Hariti

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Hārītī (Sanskrit), also known as Chinese: 鬼子母(神); pinyin: Guǐzǐmǔ(shén), Japanese: 鬼子母神, romanizedKishimojin, is both a revered goddess and demon, depending on the Buddhist tradition. She is one of twenty four protector deity of Mahayan Buddhism.

Translations of
Hārītī
SanskritHārītī
Chinese鬼子母 or 鬼子母神
(Pinyin: Guǐzǐmǔ or Guǐzǐmǔshén)
Japanese鬼子母神
(Rōmaji: Kishimojin)
Korean귀자모신
鬼子母神

(RR: Gwijamoshin)
Glossary of Buddhism
Statue of Guǐzǐmǔ with a child rakshasa in Shanhua Temple (善化寺 Shànhùasì) in Datong, Shanxi Province, China

In her positive aspects, she is regarded for the protection of children, easy delivery and happy child rearing, while her negative aspects include the belief of her terror towards irresponsible parents and unruly children.

In both Chinese and Japanese Buddhism, she is venerated as a protector deity, but in many folk traditions is often recognized as a female demon of misery and unhappiness towards children and parents.

Iconography[edit]

The iconography of Hārītī shows similarities to the Greek goddess Tyche and may have been transmitted to east Asia through the influence of Greco-Buddhism. In Greek art, Tyche was depicted in the presence of children, carrying a cornucopia (horn of plenty), an emblematic gubernaculum (ship's rudder), and the wheel of fortune; she may stand on the wheel, presiding over the entire circle of fate.[1]

Kishimojin as a demon mistress with infant. 12th-13th century, Kamakura period. Daigo-ji, Kyoto, Japan.
Azes coin in India, with Demeter/ Hariti with children and holding a cornucopia (Obv.) and Hermes (Rev.), 1st century BCE.
Hariti statues from Gandhara

In Chinese Buddhism, Hārītī is also known as Hēlìdì (訶利帝) or Hēlìdìmǔ (訶梨帝母). In Chinese tradition, she is one of the Twenty-Four Protective Devas (二十四諸天 Èrshísì zhūtiān), a group of Dharmapalas who are venerated as protectors of Buddhists and the Dharma.[3] Statues of this group (and Hārītī) are often enshrined within the Mahavira Hall in Chinese temples and monasteries.[4] Hārītī is a figure of the 26th chapter of the Lotus Sutra, and is especially important to Nichiren Buddhism. In Shingon Buddhism, she is named Karitei (訶利帝) or Karitei-mo (訶梨帝母). Her iconography is based mostly on the Dai Yakusha Nyo Kangimo Narahini Aishi Jōjuhō (大薬叉女歓喜母并愛子成就法).[5]

In Japanese tradition, Kishimojin is an aspect of Kannon, the goddess of mercy, and she bears the epithets "Bringer of Happiness" (歓喜母) and "Giver of Children and Easy Delivery" (子安鬼子母神).

In the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, she is known as Hārītī Mā "Mother Hārītī", and her main temple is part of Kathmandu's Swayambhunath stupa complex. She is perceived as the consort of Pañcika and as protector of children, and is a patron of the Newar people of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur District. The Newars call her Ajima, meaning "grandmother" in the Newar language.[citation needed]

Narrative[edit]

The bas-relief of Hariti with her children on inner northern wall of Mendut, 9th century.

According to a Thervadin oral story in southeast asia, Hariti was a yakka woman, lived in rajgir, steadfast in ethics,mindfulness and wisdom, her husband was counselor of kubera of gandhara. As long time for marriage, she had no children. Hence, she had to face several social discrimination. In search of love of motherhood, she started to kidnap new born babies from rajgir where the Buddha shakyamuni was stayed. Thus, victim mothers from rajgir prayed to the Buddha. Once the Buddha went to the cave of hariti during his alm round. He hid one of her kidnaped new born babies in his begging bowl. Hariti experienced great pain of loss of the child. After searching that infant all over universe, she finally appealed to the Buddha. The Buddha illustrated how she is suffering from loss of one child whereas hundreds of other mothers and families are still suffering from loss of their beloved child. Hariti accept her fault that their suffering is more than her. She returned all kidnapped babies to their mothers and again become steadfast in the Dhamma. The Buddha addressed her Dhamma rituals associated with upbringing a child. Hariti said she is no longer woman with no children, she is mother of all beings. Hariti promised the Buddha, she will protect and love children of all realms of existence. She developed and engaged in four Brahma viharas to all worldly beings. The Buddha featured her the Jagatmata or mother of all realms, the mother of all humans who eliminate(hari-ti) obstacles from their life.

According to another Mahayanist Sthavirvadin myth, Hārītī was originally a rākṣasī of Rajgir at the same time that Gautama Buddha also lived there. She had hundreds of children of her own, whom she loved and doted upon, but to feed them, she abducted and killed the children of others. The bereaved mothers of her victims pleaded to the Buddha to save them. So, the Buddha stole the youngest of her sons, Piṅgala (in a variant version, the youngest daughter), and hid him under his rice bowl. After having desperately searched for her missing son throughout the universe, Hārītī finally appealed to the Buddha for help.

The Buddha pointed out that she was suffering because she lost one of hundreds of children, and asked if she could imagine the suffering of parents whose only child had been devoured. She replied contritely that their suffering must be many times greater than hers. She then vowed to protect all children, and in lieu of children's flesh, she would henceforth only eat pomegranates. Henceforth Hārītī became the protector of children and women in childbirth. In exchange, the Buddha gave her bodhi, which enabled her to withstand black magic and evil powers, and gave her the facility to cure the sick.[6][5]

In the Japanese version of the tale, Kishimojin enlists the aid of the Ten Rākṣasī Women (十羅刹女, jūrasetsunyo) to abduct and murder the children of other families. In some variants of the myth, the Ten Rākṣasī Women are themselves daughters (or daughters' daughters) of Kishimojin.[7] When Kishimojin accepts the Buddha's teachings, the Ten Demon Daughters do likewise.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Katsumi Tanabe, Alexander the Great: East-West Cultural Contact from Greece to Japan (Tokyo: NHK Puromōshon and Tokyo National Museum, 2003).
  2. ^ British Museum Collection
  3. ^ A dictionary of Chinese Buddhist terms : with Sanskrit and English equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali index. Lewis Hodous, William Edward Soothill. London: RoutledgeCurzon. 2004. ISBN 0-203-64186-8. OCLC 275253538.CS1 maint: others (link)
  4. ^ "佛教二十四诸天_中国佛教文化网". 2016-03-04. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  5. ^ a b c Schumacher, Mark (1995), "Kariteimo", A-Z Photo Dictionary of Japanese Buddhist Statuary, onmarkproductions.com.
  6. ^ Coulter, Charles Russell; Turner, Patricia (2000), "Kishimojin", Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities, Jefferson: McFarland, p. 272, ISBN 0-7864-0317-9.
  7. ^ Chitkara, M. G., ed. (2005), "Jurasetsu", Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, Glossary of Buddhism Terms, vol. XXI, New Delhi: APH Publishing, p. 218, ISBN 81-7648-184-X.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Hariti at Wikimedia Commons