Hariphunchai

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Hariphunchai

Sarhāsta Asām (Pali)
8th century–1292
1000–1100 AD Green: Haripunchai Light Blue: Lavo Kingdom Red: Khmer Empire Yellow: Champa Blue: Đại Việt Pink: Pagan Kingdom Lime: Srivijayan Empire
1000–1100 AD
Green: Haripunchai
Light Blue: Lavo Kingdom
Red: Khmer Empire
Yellow: Champa
Blue: Đại Việt
Pink: Pagan Kingdom
Lime: Srivijayan Empire
CapitalLamphun (629-1292)
Religion
Theravada Buddhism
GovernmentMonarchy
• 629
"Camadevi" (first)
• c. 1292
"Phraya Yi Ba" (last)
Historical eraMiddle Ages
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Lavo Kingdom
Lan Na

Hariphunchai or Haribhunjaya (from Thai: หริภุญชัย, in turn from Pali: Haribhuñjaya) was a Mon kingdom in the north of present Thailand in the centuries before the Thais moved into the area. Its capital was at Lamphun, which at the time was also called Hariphunchai.[1]:77 In 1292 the city was besieged and captured by Mangrai of the Thai kingdom of Lan Na.[1]:208

Founding[edit]

According to the Camadevivamsa and "Jinakalamali" chronicles, the city was founded by a hermit named Suthep in 629 AD, and the Mon ruler of Lavo Kingdom (present-day Lopburi) sent his daughter Jamadevi to become its first queen. However, this date is now considered as too early, and the actual beginning is placed at around 750 AD.[citation needed] At that time, most of what is now central Thailand was under the rule of various Mon city states, known collectively as the Dvaravati kingdom. Queen Jamadevi gave birth to twins, the older succeeding her as the ruler of Lamphun, and the younger becoming ruler of neighboring Lampang.

Flourishing and downfall[edit]

A Hariphunchai statue of the Buddha Shakyamuni from the 12th-13th century CE

The kingdom under King Adityaraja, came into conflict with the Khmers in the twelfth century. Lamphun inscriptions from 1213, 1218, and 1219, mention King Sabbadhisiddhi endowing Buddhist monuments.[1]:195

The chronicles say that the Khmer unsuccessfully besieged Hariphunchai several times during the 11th century. It is not clear if the chronicles describe actual or legendary events, but the other Dvaravati Mon kingdoms did in fact fall to the Khmers at this time. The early 13th century was a golden time for Hariphunchai, as the chronicles talk only about religious activities or constructing buildings, not about wars. Nevertheless, Hariphunchai was besieged in 1292 by the Lan Na king Mangrai, who incorporated it into his Lan Na ("One Million Rice Fields") kingdom. The plan set up by Mangrai to overpower Hariphunchai began by dispatching Ai Fa (Thai: อ้ายฟ้า) on an espionage mission to create chaos in Hariphunchai. Ai Fa managed to spread discontent among the population, which weakened Hariphunchai and made it possible for Mangrai to take the kingdom over.[2]:38[3][4][5] Phraya Yi Ba, the last king of Hariphunchai, was forced to flee south to Lampang.[1]:208–209

List of rulers[edit]

Names of monarchs of the Hariphunchai kingdom according to Tamnan Hariphunchai (History of Kingdom of Hariphunchai):

  1. Camadevi, Queen
  2. Hanayos
  3. Kumanjaraj
  4. Rudantra
  5. Sonamanjusaka
  6. Samsara
  7. Padumaraj
  8. Kusadeva
  9. Nokaraj
  10. Dasaraj
  11. Gutta
  12. Sera
  13. Yuvaraj
  14. Brahmtarayo
  15. Muksa
  16. Traphaka
  17. Uchitajakraphad king of Lavo
  18. Kampol
  19. Jakaphadiraj, King of Atikuyaburi
  20. Vasudev
  21. Yeyyala
  22. Maharaj, King of Lampang
  23. Sela
  24. Kanjana
  25. Chilanka
  26. Phunthula
  27. Ditta
  28. Chettharaj
  29. Jeyakaraj
  30. Phatijjaraj
  31. Thamikaraj
  32. Ratharaj
  33. Saphasith
  34. Chettharaj
  35. Jeyakaraj
  36. Datvanyaraj
  37. Ganga
  38. Siribun
  39. Uthen
  40. Phanton
  41. Atana
  42. Havam
  43. Trangal
  44. Yotta
  45. Yip

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ Ministry of Education (1 January 2002). "Chiang Mai : Nop Buri Si Nakhon Ping". Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  3. ^ "The Chiang Mai Chronicle / Summary". Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  4. ^ Janos Jany (8 April 2020). Legal Traditions in Asia: History, Concepts and Laws. p. 288. ISBN 9783030437282. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  5. ^ "Lanna". Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  • 'Historic Lamphun: Capital of the Mon Kingdom of Haripunchai', in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 4. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN B006J541LE
  • Swearer, Donald K. and Sommai Premchit. The Legend of Queen Cama: Bodhiramsi's Camadevivamsa, a Translation and Commentary. New York: State University of New York Press, 1998.