|Hari Merdeka Malaya|
(Independence Day for the people of Malaya)
A man is thrown into the air by a crowd during Merdeka Day celebrations in Merdeka Square, Kuala Lumpur, 2008
|Official name||Hari Merdeka|
|Also called||Merdeka, Hari Kebangsaan, National Day|
|Significance||Marks the independence of the Federation of Malaya|
|Next time||31 August 2020|
Part of a series on the
|History of Malaysia|
Hari Merdeka (Malaysian for 'Independence Day'), also known as Hari Kebangsaan ('National Day') is the official independence day of Malaysia as defined in the Article 160 of the Constitution of Malaysia, to commemorate the Malayan Declaration of Independence on 31 August 1957. The day is marked by official and unofficial ceremonies and observances.
The annual observation of 31 August as Malaysia's national day, despite being defined in the constitution, is not left unchallenged over the years. There have been calls by certain quarters to prioritize the celebration of Hari Malaysia (Malaysia Day) commemorating the formation of Malaysia in 1963, especially from those of East Malaysia, by arguing that it is illogical to celebrate 31 August 1957 as the national day when "Malaysia" only existed from 1963. Supporters rebuke the aforementioned argument that it is ignorant with the fact that legally, 'the Federation' as defined in the same Article 160 of the Constitution of Malaysia, is 'the Federation' that was established under Federation of Malaya Agreement 1957, not the Malaysia Agreement 1963. In 1963, 'the Federation', then named the Federation of Malaya, was further enlarged and renamed Malaysia, when the existing states of Malaya merged with North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore.
Events leading up to independence
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The effort for independence was spearheaded by Tunku Abdul Rahman, the first Prime Minister of Malaysia, who led a delegation of ministers and political leaders of Malaya in negotiations with the British in London for Merdeka, or independence along with the first president of the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) Tun Dato Sir Tan Cheng Lock and fifth President of Malaysian Indian Congress Tun V. T. Sambanthan. Once it became clear that the Communist threat posed during the Malayan Emergency was petering out, agreement was reached on 8 February 1956, for Malaya to gain independence from the British Empire. However, logistical and administrative reasons led to the official proclamation of independence in the next year, on 31 August 1957, at Stadium Merdeka (Independence Stadium), in Kuala Lumpur, which was purposely built for the celebrations of national independence day. The announcement of the day was set months earlier by the Tunku in a meeting of the Alliance in Melaka.
Independence Day (31 August 1957)
On the night of 30 August 1957, more than 20,000 people gathered at Merdeka Square (Padang Merdeka) in Kuala Lumpur to witness the handover of power from the British. Prime Minister-designate Tunku Abdul Rahman arrived at 11:58 p.m. and joined members of the Alliance Party's youth divisions in observing two minutes of darkness. On the stroke of midnight, the lights were switched back on, and the Union Flag in the square was lowered as the royal anthem "God Save The Queen" played. The new Flag of Malaya was raised as the national anthem Negaraku was played. This was followed by seven chants of "Merdeka" by the crowd. Tunku Abdul Rahman later gave a speech hailing the ceremony as the "greatest moment in the life of the Malayan people". Before giving the address to the crowd, he was given a necklace by representatives of the Alliance Party youth in honour of this great occasion in history, with a map of Malaya inscribed on it. The event ended at one in the morning.
On the morning of 31 August 1957, the festivities moved to the newly completed Merdeka Stadium. More than 20,000 people witnessed the ceremony, which began at 9:30 am. Those in attendance included rulers of the Malay states, foreign dignitaries, members of the federal cabinet, and citizens. The Queen's representative, the Duke of Gloucester presented Tunku Abdul Rahman with the instrument of independence. Tunku then proceeded to read the Proclamation of Independence, which culminated in the chanting of "Merdeka!" seven times with the crowd joining in. The ceremony continued with the raising of the National Flag of Malaya accompanied by the national anthem being played by a military band and a 21-gun salute, followed by an azan call and a thanksgiving prayer in honour of this great occasion.
The day followed with the solemn installation of the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Tuanku Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, at Jalan Ampang, and the first installation banquet in his honour in the evening followed by a beating retreat performance and a fireworks display. Sports events and other events marked the birth of the new nation.
