Hardnesses of the elements (data page)

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number symbol name Mohs hardness[1] Vickers hardness
(MPa)[1]
Brinell hardness
(MPa)[1]
Brinell hardness
(MPa)[note 1][2]
3 Li lithium 0.6 5
4 Be beryllium 5.5 1670 590–1320
5 B boron 9.3-9.5 [3] 4900-5800 [4]
6 C carbon (graphite) 0.5
6 C carbon (diamond) 10.0
11 Na sodium 0.5 0.69
12 Mg magnesium 2.5 260 44 (cast)
13 Al aluminium 2.75 160–350 160–550 184
14 Si silicon 6.5
16 S sulfur 2.0
19 K potassium 0.4 0.363
20 Ca calcium 1.75 170 416
21 Sc scandium 736–1200
22 Ti titanium 6.0 830–3420 716–2770 1028
23 V vanadium 7.0 628–640 600–628 742
24 Cr chromium 8.5 1060 687-6500 688
25 Mn manganese 6.0 196
26 Fe iron 4.0 608 200-1180
27 Co cobalt 5.0 1043 470–3000 1291
28 Ni nickel 4.0 638 667–1600 900–1200
29 Cu copper 3.0 343–369 235–878 520
30 Zn zinc 2.5 327–412 480–520
31 Ga gallium 1.5 56.8–68.7
32 Ge germanium 6.0
33 As arsenic 3.5 1440
34 Se selenium 2.0 736
37 Rb rubidium 0.3 0.216
38 Sr strontium 1.5
39 Y yttrium 200–589
40 Zr zirconium 5.0 820–1800 638–1880 333
41 Nb niobium 6.0 870–1320 735–2450 735
42 Mo molybdenum 5.5 1400–2740 1370–2500 1340 (cast)
44 Ru ruthenium 6.5 2160 1795
45 Rh rhodium 6.0 1100–8000 980–1350 540
46 Pd palladium 4.75 400–600 320–610 310
47 Ag silver 2.5 250 245–250 206
48 Cd cadmium 2.0 203–220 196
49 In indium 1.2 8.83-10 9.8
50 Sn tin 1.5 51–75 292–441 (cast)
51 Sb antimony 3.0 294–384
52 Te tellurium 2.25 180–270
55 Cs caesium 0.2 0.147
56 Ba barium 1.25
57 La lanthanum 2.5 360–1750 350–400
58 Ce cerium 2.5 210–470 186–412
59 Pr praseodymium 250–746 250–638
60 Nd neodymium 343–746 265–700
61 Pm promethium 617.8
62 Sm samarium 412–441 441–600
63 Eu europium 167–200
64 Gd gadolinium 510–950
65 Tb terbium 450–863 677–1200
66 Dy dysprosium 412–550 500–1050
67 Ho holmium 412–600 500–1250
68 Er erbium 432–700 600–1070
69 Tm thulium 470–650 471–900
70 Yb ytterbium 206–250 343–441
71 Lu lutetium 755–1160 893–1300
72 Hf hafnium 5.5 1520–2060 1450–2100
73 Ta tantalum 6.5 873–1200 441-3430 441–1224
74 W tungsten 7.5 3430–4600 2000–4000 1960–2450
75 Re rhenium 7.0 1350-7850 1320–2500
76 Os osmium 7.0 3920–4000 3487
77 Ir iridium 6.5 1760–2200 1670 2120
78 Pt platinum 3.5 400–549 310–500 299
79 Au gold 2.5 188–216 188–245 189
80 Hg mercury 1.5
81 Tl thallium 1.2 26.5–44.7
82 Pb lead 1.5 38–50 37.5–41.8 (cast)
83 Bi bismuth 2.25 70–94.2 70
90 Th thorium 3.0 294–687 390–1500
92 U uranium 6.0 1960–2500 2350–3850

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hardness can vary by several hundred percent depending on the pretreatment, see e.g. Iron#Mechanical properties and Angelo Basile; Fausto Gallucci (2011). Membranes for Membrane Reactors: Preparation, Optimization and Selection. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-0-470-74652-3.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c G.V. Samsonov, ed. (1968). "Mechanical Properties of the Elements". Handbook of the physicochemical properties of the elements. New York, USA: IFI-Plenum. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-6066-7_7. ISBN 978-1-4684-6066-7. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
  2. ^ John Harris; Walter Benenson; Horst Stöcker (2002). Handbook of physics. Springer. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-387-95269-7.
  3. ^ https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-the-hardest-element-606624
  4. ^ https://www.thegeneticatlas.com/Kenneth-Nordtvedt-Molecular-Hardness.htm

See also[edit]