|The Golden Temple
Location within Punjab
|Alternative names||Darbar Sahib
Golden Temple of Amritsar
|Address||Golden Temple Rd, Atta Mandi, Katra Ahluwalia, Amritsar, Punjab, India|
|Town or city||Amritsar|
|Construction started||December 1585|
Sri Harmandir Sahib ("The abode of God"), also known as Sri Darbar Sahib, (Punjabi pronunciation: [dəɾbɑɾ sɑhɪb]),  informally referred to as the Golden Temple, is the holiest Gurdwara of Sikhism, located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. Amritsar (literally, the tank of nectar of immortality) was founded in 1577 by the fourth Sikh guru, Guru Ram Das. The fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan, designed Harmandir Sahib to be built in the centre of this holy tank, and upon its construction, installed the Adi Granth, the holy scripture of Sikhism, inside Harmandir Sahib. The Harmandir Sahib complex is also home to the Akal Takht (the throne of the timeless one, constituted by the Sixth Guru, Guru Hargobind). While the Harmandir Sahib is regarded as the abode of God's spiritual attribute, the Akal Takht is the seat of God's temporal authority.
The construction of Harmandir Sahib was intended to build a place of worship for men and women from all walks of life and all religions to worship God equally. Accordingly, as a gesture of this non-sectarian universalness of Sikhism, Guru Arjan had specially invited the Muslim Sufi saint, Hazrat Mian Mir to lay the foundation stone of the Harmandir Sahib. The four entrances (representing the four directions) to get into the Harmandir Sahib also symbolise the openness of the Sikhs towards all people and religions. Over 100,000 people visit the holy shrine daily for worship, and also partake jointly in the free community kitchen and meal (Langar) regardless of any distinctions, a tradition that is a hallmark of all Sikh Gurdwaras.
The present-day gurdwara was renovated in 1764 by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia with the help of other Sikh Misls. In the early nineteenth century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh secured the Punjab region from outside attack and covered the upper floors of the gurdwara with 750kg of gold, which gives it its distinctive appearance and its English name. Large portions of the temple were damaged and destroyed in 1984 as part of Operation Blue Star - an Indian military operation to flush the shrine of Sikh separatists.
The Harmandir Sahib literally means the Temple of God. Guru Amar Das had ordered Guru Ram Das to create a nectarous tank as a place for worship for the Sikh religion. Guru Ram Das instructed all his Sikhs to join in the work, under Bhai Budha's superintendence, and engaged labourers to assist them. He said that the tank of nectar should be God's home, and whoever bathed in it shall obtain all spiritual and temporal advantages. During the progress of the work, the hut in which the Guru first sheltered himself was expanded for his residence; it is now known as the Guru's Mahal, or palace.
In 1578 Guru Ram Das excavated a tank, which subsequently became known as Amritsar (Pool of the Nectar of Immortality), giving its name to the city that grew around it. In due course, the Harmandir Sahib, was built in the middle of this tank and became the supreme centre of Sikhism. Its sanctum came to house the Adi Granth comprising compositions of Sikh Gurus and other saints considered to have Sikh values and philosophies, e.g., Baba Farid, and Kabir. The compilation of the Adi Granth was started by the fifth guru of Sikhism, Guru Arjan.
Guru Arjan conceived the idea of creating a central place of worship for the Sikhs and designed it. Earlier the planning to excavate the holy tank (Amritsar or Amrit Sarovar) was chalked out by Guru Amar Das, the Third Sikh Guru, but it was executed by Guru Ram Das under the supervision of Baba Budha. The land for the site was acquired by the earlier Guru Sahibs on payment or free of cost from the Zamindars (landlords) of native villages. The plan to establish a town settlement was also made and the construction work on the Sarovar (the tank) and the town started simultaneously in 1570. The work on both projects was completed in 1577. In December 1588, Guru Arjan initiated the construction of the gurdwara and the foundation stone was laid by Hazrat Mian Mir on 28 December 1588.