The foreign guests of honour included:
- Members of royal families
- The King and Queen of Thailand
- The Crown Prince and Princess of Japan
- The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester (representing The Queen)
- Prince William of Gloucester
- Heads of government
- The Prime Minister South Africa, Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom
- The Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru
- The Prime Minister of Pakistan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
- The Prime Minister of Vietnam, Phạm Văn Đồng
- The Prime Minister of Ceylon, Solomon Bandaranaike
- The Prime Minister of Burma, U Nu
- The Prime Minister of Cambodia, Sim Var
- The United States Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles (representing US President Dwight D. Eisenhower)
- Representatives from other British colonies
- Members of the former British colonial administration
- Sir Gerald Templer (former British High Commissioner in Malaya) and Lady Templer
- Lady Gurney (wife of former British High Commissioner in Malaya Sir Henry Gurney)
- Lady Gent (wife of former British High Commissioner in Malaya Sir Edward Gent)
- High Commissioners of other Commonwealth countries
- High Commissioner of Canada to Malaya, Arthur Redpath Menzies
- High Commissioner of Australia to Malaya, Tom Critchley
- High Commissioner of New Zealand to Malaya, Foss Shanahan
The formation of Malaysia
The Federation of Malaysia, comprising the Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore, was officially declared on 31 August 1963, on the 6th anniversary of Malayan independence. However, it was postponed to 16 September 1963, mainly due to Indonesian and the Philippines' opposition to the formation of Malaysia. Nevertheless, North Borneo and Singapore declared sovereignty on 31 August 1963. Indonesian opposition later escalated to a military conflict. Indonesia considered Malaysia as a new form of colonisation on the provinces of Sarawak and North Borneo in the island of Borneo (bordering Kalimantan, Indonesia). However, they did not lay claim upon the two territories, unlike the Philippines' claim on the eastern part of Sabah (rather than the whole of North Borneo). To assure Indonesia that Malaysia was not a form of neocolonialism, a general survey (instead of a referendum) was organised by the United Nations involving interviews of approximately 4,000 people, which received 2,200 memorandums from groups and private individuals. The Cobbold Commission, led by Lord Cobbold, was also formed to determine whether the people of North Borneo and Sarawak wished to join Malaysia. Their eventual findings, which indicated substantial support for Malaysia among the peoples of Sabah and Sarawak, cleared the way for the final proclamation of Malaysia.
The formation of the Federation of Malaysia was then announced on 16 September 1963, as Malaysia Day. The nationwide Independence Day celebration is still held on 31 August, the original independence date of Malaya, while Malaysia Day was a public holiday only in East Malaysia. However, this has caused some minor discontent among East Malaysians in particular, since it has been argued that celebrating the national day on 31 August is too Malaya-centric. In 2009, it was decided that starting 2010, Malaysia Day would be a nationwide public holiday in addition to Hari Merdeka on 31 August.
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|1970||Muhibbah dan Perpaduan|
(Goodwill and Unity)
|1973||Masyarakat Berkebudayaan Malaysia|
(A Society with Malaysian Culture)
|1974||Sains dan Teknologi Alat Perpaduan|
(Science and Technology as Tools of Unity)
(A Self-Reliant Society)
(Strength of the People)
|1977||20 Tahun Bersatu Maju|
(20 Years United and Progressive)
|1978||Kebudayaan Sendi Perpaduan|
(Culture is the Core of Unity)
(United and Disciplined)
(Discipline and Service)
(Discipline and Harmony)
|1982||Berdisplin Giat Maju|
(Discipline Creates Progress)
|1983||Bersama Ke Arah Kemajuan|
(Together Towards Success)
|1984||Amanah Asas Kejayaan|
(Honesty Brings Success)
|1985||Nasionalisme Teras Perpaduan|
(Nationalism is the Core of Unity)
|1986||Bangsa Tegas Negara Teguh|
(Steadfast Society, Strong Country)
|1987||Setia Bersatu Berusaha Maju|
(Loyally United, Progressively Striving)
|1992||Wawasan Asas Kemajuan|
(Vision is the Basis of Progress)
|1993||Bersatu Menuju Wawasan|
(Together Towards Vision)
|1994||Nilai Murni Jayakan Wawasan|
(Good Values Makes the Vision a Success)
|1995||Jatidiri Pengerak Wawasan|
(Steadfastness Moves the Vision Forward)
|1996||Budaya Penantu Kecapaian|
(Culture Determines Achievements)
|1997||Akhlak Mulia Masyarakat Jaya|
(Good Values Make a Successful Society)
|1998||Negara Kita, Tanggungjawab Kita|
(Our Country, Our Responsibility)
|1999||Bersatu Ke Alaf Baru|
(Together Towards the New Millennium)
(Because of you, Malaysia)
|2006||Keranamu Malaysia: Misi Nasional, Penjaya Wawasan|
(Because of you, Malaysia: National Mission, Visionary Generator)
(My Glorious Malaysia)
|2008||Perpaduan Teras Kejayaan|
(Unity Is The Core of Success)
|2009||1 Malaysia: Rakyat Didahulukan, Pencapaian Diutamakan|
(1 Malaysia: People First, Performance Now)
|2010||1 Malaysia: Menjana Transformasi|
(1 Malaysia: Transforming the Nation)
|2011||1 Malaysia: Transformasi Berjaya, Rakyat Sejahtera|
(1 Malaysia: Successful Transformations, Prosperous Citizens)
|2012||55 Tahun Merdeka: Janji Ditepati|
(55 Years of Independence: Promises Fulfilled)
|2013||Malaysiaku Berdaulat, Tanah Tumpahnya Darahku|
(My Sovereign Malaysia, The Land Where My Blood Has Spilt)
|2014||Malaysia, Di Sini Lahirnya Sebuah Cinta|
(Malaysia, Here Is Where Love Begins)
|2015–2016||Malaysia, Sehati Sejiwa|
(United, Unified Malaysia)
|2017||Negaraku Sehati Sejiwa|
(My Country, United and Unified)
(Love My Malaysia)
|2019||Sayangi Malaysiaku: Malaysia Bersih|
(Love My Malaysia: A Clean Malaysia)
The 2012 theme proved to be controversial, as it was seen by many Malaysians to be a political slogan rather than a patriotic one (Janji Ditepati was Najib Razak's campaign jingle in the run-up to the 2013 elections). The official "logo" was also ridiculed for its unconventional design. A video of the theme song uploaded on YouTube (with lyrics penned by Rais Yatim) garnered an overwhelming number of "dislikes" because of its overtly political content, which had nothing to do with the spirit of independence. The video has since been taken down.
