VAL 6 axle coach used in the 1967 film The Beatles Magical Mystery Tour. The vehicle was completely refurbished after filming. It is currently displayed in the US, but makes regular appearances in events in the UK, especially at the original Hard Rock Cafe in London. In 2001, a competition was run to win the actual bus, but it was never given away and remained with the Cafe.
Expansion into other businesses
Casinos and hotels
In May 2006, Morton sold the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas to Morgans Hotel Group for $770 million, including the rights to the Hard Rock Hotel brand west of the Mississippi, including Texas, California, Australia and Vancouver, British Columbia. The hotel began another expansion in 2007 at a cost of $750 million. The project added 875 rooms in two towers and expanded meeting space. In March 2011, Morgans surrendered control of the property to partner Brookfield Asset Management citing the high debt on the property in the face of the economic downturn.
Today, the Seminole Tribe of Florida owns and operates all units except the Las Vegas,Tulsa, Sioux City and Vancouver properties. In 2004, Hard Rock International and Sol Melia Hotels and Resorts launched Lifestar Hoteles España SL, a joint venture that manages Europe's first Hard Rock Hotel in Madrid. The other joint venture hotels are in Chicago, New York and San Diego (the San Diego property includes Hard Rock condominiums). Hard Rock also operates hotels and resorts in Orlando, Florida (a joint venture with Loews Hotels); Bali, Indonesia; and Pattaya, Thailand, (a joint venture with Ong Beng Seng/Hotel Properties Limited). Hard Rock International continues to expand internationally (including hotels, casinos, resorts, and condominiums) through several joint ventures (Becker Ventures, Ong Beng Seng/Hotel Properties Limited and Loews Hotels), including hotels in Chicago, Bali, Orlando, Penang, San Diego, Singapore, and planned openings in Abu Dhabi, Cancun, Dubai, Hungary, Panama, Punta Cana and Vallarta - as well as hotel-casinos in Hollywood, Florida; Tampa, Florida; Biloxi, Mississippi; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Tulsa Catoosa, Oklahoma. The Hotel Zoso in Palm Springs, California is being converted into a 160-room Hard Rock Hotel, with the transition expected to be completed by 2014. A location in Atlantic City, New Jersey was planned but canceled. All-inclusive resorts operate under the Hard Rock brand in Mexico and the Dominican Republic.
International locations include
- Hard Rock Casino, at The Printworks in Manchester, United Kingdom
- Hard Rock Hotel, at the City of Dreams in Macau
- Hard Rock Hotel, at the Resorts World Sentosa in Singapore
- Hard Rock Hotel Penang
- Hard Rock Casino Vancouver, In Coquitlam British Columbia Canada
- Hard Rock Hotel and Casino in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic
- Hard Rock Hotel in Panama Megapolis, Panama City, Panama
- Hard Rock Hotel in Cáncun, Mexico
- Hard Rock Hotel in Goa, India
Hard Rock Park
Hard Rock Cafe International announced in March 2006 that it licensed the "Hard Rock" name to HRP Myrtle Beach Operations, LLC, to design, build, and operate a $400 million 150-acre (0.61 km2) theme park called Hard Rock Park. Hard Rock Park opened on April 15, 2008 in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. The park was expected to draw an estimated 30,000 visitors per day, promised to create more than 3,000 jobs, and was billed as the largest single investment in South Carolina history. It planned to feature a large concert arena and six zones with more than 40 attractions. HRP Myrtle Beach Operations, LLC, filed for Chapter 11 on September 25, 2008. The company hoped to re-open in 2009 after restructuring. On January 2, 2009 after failing to attract a buyer with a minimum $35 million bid for over 2 months, Hard Rock Park asked a Delaware Bankruptcy Court to convert the filing to Chapter 7 (triggering immediate liquidation of assets to pay off creditors) and closing the park.
New owners renamed the venue Freestyle Music Park and planned to reopen retaining a music-theme but, without the Hard Rock name by Memorial Day, 2009. The park only operated one additional year and never reopened due to poor attendance.