The gurdwara was completed in 1604. Guru Arjan installed the Guru Granth Sahib in it and appointed Baba Buddha as the first Granthi (reader) of it in August 1604. In the mid-18th century it was attacked by the Afghans, by one of Ahmed Shah Abdali's generals, Jahan Khan, and had to be substantially rebuilt in the 1760s.
Operation Blue Star
Blue Star was an Indian military operation undertaken between 1 and 8 June 1984 that severely damaged or destroyed large portions of the temple complex. India's Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, ordered the Indian Army to launch the operation. The army, led by General Kuldip Singh Brar, brought infantry, artillery and tanks into the Harmandir Sahib to destroy the Dharam Yudh Morcha led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale. During the Dharam Yudh Morcha thousands of Sikhs courted arrest. Fierce fighting ensued between Sikhs and the Indian Army, with heavy casualties on both sides. The Harmandir Sahib complex also suffered much damage during the attack, especially the holy Akal Takht. Within six months, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi's Sikh bodyguards killed her as revenge for the operation.
This attack is regarded by Sikhs, and the international human rights community, as a desecration of Sikhism's holiest shrine and discrimination against a minority in India. In 1986, the repairs performed on the Akal Takht Sahib after the attack, which the Rajiv Gandhi government had undertaken without consultation, were removed. A new Akal Takht Sahib was completed in 1999 by Kar Sevaks (volunteers).
Some of the architectural features of the Harmandir Sahib were intended to be symbolic of the Sikh world view. Instead of the normal custom of building a gurdwara on high land, it was built at a lower level than the surrounding land so that devotees would have to go down steps to enter it. In addition, instead of one entrance, Sri Harmandir Sahib has four entrances.
The gurdwara is surrounded by the Sarovar, a large lake or holy tank, which consists of Amrit ("holy water" or "immortal nectar") and is fed by the Ravi River. There are four entrances to the gurdwara, signifying the importance of acceptance and openness. There are three holy trees (bers), each signifying a historical event or Sikh saint. Inside the gurdwara there are many memorial plaques that commemorate past Sikh historical events, saints and martyrs, including commemorative inscriptions of all the Sikh soldiers who died fighting in World War I and World War II.
Much of the present decorative gilding and marblework dates from the early 19th century. All the gold and exquisite marble work were conducted under the patronage of Hukam Singh Chimni and Emperor Ranjit Singh, Maharaja of the Sikh Empire of the Punjab. The Darshani Deorhi Arch stands at the beginning of the causeway to the Harmandir Sahib; it is 6.2 metres (20.3 ft) high and 6 metres (20 ft) in width. The gold plating on the Harmandir Sahib was begun by Ranjit Singh and was finished in 1830. Maharaja Ranjit Singh was a major donor of wealth and materials for the shrine.
The Harmandir Sahib complex also houses the Akal Takht (the throne of the timeless one), built by the sixth Sikh Guru, Guru Hargobind as an authority for administering justice and consideration of temporal issues. Within the complex, the Akal Takht constitutes a counterpoint with the holy shrine, in that the Harmandir Sahib is the abode of God's spiritual attribute, and the Akal Takht is the seat of God's temporal authority.
World's largest free kitchen (Langar)
Harmandir Sahib is home to the world's largest free kitchen. According to the Croatian Times, it can serve free food for up to 100,000 - 300,000 people every day. At the Langar (Kitchen), food is served to all visitors regardless of faith, religion, or background. Vegetarian food is served to ensure that all people, even those with dietary restrictions, can eat together as equals. The institution of the Sikh langar, or free kitchen, was started by the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak. It was designed to uphold the principle of equality between all people regardless of religion, caste, colour, creed, age, gender, or social status, a revolutionary concept in the caste-ordered society of 16th century India where Sikhism began. In addition to the ideals of equality, the tradition of langar expresses the ethics of sharing, community, inclusiveness, and oneness of all humankind. Every Sikh Gurdwara (place of worship) has a langar, providing free vegetarian food for all comers.