On 31 August 2019, Google celebrated Malaysia’s Independence Day, the 'Hari Merdeka' with a Doodle depicting national flower. The accompanying write up read as, "Today’s Doodle depicts Malaysia’s national flower in honor of Malaysia’s Independence Day, known locally as Hari Merdeka. On this day in 1957, the Federation of Malaya became a sovereign state after many years of British rule. Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia's first Chief Minister, read an official declaration at Kuala Lumpur’s Stadium Merdeka before a crowd of some 20,000 people."
2015 Hari Merdeka Anniversary Issues
Starting from 2015, as stated by the Minister of Communication and Multimedia Ahmad Shabery Cheek, the Independence Day celebration is likely to be held without mentioning the number of years to prevent the people in Sabah and Sarawak from being isolated if the number of independence anniversaries was stated. However, the Minister of Land Development of Sarawak Tan Sri Datuk Amar Dr James Masing reminded that since 16 September had been declared as Malaysia Day, it should be the rallying point for the nation's unity. He added "Everyone now knows that 31 August is Malaya's and Sabah's Independence Day… it's not our (Sarawak) independence day. They can celebrate it both in Malaya and in Sabah as they have the same Independence Day date, and we can join them there if they invite us. We must right the wrong". Masing was commenting on Shabery Cheek's recent proposal that Malaysia should continue to commemorate 31 August as its Independence Day, without mentioning the anniversary year.
Before 16 September, there was no Malaysia. Let everyone remember that. It's on 16 September that the four independent countries namely Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo agreed to form Malaysia. And as everyone also knows, Singapore expelled by Malaysia in 1965.
These arguments are however, ignorant with the fact that legally, Hari Merdeka is the official independence day of 'the federation' as defined in the Article 160 of the Constitution of Malaysia. 'The federation' here is defined in the same article as the federation that was established under Federation of Malaya Agreement 1957, not the Malaysia Agreement 1963. In 1963, 'the Federation', then named the Federation of Malaya, was further enlarged and renamed 'Malaysia', when the existing states of Malaya were merged with North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore.
- Sarawak Self-government Day
- North Borneo Self-government Day
- 20-point agreement (Sabah)
- 18-point agreement (Sarawak)
- Malaysia Day
- Hari Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia, a national holiday celebrated every 17 August, commemorating the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence from Dutch rule
- History of Malaysia
- Singapore in Malaysia
- Peninsular Malaysia
- Hari Merdeka Parade
- Chin, James; Harding, Andrew (2015), 50 Years of Malaysia: Federalism Revisited, Marshall Cavendish International, p. 10, ISBN 978-9814561242
- Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud (2011), "A Reflection on Malaysia's Journey Since Independence", Malaysia and The European Union - Perspectives for the Twenty-First Century (Freiburg Studies in Social Anthropology / Freiburger Sozialanthropologische Studien), LIT Verlag: 9, ISBN 978-3643800855
- Adrian Lim Chee En (30 August 2016). "Stop celebrating 'Hari Merdeka Malaysia'". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Peter Sibon and Karen Bong (11 September 2014). "Emphasis should be on Sept 16 not Aug 31". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- Malaysia Act 1963
- "1957: Malaya celebrates independence". BBC. 31 August 1957. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- "Detik Jam Tengah Malam Di Padang Kelab Selangor" (in Malay). National Archive of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- "Pengisytiharan Kemerdekaan Tanah Melayu" (in Malay). National Archives of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- Manila Accord (31 July 1963)
- Merdeka celebration in Kuching Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Keadilan's plans for Merdeka" Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Daily Express, 29 August 2007.
- Aznam, Suhaini, "Celebrating Malaysia Day", 24 September 2007.
- Yeng Ai Chun (19 October 2009). "Malaysia Day now a public holiday, says PM". The Star. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Rais seeks views on Merdeka theme song", Malaysiakini, 1 August 2012.
- "Hari Merdeka 2019". Google. 31 August 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- "Our Merdeka, Our Malaysia ― Ramkarpal Singh". Malay Mail. 31 August 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- "No more mentioning number of years". Daily Express. 9 September 2014. Archived from the original on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- Malaysia Act 1963
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