Acquisition by the Seminole Tribe of Florida
On December 7, 2006, Rank sold its Hard Rock business to the Seminole Tribe of Florida for $965 million. Included in the deal were 124 Hard Rock Cafes, four Hard Rock Hotels, two Hard Rock Hotel and Casino Hotels, two Hard Rock Live! concert venues, and stakes in three unbranded hotels. Rank retained the Hard Rock Casino in London, and rebranded it the G Casino Piccadilly. The Hard Rock Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas was also not part of the deal, as it was sold by Peter Morton to Morgans Hotel Group in May 2006. The final takeover was mired in controversy, due to a payment clause in a contract with one casino developer, Power Plant Entertainment. Power Plant and the Seminoles announced a settlement in April 2007 which both sides called equitable. On January 8, 2007, Rank shareholders approved the Seminoles' $965 million offer. The Tribe announced it finalized the deal on March 11, 2007.
On June 22, 2008, the Seminole Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Hollywood began "Vegas-style" table gambling in addition to the Class II slots already in operation. To win approval for the table games, which were barred under Florida law, the Seminole Tribe paid the State of Florida $100 million as part of a 25-year pact signed by Governor Charlie Crist. On July 3, 2008, the Florida Supreme Court ruled that the governor's agreement was unconstitutional, but table games continue to operate because the Federal Department of the Interior approved the now-invalid pact with the state.
List of locations
This list currently mentions Hard Rock Cafes only and not the other type of venues, such as Bars and Hotels.
|Location (city)||Location (country)||Established||Status|
|London||United Kingdom||June 14, 1971||Open|
|Toronto||Canada||June 23, 1978||Open|
||United States||October 24, 1982||Closed December 31, 2006|
|Roppongi||Japan||July 4, 1983||Open|
||United States||April 12, 1984||Relocated to Times Square on August 12, 2005|
||United States||September 10, 1984||Closed August 26, 2002, Relocated to Fisherman's Wharf|
|Stockholm||Sweden||April 16, 1985||Open|
|Chicago||United States||June 17, 1986||Open|
||United States||November 6, 1986||Relocated May 21, 2000|
||United States||November 28, 1986||Relocated July 15, 2009|
||Mexico||June 9, 1987||Unauthorized location|
||United States||July 17, 1987||Relocated May 21, 2000|
||Iceland||July 25, 1987||Closed May 29, 2005|
||United States||December 11, 1987||Relocated December 29, 2012|
||United States||December 11, 1988||Closed October 13, 2008 (Originally San Diego, renamed when downtown location opened)|
||Australia||April 1, 1989||Closed October 22, 2007, Relocated Dec 6, 2011.|
||Canada||June 6, 1989||Closed September 27, 2009|
||United States||June 12, 1989||Relocated July 2, 2007|
||Mexico||December 8, 1989||Unauthorized location|
|Washington, D.C.||United States||January 1, 1990||Open|
|Singapore||Singapore||February 6, 1990||Open|
||United States||June 7, 1990||Relocated December 11, 1998|
|Maui||United States||July 23, 1990||Open|
|Las Vegas at Hard Rock Hotel||United States||September 7, 1990||Open|
||Canada||September 20, 1990||Closed September 27, 2009|
||Mexico||December 30, 1990||Closed early 2012|
||United States||January 22, 1991||Closed November 1, 2000|
||Canada||April 1, 1991||Closed June 1, 2000|
|Bangkok||Thailand||April 22, 1991||Open|
|Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||November 23, 1991||Open|
|Paris||France||November 24, 1991||Open|
||Japan||January 17, 1992||Closed September 14, 2001|
||Mexico||April 26, 1992||Closed June 19, 2008|
||Germany||May 18, 1992||Relocated April 26, 2010|
||Indonesia||October 2, 1992||Relocation to Plaza Indonesia Entertainment X'nter in July 2004.|
|Atlanta||United States||November 9, 1992||Open|
||United States||November 23, 1992||Closed June 23, 2005|
||US Virgin Islands, United States||December 17, 1992||Closed April 24, 2005|
||Puerto Rico||March 5, 1993||Closed April 22, 2011. Planned to be relocated in fall 2014.|
||Israel||July 1993||Closed December, 1997|
|Grand Cayman||Cayman Islands||April 28, 2000||Closed October 13, 2013, Re-opened December 2014|