The kitchen has two dining halls, which have a combined capability of 5000 people. People come up to and sit down to eat on the carpets on the floor, are served food by the volunteers, and are ushered out respectfully to make room for the next round of diners.
In keeping with the rule observed at all Sikh gurdwaras worldwide, the Harmandir Sahib is open to all persons regardless of their religion, colour, creed, caste or gender. The only restrictions on the Harmandir Sahib's visitors concern their behaviour when entering and while visiting:
- Maintaining the purity of the sacred space and of one's body while in it:
- Upon entering the premises, removing one's shoes (leaving them off for the duration of one's visit) and washing one's feet in the small pool of water provided;
- Not drinking alcohol, eating meat, or smoking cigarettes or other drugs while in the shrine
- Dressing appropriately:
- Full body must be covered, no shorts
- Wearing a head covering (a sign of respect) (the gurdwara provides head scarves for visitors who have not brought a suitable covering);
- Not wearing shoes (see above).
- How to act:
- When listening to Gurbani, one must also sit on the ground while in the Darbar Sahib as a sign of deference to both the Guru Granth Sahib and God.
First-time visitors are advised to begin their visit at the information office and then proceed to the Central Sikh Museum near the main entrance and clock tower.[tone]
The Harimandir Sahib runs one of the largest free kitchens in the world, serving 100,000 people on average daily. The meal consists of flat bread and lentil soup.
One of the most important festivals is Vaisakhi, which is celebrated in the second week of April (usually the 13th). Sikhs celebrate the founding of the Khalsa on this day and it is celebrated with fervour in the Harmandir Sahib. Other important Sikh religious days such as the birth of Guru Ram Das, martyrdom day of Guru Teg Bahadur, the birthday of the Sikh founder Guru Nanak, etc., are also celebrated with religious piety. Similarly Diwali is one of the festivals which sees the Harmandir Sahib beautifully illuminated with Diyas (lamps); lights and fireworks are discharged. Most Sikhs visit Amritsar and the Harmandir Sahib at least once during their lifetime, particularly and mostly during special occasions in their life such as birthdays, marriages, childbirth, etc.
Central Sikh Museum
The entrance from the plaza side holds a museum on history of the Sikhs on the first floor just over the entrance.
On Dec 22, 2016, a high-tech State of the Art visitors centre was opened for public. Hi-tech story-telling at the basement of the Golden Temple plaza was launched and opened for public amid 5,000 pilgrims on Wednesday. Besides the daily footfall of pilgrims at the shrine, a large number of people had gathered outside the basement for their turn to witness the 3D technology and synchronisation installed in galleries giving a tour of the Sikh history and ethos. 
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- Golden Temple of Amritsar
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- Golden Temple, Punjabi University, Parm Barkshish Singh, Devinder Kumar Verma ISBN 978-81-7380-569-1
- Golden Temple, Punjabi University, Parm Barkshish Singh, Devinder Kumar Verma, ISBN 978-81-7380-569-1.
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- Kavi Santokh Singh : "Gurprataap Sooraj Granth" Ras 2, Ansu 53: ਇਮਿ ਅਰਦਾਸ ਕਰੀ ਬ੍ਰਿਧ ਜਬੈ। ਸ਼੍ਰੀ ਅਰਜਨ ਕਰ ਪੰਕਜ ਤਬੈ॥੧੩॥ ਗਹੀ ਈਂਟ ਤਹਿਂ ਕਰੀ ਟਿਕਾਵਨ। ਮੰਦਰ ਅਵਿਚਲ ਨੀਵ ਰਖਾਵਨ।, p. 428 in PDF ebook
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- "SCOFF THAT - Free Food Daily For 300,000 at Worlds largest Soup Kitchen". croationtimes.com. 12 April 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
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- Shafi, Showkat (17 November 2013). "Kitchen that feeds 100,000 daily". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Golden temple's hi-tech basement info center
- Golden temple story comes alive
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