|Miami||United States||September 21, 1993||Open|
||Mexico||September 23, 1993||Closed May, 2013|
|Bali||Indonesia||October 3, 1993||Open|
||Taiwan||December 22, 1993||Closed February 3, 2002|
||China||May 14, 1994||Closed Sept 30, 2012|
|Nashville||United States||June 21, 1994||Open|
|Cozumel||Mexico||October 22, 1994||Relocated in early 2015.|
||Hong Kong||November 13, 1994||Closed November 24, 2008.|
|Madrid||Spain||November 25, 1994||Open|
|San Antonio||United States||January 12, 1995||Open|
||Canada||January 15, 1995||Closed September 2, 2002|
||Hong Kong||March 18, 1995||Closed October 1, 1999|
||Canada||June 6, 1995||Closed June 1, 2000|
||Canada||July 7, 1995||Closed June 1, 2000|
|Myrtle Beach||United States||July 10, 1995||Open|
|Copenhagen||Denmark||July 18, 1995||Open|
||Canada||September 5, 1995||Closed June 1, 2000|
|Buenos Aires||Argentina||October 15, 1995||Open|
||Australia||October 21, 1995||Closed October 21, 2007|
||United States||October 21, 1995||Relocated February 25, 2002|
||Canada||October 22, 1995||Closed June 1, 2000|
||Taiwan||December 1995||Closed December, 1996|
||Mexico||December 10, 1995||Unauthorized location|
||Belgium||December 15, 1995||Closed April 24, 1997|
|Makati||Philippines||December 15, 1995||Open (Originally named Manilla, renamed shortly after)|
|Studio City at Universal City Walk||United States||January 12, 1996||Open|
|Surfers Paradise||Australia||March 22, 1996||Open, Originally called Gold Coast.|
||Canada||June 26, 1996||Closed September 1, 2013|
|Niagara Falls, New York||United States||July 10, 1996||Open|
||China||August 2, 1996||Closed March 28, 2004|
||China||September 2, 1996||Closed May 18, 2003|
|Key West||United States||September 27, 1996||Open|
|Atlantic City||United States||November 15, 1996||Open|
||South Africa||November 22, 1996||Closed June 17, 2001|
|Seoul||South Korea||December 2, 1996||Reopened in April 8, 2008 but closed again in April, 2009. Reopened in October 21, 2014.|
|Niagara Falls Canada||Canada||December 9, 1996||Open|
||Lebanon||December 19, 1996||Closed September 9, 2013|
||China||May 27, 1997||Closed November, 1998|
||Japan||July 1, 1997||Closed December 31, 2010|
|Baltimore||United States||July 4, 1997||Open|
|Yokohama||Japan||July 18, 1997||Open|
||United States||August 13, 1997||Closed March 20, 2010|
||Jordan||August 14, 1997||Closed September, 2000|
|Manama||Bahrain||October 4, 1997||Open|
|Barcelona||Spain||November 10, 1997||Open|
|Memphis||United States||November 16, 1997||Relocated two blocks west in 2014|
||United Arab Emirates||December 13, 1997||Closed for relocation March 8, 2009|
|Philadelphia||United States||January 15, 1998||Open|
||Peru||February 1999||Closed December 3, 2001. Relocated on December 2012.|
|Edinburgh||United Kingdom||March 28, 1998||Open|
|Guam||United States/Guam||May 10, 1998||Open|
||Turkey||May 27, 1998||Closed February 8, 2002|
|Lake Tahoe||United States||June 30, 1998||Open|
|Cleveland||United States||July 2, 1998||Open|
||United States||July 10, 1998||Closed December 7, 2008|
||United States||July 21, 1998||Closed July 21, 2008|
|Sharm el-Sheikh||Egypt||July 24, 1998||Open|
|San Diego||United States||July 28, 1998||Open|
|Saipan||Northern Mariana Islands, United States||August 18, 1998||Open|
|St. Louis||United States||August 24, 1998||Open|
|Denver||United States||November 5, 1998||Open|
||Mexico||November 7, 1998||Closed October, 2008|
|Rome||Italy||December 10, 1998||Open|
|Orlando||United States||December 11, 1998||Open|
|Amsterdam||Netherlands||March 20, 1999||Open|
|Indianapolis||United States||April 13, 1999||Open|
||Japan||April 27, 1999||Closed December 31, 2003|
||United States||July 7, 1999||Closed May 9, 2004. Relocated to Hollywood, FL|
||United States||September 5, 1999||Relocating to Pigeon Forge|
||United Kingdom||April 14, 2000||Closed January 31, 2002|
|Fukuoka||Japan||April 26, 2000||Open|
|Houston||United States||May 21, 2000||Open|
||Brazil||June 27, 2000||Closed for relocation July 25, 2011, Shop located at base of Corcovado currently|
|Manchester||United Kingdom||September 12, 2000||Open|
|Malta||Malta St. Julian's||November 25, 2000||Open|
|Osaka Universal||Japan||March 22, 2001||Open|
||Egypt||May 4, 2001||Closed December 31, 2010|
||United Kingdom||May 10, 2001||Closed September 25, 2004|
||New Zealand||May 28, 2001||Closed September 28, 2004|
||Nicaragua||May 2001||Closed December, 2001|
|Osaka||Japan||September 14, 2001||Open|
|Bogotá||Colombia||October 1, 2001||Open|
|Pattaya||Thailand||October 15, 2001||Open|
||United Kingdom||November 19, 2001||Closed May 5, 2007|
|Phoenix||United States||February 25, 2002||Open|
||United States||February 27, 2002||Closed January 2, 2006|
|Munich||Germany||February 25, 2002||Open|
|Ueno-Eki||Japan||March 25, 2002||Open|
||United Kingdom||June 5, 2002||Closed November 12, 2007|
|Pittsburgh||United States||June 24, 2002||Open|
|San Francisco||United States||August 26, 2002||Open|
||United States||September 12, 2002||Closed September 30, 2011|
||United Kingdom||December 2, 2002||Closed July 2, 2007|
|Cologne||Germany||April 28, 2003||Open|
|Lisbon||Portugal||June 12, 2003||Open|
|Moscow||Russia||September 17, 2003||Open|
||Panama||September 8, 2004||Closed fall 2004|
||United Kingdom||October 13, 2003||Closed October 12, 2010|
||Bahamas||October 21, 2003||Unauthorized location. Relocated in June 2014.|
|Detroit||United States||November 10, 2003||Open|
|Malta||Malta Airport||February 1, 2004||Open|
||Italy||February 24, 2004||Closed November, 2006|
|Hollywood FL||United States||May 11, 2004||Open|
|Louisville||United States||May 31, 2004||Open|
|Dublin||Ireland||June 29, 2004||Open|
||United States||July 2, 2004||Closed June, 2014|
|Jakarta||Indonesia||July 2004||Relocation to Pacific Place to commence in April 2013|
|Foxwoods||United States||August 20, 2004||Open|
||Panama||September 8, 2004||Closed September 2013|
|Athens||Greece||September 14, 2004||Closed in 2014 and relocated in November 2015|
|Hurghada||Egypt||November 12, 2004||Open|
|Kuwait||Kuwait||November 20, 2004||Closed, February 28, 2014|
|Gothenburg||Sweden||December 10, 2004||Open|
|Caracas||Venezuela||May 12, 2005||Open|
|New York||United States||August 12, 2005||Open|
||Spain||December 2, 2005||Closed October, 2009|
|Oslo||Norway||December 12, 2005||Open|
|Nova Lima||Brazil||December 23, 2005||Open|
|Malta||Malta Valletta||March 2, 2006||Open|
|Santo Domingo||Dominican Republic||July 14, 2006||Open|
|Mumbai||India||September 12, 2006||Open|
||Japan||September 15, 2006||Closed August 2012|
||Jamaica||November 22, 2006||Closed February 3, 2011|
|Margarita||Venezuela||November 27, 2006||Open|
|Warsaw||Poland||February 8, 2007||Open|
|Biloxi||United States||July 1, 2007||Open|
|Boston||United States||July 2, 2007||Open|
|Punta Cana||Dominican Republic||July 2, 2007||Open|
|Fiji||Fiji||December 4, 2007||Open|
|Cartagena||Colombia||December 13, 2007||Open|
|Bengaluru||India||December 29, 2007||Open|
|Singapore Changi Airport||Singapore||January 9, 2008||Open|
|Bucharest||Romania||January 20, 2008||Open|
||South Korea||April 8, 2008||Closed April, 2009|
|Mallorca||Spain||November 29, 2008||Open|
|Aruba||Aruba, Netherlands||December 12, 2008||Open|
|Pune||India||January 11, 2009||Open|
|Yankee Stadium||United States||March 30, 2009||Open|
|Prague||Czech Republic||April 3, 2009||Open|
|Venice||Italy||April 9, 2009||Open|
|New Delhi||India||June 4, 2009||Open|
|Dallas||United States||July 15, 2009||Open|
|Las Vegas||United States||September 5, 2009||Open|
|Penang||Malaysia||September 15, 2009||Open|
|Hyderabad||India||September 21, 2009||Open|
|Marbella||Spain||October 30, 2009||Open|
|Phuket||Thailand||November 29, 2009||Open|
|Ho Chi Minh City||Vietnam||December 17, 2009||Open (rights owned by the Highlands Coffee conglomerate)|
|Seattle||United States||February 10, 2010||Open|
|Sentosa||Singapore||April 22, 2010||Open|
|Berlin||Germany||April 26, 2010||Open|
|Kraków||Poland||June 4, 2010||Open|
|Hollywood on Hollywood Blvd||United States||July 19, 2010||Open|
|Medellín||Colombia||September 3, 2010||Open|
|Honolulu||United States||November 22, 2010||Open|
||Greece||December 16, 2010||Closed October 10, 2012|
|Sint Maarten||Netherlands||December 20, 2010||Open|
|Tampa||United States||December 21, 2010||Open|
|Hong Kong at Lan Kwai Fong||Hong Kong||April 18, 2011||Open|
|Florence||Italy||June 14, 2011||Open|
|Sydney||Australia||July 8, 2011||Open|
||Mexico||August 16, 2011||Closed (Prior to September 2012)|
|Hamburg||Germany||August 17, 2011||Open|
|Dubai||United Arab Emirates||November 18, 2011||Open|
|Sydney||Australia||December 6, 2011||Open|
|Budapest||Hungary||December 14, 2011||Open|
|Macau||China||February 14, 2012||Open|
|New Buffalo, Michigan at Four Winds New Buffalo||United States||July 11, 2012||Open|
|Brussels at Grand Place Brussels||Belgium||July 31, 2012||Open|
||Cyprus||October 14, 2012||Closed May 21, 2013|
|Helsinki||Finland||October 15, 2012||Open|
|Lima||Peru||December 19, 2012||Open|
|Santiago||Chile||December 20, 2012||Open|
|Nabq||Egypt||December 28, 2012||Open|
|New Orleans||United States||December 29, 2012||Open|
|Melaka||Malaysia||June 12, 2013||Open|
|Mumbai, Andheri West||India||August 2013||Open|
|Johannesburg||South Africa||November 2013||Open|
|Kota Kinabalu||Malaysia||December 2014||Open|
|San José||Costa Rica||June 2013||Open|
|Santa Cruz de la Sierra||Bolivia||February 24, 2014||Open|
|Tenerife||Spain||March 15, 2014||Open|
|Glasgow||United Kingdom||November 2013||Open|
|Northfield Park||United States||December 18, 2013||Open|
|Vienna||Austria||August 8, 2014||Open|
|Gdańsk||Poland||July 6, 2014||Open|
|Anchorage||United States||June 28, 2014||Open|
|Mall of America||United States||August 28, 2014||Open|
|Phnom Penh||Cambodia||June 20, 2014||Open|
|Podgorica||Montenegro||February 8, 2015||Open|
|Chennai||India||December 29, 2013||Open|
|Daytona Beach||United States||2016||Planned|
|Almaty||Kazakhstan||November 5, 2014||Open|
|Gurgaon||India||April 1, 2014||Open|
|Pigeon Forge||United States||May 20, 2014||Open (This is a move from Gatlinburg)|
|Seoul||Republic of Korea||October 22, 2014||Open|
|Auckland||New Zealand||June 2015||Planned|
|Sioux City||United States||August 1, 2014||Open|
|Playas del Coco||Costa Rica||June 27, 2015||Open|
|Marseille||France||November 30, 2014||Open|
|Curitiba||Brazil||May 28, 2015||Open|
- Morrison Hotel
- Planet Hollywood
- Bubba Gump Shrimp Company Restaurant and Market
- Rainforest Cafe
- T-Rex Cafe
- Fashion Cafe
- "Seminole tribe in Hard Rock deal". BBC News. 7 December 2006. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
- "Contact Us". Hard Rock Cafe. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
- "Hard Rock History". Hard Rock Cafe. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
- Hard Rock Cafe Locations. Retrieved 2012-05-10
- Shankleman, Martin (18 July 2008). "Hard Rock wages 'below minimum'". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- "Townshend's Gibson Les Paul". Hard Rock Cafe. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- "The Hard Rock Vault". LostParks.com. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- Laura Porter. "The Vault". About.com. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- "Montreux'2006 DVD details". The Highway Star. 17 May 2007. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- "The Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Las Vegas Selects Rainmaker Group Revenue Management". Hospitalitynet. 22 June 2009. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- William Spain (6 May 2006). "Morgans Hotel Group to buy Vegas Hard Rock for $770 million". The Wall Street Journal (marketwatch.com). Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- Amanda Finnegan (6 February 2009). "Hard Rock Hotel expansion hits another milestone". Las Vegas Sun (lasvegassun.com). Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- Steve Green (2 March 2011). "Hard Rock Hotel management group ends its run with resort". Las Vegas Sun (lasvegassun.com). Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- "Hard Rock International and the Luckie Street Partners Announce Atlanta Hotel Development". Hard Rock Cafe. 24 October 2007. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- "Contact Us". Hard Rock Cafe. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- Vincent, Roger. (2013, February 10). Palm Springs hotel to be converted into Hard Rock outpost. The Los Angeles Times.
- Wittkowski, Donald. (2012, September 13). Hard Rock casino developers scrap Atlantic City casino project The Press of Atlantic City.
- "S.C.'s Hard Rock Park files for bankruptcy after inaugural season". USA Today (usatoday.com). 25 September 2008. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
- "Hard Rock Park requests liquidation". Orlando Sentinel (Orlandosentinel.com). 3 January 2009. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- "Coastal business: Freestyle Music Park attorney sees better market". The Sun News (myrtlebeachonline.com). 8 February 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- Adrian Sainz (7 December 2006). "Seminoles buy Hard Rock cafe". Seattle Post-Intelligencer (seattlepi.com). Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- John Burstein (18 April 2007). "Seminoles, developer settle disputes". South Florida Sun-Sentinel (sun-sentinel.com). Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- "Seminole Tribe Finalizes Acquisition of Hard Rock International". PRnewswire (hotels-stl.com). 11 March 2007. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- Brenda Farrington (3 July 2008). "Florida Supreme court nixes casino pact". The Seattle Times (seattletimes.com). Associated Press. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- Lesley Balla (8 January 2007). "Hard Rock Café Ain't Rockin' No More". Eater LA. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- "Memphis official confirms Hard Rock Cafe is moving its location". WorldNow and WMC. 15 Jan 2014.
- "Το Hard Rock Cafe επιστρέφει στην Αθήνα". To Vima. Retrieved 2015-09-25.
- "Re-Opening of the Hard Rock in Hong Kong". Next Stop Hong Kong. 14 June 2011.
- "Hard Rock Turns Up The Volume In Florence With Grand Opening Celebration". Hard Rock Cafe. 14 June 2011.
- "Hard Rock rocks its way to Hamburg" (Press release). 4Hoteliers.com. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- Muby Asger (24 November 2011). "Love all, serve all: It's a Hard Rock life". gulfnews.com. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- "Hard Rock Cafe Budapest Now Open". abudapest.com. 21 December 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- "Hard Rock Cafe New Buffalo will have plenty to see (photo gallery)". MLive.com.
- "Hard Rock Café Brussels location and opening hours". thomasvanhoutte.be. 31 July 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
- "Hard Rock Cafe Johannesburg". Facebook.
- "Cafes Coming Soon". Hard Rock Cafe. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- "Now Open".
- "Job listing for manager of Glasgow cafe".
- "HRC Wien hat geöffnet".
- "Hard Rock Cafe to open in spring in downtown Anchorage". 21 November 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "Hard Rock Cafe Mall of America". hardrock.com.
- Maierbrugger, Arno (25 March 2013). "Finally: Hard Rock Cafe goes Cambodia". Inside Investor. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- "Hard Rock hotel, cafe coming to Daytona Beach". Daytona Beach News Journal. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
- "El Hard Rock Café Asunción abrió sus puertas al público". ultimahora.
- "Hard Rock Sioux City casino draws big opening night crowds". Sioux City Journal.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hard Rock Cafe.|
- Official website
- Official Hard Rock Hotel and Casino Site
- Video review of the Hard Rock Cafe with on-site footage
- Video tour of the Hard Rock Hotel Singapore
- Hard Rock Memorabilia Gallery
- Regularly updated list of current, opening, and closed cafes (Unofficial)
- "Seattle welcomes Hard Rock Cafe"